Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in General

Energy consumption increases with economic development in most countries. From 1990 to 2006 the total primary energy consumption rose from 370 to 500 Exajoule (EJ, 1EJ = 1018J) or 35% [14], as shown in Figure 5.

The biggest rates of increase can be observed in Asia and Middle East (plus 110% each), whereas the rates of increase are the lowest in Eurasia (minus 25%) and Europe (plus 13%). This reflects the economic development of these regions, but on the other hand, it is also a signal for an enhanced energy intensity of the industry.

The energy consumption (500 EJ in 2006) has been satisfied by a relatively stable mix of energy sources since 1990. Fossil fuels like petroleum, coal and natural gas and electricity from nuclear and hydropower are the main energy sources. Other renewable energy sources, here named as 'others' in the graphic, still only play a

6001

6001

Figure 5 Primary energy consumption by region (data from [14]). 600-]-
Figure 6 Primary energy consumption by fuel (data from [14]).

negligible role (except hydroelectric power generation). Figure 6 shows the development.

The highest rates of increase can be seen for electricity (plus 57%), whereas the growth rates for natural gas and coal are smaller (plus 43%). Petroleum with plus 26% has grown subproportionally. Nevertheless the fraction of different energy sources of the total consumption did not change significantly, as can be seen from Table 1.

Petroleum remains the main energy source with 37-38%, coal (25-27%) and natural gas (21-23%) are the other important elements of our energy supply.

Table 1 Energy mix 1990 and 2006 (consumption of energy sources in % of the total consumption) (data from [14]).

1990 2006

Petroleum 38.17 36.38

Natural Gas 21.09 22.86

Electricity 9.94 11.84

Coal 24.96 26.99

Others 3.13 1.93

The emission of GHG, expressed as C02e, is of course closely connected to the energy consumption and the mix of energy sources. Since renewable energy sources still are small on a global scale, the GHG emission from fossil fuels has risen in the same range as the energy consumption.

In Figure 7 we see the total emissions from the consumption of energy shown for the regions.

We measure the emissions in gigatonnes of C02 equivalents (GtC02e). Development from 1990 until 2006 is more or less parallel to the development of the energy consumption. Starting from 22GtC02e in 1990 the emissions rose to 29GtC02e in 1990, the same 35% increase we could observe for the energy consumption. The main increases come from Asia (plus 112%) and Middle East (106%), whereas Eurasia (minus 32%) and Europe (plus 3%) show a slower and more climate-friendly development.

Looking at the different energy sources in Figure 8 we see that petroleum and coal are the main contributors to GHG emissions with similar absolute C02e amounts. Since coal emits more C02 per energy unit, its fraction is relatively high in comparison to its contribution to the total energy supply. Today coal is the main source for C02 emissions (12GtC02e).

Natural gas with its higher hydrogen content emits fewer GHGs per energy unit and is therefore the more climate friendly fuel.

In Table 2 we show the contributions of the fuels to the total GHG emission in 1990 and 2006.

Coal and petroleum each carry about 40% of the C02 load, whereas natural gas with 20% has the smaller part of the emissions. There is no noticeable difference between the relations in 1990 and 2004. Looking at Tables 1 and 2 a remarkable difference for coal between its fraction of energy consumption (27% in 2006) and its fraction of GHG emissions (42% in 2006) can be noticed. These numbers reveal that the higher carbon fraction in coal compared to petroleum or natural gas results in a high specific C02 emission per energy content.

30.00j-

30.00j-

Figure 8 C02e emissions from the consumption of energy by fuel (data from [14]).

Table 2 GHG emissions (emissions from energy sources in % of the total emission) (data from [14]).

1990 2006

Petroleum 42.00 38.43

Natural gas (incl. flaring) 19.22 20.25 Coal 38.78 41.32

For the consequences of GHG emissions, especially climate change, the absolute amount of emissions is the decisive factor. But in order to document the economic, scientific and industrial development we want to add a graphic describing the GHG intensity of the national economies. In Figure 9 we see the world C02 emissions from the consumption and flaring of fossil fuels per gross domestic product for the regions (in metric tons of C02 per 1000 USS GDP, using market exchange rates of the year 2000). Data before 1994 are not available globally, therefore we show the period from 1994 to 2006.

Most regions have carbon intensities of the economy between 0.5 and 1 ton of C02 per 1000 USS of GDP. The Middle East and Africa lie between 1.4 and 1.9 tons of C02 per 1000 US$ of GDP and the Eurasian countries show a development from 7 tons of C02 per 1000 USS of GDP in 1994 to a value of 4.5 in 2006. Partially the flaring of natural gas is responsible for these high values, but the carbon intensity of these regions is nevertheless very high in comparison to the developed countries.

The development of the carbon intensity is shown in Table 3. Here we quote the values in tons of C02 per 1000 USS of GDP for the years 1994 and 2006 and their percentage development.

The most developed countries (Europe and North America) reduced their carbon intensity by around 20% since 1994, whereas Asia still is getting more carbon intensive. The petroleum and natural gas producing regions (Eurasia, Africa) could reduce the carbon dependence of their GDP since 1994. The specific global C02 consumption increased by 8% since 1994 and lies now at 0.77tC02 / 1000$ GDP.

8.00

2.00

NDrthAnwrfca ^—Central & Souti Amedca Etxope Euasta

-MlcMfcEast

Asia« Oceania world Total

1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006

Figure 9 World carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption and flaring of fossil fuels per thousand dollars of gross domestic product using market exchange rates (metric tons of carbon dioxide per thousand (2000) US$) (data from [14]).

2.00

1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006

NDrthAnwrfca ^—Central & Souti Amedca Etxope Euasta

-MlcMfcEast

Asia« Oceania world Total

Figure 9 World carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption and flaring of fossil fuels per thousand dollars of gross domestic product using market exchange rates (metric tons of carbon dioxide per thousand (2000) US$) (data from [14]).

Table 3 CO2 emissions from the consumption and flaring of fossil fuels per gross domestic product of the regions in 1994 and 2006 (in metric tons of CO2 per 1000 US$ GDP, using market exchange rates of the year 2000) (data from [14]).

1994

2006

Development from 1994 to 2006 in %

North America

0.68

0.54

-21

Central and South America

0.61

0.61

-1

Europe

0.55

0.45

-18

Eurasia

7.20

4.49

-38

Middle East

1.81

1.84

+2

Africa

1.64

1.33

- 19

Asia and Oceania

0.90

1.04

+ 15

World total

0.83

0.77

- 8

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment