Heat Integration and Pinch Analysis 189

Zoran Milosevic and Alan Eastwood

6.1 Introduction 189

6.2 Heat Integration Basics 190

6.2.1 Why Heat-Integrate for Optimum Heat Recovery? 190

6.2.2 Inter-Unit Heat Integration 191

6.2.3 Benefits of Heat Integration 192

6.2.4 Pinch Analysis 192

6.2.4.1 Energy Targeting 193

6.2.4.2 Process Modifications 193

6.2.4.3 Process Synthesis 193

6.2.4.4 Utilities Optimization 193

6.2.4.5 Total Site Optimization 193

6.3 Introduction to Pinch Technology 193

6.3.1 The Concept of Quality of Energy 193

6.3.2 Energy Targeting 195

6.3.3 Composite Curves 197

6.3.4 Setting the Energy Targets 198

6.3.5 Setting the Area Targets 199

6.3.6 Capital/Energy Trade-off 200

6.4 Minimizing the Cost of Utilities 201

6.4.1 Utility Costing 201

6.4.2 Targeting for Multiple Utilities: The Grand Composite Curve 203

6.4.3 Total Site Integration 206

6.4.4 Steam and Power System and Efficient Power Generation 207

6.4.5 Options for Low Grade Heat Use 208

6.5 Process Synthesis 209

6.5.1 The Pinch Rules 209

6.5.2 Network Design 211

6.5.3 Network and Process Design Interaction 212

6.5.3.1 Process Modifications 212

6.5.3.2 The Plus/Minus Principle 213

6.5.3.3 Integration Rules for Various Process Equipment 214

6.6 Revamping Heat Exchanger Networks 214

6.6.1 Area Efficiency Method 214

6.6.2 Modern Retrofit Techniques 216

6.6.3 The Network Pinch 217

6.7 Other Applications of Pinch Technology 218 6.7.1 Area Integration 218

6.7.2 Water Pinch 219

6.7.3 Hydrogen Pinch 220 References 221 Further Reading 221

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