Energy Efficient Refineries 305

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Carlos Augusto Arentz Pereira

9.1 Historical Evolution from Energy Conservation to Energy Efficiency in Refineries 305

9.1.1 Global Scenarios and Impact on the Oil Business 306

9.2 Good Practices for Energy Conservation Programs 308 9.2.1 Energy and Material Balances 309

9.2.1.1 Measurements and Basic Units 310

9.2.1.2 Calculi and Approximation 311

9.2.1.3 Analysis and Basis 312

9.2.1.4 Standards, Averages and Deviations 314

9.2.1.5 Usual Figures 315

9.2.2 Process Units 315

9.2.2.1 Transformation Units 316

9.2.2.2 Separation Units 319

9.2.2.3 Storage and Transport 322

9.3 Awareness and Motivational Work 325

9.3.1 Communication 325

9.3.1.1 Target Clients 325

9.3.1.2 Language 326

9.3.1.3 Media 326

9.3.2 Education 327

9.3.2.1 Speeches 327

9.3.2.2 Courses 328

9.4 Saving Energy by Operation and Maintenance 329

9.4.1 Scheduling and Maintenance 330

9.4.2 Pre-Maintenance Work 330

9.4.3 Conditioning and Testing 331

9.4.4 Best Practices in Operation 332

9.4.4.1 Combustion 332

9.4.4.2 Heat Transfer 334

9.4.4.3 Cooling 335

9.4.4.4 Fluid Movement 335

9.4.4.5 Energy Distribution 336

9.5 Upgrading and New Projects for Better Energy Performance 338

9.6 Organizational Issues on Energy 339

9.6.1 Initial Work 339

9.6.2 Committees 340

9.6.3 Task Forces 341

9.6.4 Leadership 342

9.6.5 Accountability 343

9.6.6 Corporative Goals 344

9.6.7 Evolutionary Organization 346

9.7 Future and Environmental Concerns 347

9.8 Approach and Literature 348 Further Reading 348

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