Energy Efficient Equipment 271

Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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Roger Grundy

8.1 Introduction 271

8.2 Rotating Equipment 271

8.2.1 Compressors 271

8.2.1.1 Reciprocating Compressors 271

8.2.1.2 Centrifugal Compressors 272

8.2.1.3 Axial Compressors 274

8.2.1.4 General Considerations 275

8.2.2 Pumps 275

8.2.2.1 Centrifugal Pumps 275

8.2.2.2 Reciprocating Pumps 278

8.2.2.3 Other Types of Pump 278

8.2.3 Fans 278

8.2.3.1 Centrifugal Fans 278

8.2.3.2 Axial Fans 281

8.2.4 Power Recovery Equipment 281

8.2.4.1 Turbo-Expanders 281

8.2.4.2 Liquid Turbines 282

8.2.5 Steam Turbines 283

8.2.5.1 Factors Affecting Performance 283

8.2.5.2 Single Stage Turbines 283

8.2.5.3 Multistage Turbines 284

8.2.6 Gas Turbines 285

8.2.6.1 Frame Engines 286

8.2.6.2 Aero-Derivative Engines 286

8.2.7 Electric Motors 287

8.2.8 Air Coolers 288

8.2.8.1 Air Cooler Fin Types 290

8.3 Fixed Equipment 290

8.3.1 Fired Heaters 290

8.3.1.1 Configuration and Design 291

8.3.1.2 Fuel System 291

8.3.1.3 Burner Design 292

8.3.1.4 Instrumentation and Control 292

8.3.2 Flares and Flare Systems 292

8.3.3 Piping 293

8.3.3.1 Capital Cost versus Running Cost 293

8.3.3.2 Design for Low Line Loss 294

8.3.4 Insulation 295

8.3.4.1 Economic Insulation Thickness 295

8.3.4.2 Mis-Use of Insulation 295

8.3.4.3 Insulation Types 296

8.3.4.4 Sealing 296

8.3.5 Tank Farms 296

8.3.5.1 Tank Gas Blanketing 297

8.3.5.2 Tank Heating 297

8.3.6 Steam Systems 297

8.3.6.1 Header Pressure and Temperature Control 297

8.3.6.2 Boilers 298

8.3.6.3 De-Aerators 298

8.3.6.4 Steam Traps and Condensate Recovery 298

8.3.7 Cooling Water Systems 299

8.3.7.1 Cooling Towers 299

8.3.7.2 Cooling Tower Fans 301

8.3.7.3 Circulation Pumps 301

8.3.7.4 Tower Packing 303

8.3.7.5 System Tuning 303

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