Energy Efficient Unit Operations and Processes 223

Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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Andreas Jupke

7.1 Introduction 223

7.2 Good Housekeeping 224

7.3 Centrifugal Pumps and Blowers 226

7.3.1 Centrifugal Pumps 226

7.3.2 Blowers 229

7.4 Distillation 229

7.4.1 Basic Principles 230

7.4.2 Operation and Control 231

7.4.2.1 Purity of the Product 231

7.4.2.2 Operating Pressure 231

7.4.2.3 Sub-Cooling of the Reflux Flow 232

7.4.2.4 Location of Feed Point 232

7.4.2.5 Fouling or Damage of Internals 232

7.4.2.6 Process Control 232

7.4.3 Improved Design for Single Columns 234

7.4.3.1 Column Internals 234

7.4.3.2 Feed Preheating 235

7.4.3.3 Vapor Recompression 236

7.4.3.4 Intermediate Reboiler or Condenser 238

7.4.3.5 Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) 240

7.4.4 Improved Design for Multi Columns 241

7.4.4.1 Dividing Wall Column 241

7.4.4.2 Indirect Coupling of Columns 243

7.4.4.3 Design of Distillation Processes 245

7.4.5 Reactive Distillation 246

7.5 Evaporation 246

7.5.1 Feed Preheating 247

7.5.2 Multistage Evaporation 247

7.5.3 Vapor Recompression 249

7.6 Drying 250

7.6.1 Operational Improvements for Convective Dryers 251

7.6.2 Heat Recovery from Convective Dryers 252

7.6.3 Additional Measures for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Dryers 253

7.7 Crystallization 253

7.7.1 Melt Crystallization by Cooling 254

7.7.2 Evaporative Crystallization from Solutions 255

7.7.3 Freeze Crystallization 256

7.7.4 Additional Measures for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Crystallization 256

7.8 Membrane Separation 256

7.8.1 Basic Principles 257

7.8.2 Applications of Membrane Separation to Increase Energy Efficiency 257

7.8.2.1 Separation of Organic Vapors 257

7.8.2.2 Pervaporation 258

7.9 Reaction and Entire Processes 258

7.9.1 Recovery of Reaction Heat 259

7.9.2 Heat Integration 260

7.9.3 Increased Conversion and Selectivity 261

7.9.4 Solvent Selection 262

7.9.5 Optimized Process Conditions 262

7.9.6 Microstructured Equipment 264

7.10 Total Site Network 265

7.11 Advanced Process Control and Performance Monitoring 265 References 268

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