Evaporation is a widely used and energy-intensive unit operation in the chemical and pharmaceutical as well as in the food and beverage industry. Evaporation is used as a thermal separation technology, in which thermal energy is applied to concentrate or separate liquid solutions, suspensions and emulsions. Solutions consisting of a solvent and dissolved solid substance are vaporized to concentrate the residual solid.
• feed preheating;
• multistage evaporation;
• vapor recompression.
Combination of two of these measures is often feasible and is a common practice to minimize energy costs. All three techniques can be found in highly sophisticated evaporation plants . Detailed energy efficiency studies can help to decide, whether a multistage evaporation or a vapor recompression system is the more attractive option.
However, boiling-point elevation, heat of mixing and other thermodynamic non- i dealities need to be considered while improving the energy efficiency of evaporation plants.
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