Definition of Scope and Task

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The first step in most projects is a clear definition of scope and tasks. The scope for an energy saving project can be a single plant or a chemical, petrochemical or pharmaceutical site. In many cases enterprises start a global program that consists of different sites worldwide. The advantage of a comprehensive program is that synergies between similar plants in different sites can be exploited. Best practices in energy saving measures are exchanged between the sites.

Definition ofthe scope for single plants is quite simple: The decision has to be taken as to whether or not logistic facilities such as tank farms will be included in the study. It is recommended that the project scope should be wider from the beginning and all auxiliary facilities belonging to the plant should be included, for the following reason. After the analysis phase, when the energy consumption in different facilities is determined, the project team will concentrate on the main consumers anyway. Therefore the volume of the project will be reduced to the relevant issues. Additionally we notice that sometimes auxiliary facilities show surprisingly high saving potentials (for instance waste gas incineration units). It seems that these facilities are not normally in the focus of the plant and can therefore be neglected. Here we often find the 'low-hanging fruits', where the customer can save money in the short term and with no or moderate investment. When energy saving measures are implemented we anyhow have to check if the proposed utility system is still compatible with a new, lower energy consumption of the site, and whether it can remain efficient at reduced load. There are examples where measures were not feasible because the energy supply system (in this case a turbine) was not designed for the reduced load.

In the case of a worldwide program the scope must be more carefully defined in advance by analyzing the available energy data of the customer. First, the energy consumption of every site is identified. An example is shown in the Figure 4.2.

30 25 20 15 10






Figure 4.2 Energy consumption of different sites (in % of total consumption).

In this example we can concentrate on eight sites (of 27) and cover 85% of the total energy consumption of the company. The reduction of the number of sites lowers the project costs and helps to concentrate on the biggest energy consumers. In our experience it is recommended that at least 80% of the total energy consumption of a company should be covered in order to derive the maximum advantage from the energy saving project. Smaller sites (in the sense of energy consumption) can be neglected, nevertheless some customers decided to include smaller sites into the program for 'political' reasons. Some customers also use the findings in the energy-consuming sites and transfer these measures to the smaller sites.

Beside the scope it is important to define the goals of the project in advance. What does the customer expect, what can the contractor deliver? On average we identify in our projects 10% energy savings potential without investment and an additional 10% potential with profitable investment (measured in terms of specific primary energy consumption in kWh per t of product). These results differ from case to case depending on the industry branch, the technology, the status of the plant and former energy saving projects (and of course of the project effort). A rough potential analysis of the customer's situation can help to estimate in advance the expected results of the project. That gives the customer an indication whether the intended energy saving project will bring the expected return. For the contractor the potential analysis helps to estimate the effort that will be necessary for an optimal result. That effort depends on different aspects: what data is available on the customer side, what is the automation level of the plants, if there are any process models available and so on. Based on the potential analysis a detailed offer is possible with realistic project targets. Therefore we recommend a potential study before beginning a bigger energy saving program.

126 | 4 Systematic Procedure for Energy and CO2 Reduction Projects 4.3

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