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1 Asociacion regional de empresas de petroleo y gas natural en latinoamerica y el caribe (Regional association of oil and natural gas companies in latin america and the Caribbean, ARPEL) (2002) Environmental Guideline No. 33-2002 Energy Use Monitoring and Tracking.

2 Billege I. (2009) 700 refineries supply oil products to the world. Nafta, 60 (7-8), 401-403, http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/65010 (accessed 26 April 2010).

3 Energy Information Administration (2009) Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. U.S. Department of Energy. International Energy Outlook 2009. Washington, DC, http://www.eia.doe. gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/0484(2009).pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

4 European Commission, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, European IPPC Bureau (2009) Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency. Sevilla, Spain, http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ reference/brefdownload/download_ENE. cfm (accessed 26 April 2010).

5 Gary, J.H., and Handwerk, G.E. (2001) Petroleum Refining: Technology and Economics, 4th edn, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.

6 IEA Publications (2000) Energy technology and climate change: a call to action, Paris, http://www.iea.org/ textbase /nppdf/free/2000/clim2000.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

7 IEA Publications (2005) The European Refinery Industry under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, Competitiveness, Trade Flows and Investment Implications, International Energy Agency, Agence Internationale De L'Energie, IEA Information Paper, Julia Reinaud, http://www.iea.org/ papers/2005/IEA_Refinery_Study.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

8 Industrial Heating Equipment Association and U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies (2001) Roadmap for Process Heating Technology Priority Research and Development Goals and Near-term, Non-research Goals to Improve Process Heating Technology, http://www1.eere.energy.

gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/ process_heating_0401.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

9 International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (2007) Saving Energy in the Oil and Gas Industry. London, www.ipieca.org/ activities/general/downloads/Saving_ Energy.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

10 International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association

(2007) The Oil and Gas Industry and Climate Change. London, http://www. ipieca.org/activities/climate_change/ downloads/publications/siaf_climate-change.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

11 Kreith, F., and Goswami, D.Y. (2007) Handbook of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.

(2008) A Working Guide to Process Equipment, 3rd edn, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York.

13 Ozren, O. (2005) Oil Refineries in the 21st Century, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim .

14 Pacala, S., and Socolow, R. (2004) Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science, 305(5686), 968-972.

15 Silla, H. (2003) Chemical Process Engineering Design and Economics, Marcel Dekker, Inc. , New York .

16 Spoor, R.M. (2008) Low-carbon Refinery: Dream or Reality Hydrocarbon Processing, pp. 113-117.

17 Turner, W.C., and Doty, S. (2007) Energy Management Handbook, The Fairmont Press, Inc. , Lilburn, GA .

18 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors: Opportunities and Challenges for Environmentally Preferable Energy Outcomes. Final Report. ICF International, Fairfax, VA, http://www.epa.gov/ispd/pdf/energy/ report.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

19 UnitedStates. DepartmentofEnergy Industrial Technologies Program (2004)

Energy Use, Loss, and Opportunities Analysis, U.S. Manufacturing and Mining, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ industry/intensiveprocesses/pdfs/ energy_use_loss_opportunities_analysis. pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

20 United States. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (2004) Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, U.S. Manufacturing & Mining, http://www1. eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/ pdfs/steamsourcebook.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

21 United States. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (2002) Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries, http: / / www1. eere. energy .gov / industry/bestpractices/pdfs/steam_ assess_mainreport.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

22 Michael, W. (2008) Estimation of Energy Efficiencies of U.S. Petroleum Refineries. Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory, http:// www.transportation.anl.gov/modeling_ simulation/GREET/pdfs/energy_eff_ petroleum_refineries-03-08.pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

23 World Bank (1998) Greenhouse Gas Assessment Handbook, A Practical Guidance Document for the Assessment of Project-level Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Climate Change Series, PAPER NO. 064, http://www-wds. worldbank.org/external/default/ WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2002/09/ 07/000094946_02081604154234/ Rendered /PDF/ multi0page .pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

24 Worrell , E. , and Galitsky , C. ( 2005 ) Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Petroleum Refineries, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Berkely, http:// www.energystar.gov/ia/business/ industry/ES_Petroleum_Energy_Guide. pdf (accessed 26 April 2010).

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