CO2Neutral Production Fact or Fiction 419

Stefan Nordhoff, Thomas Tacke, Benjamin Brehmer, Yvonne Schiemann, Thomas Bohland, and Christos Lecou

12.1 Introduction 419

12.2 Renewable Feedstocks 420

12.2.1 Overview 420

12.2.2 Volumes, Trading and Pricing 421

12.2.2.1 Renewable Feedstock Trends 421

12.2.2.2 Sugar 422

12.2.2.3 Starch 423

12.2.2.5 Biomass and Residues 425

12.2.3 Competitiveness 426

12.2.3.1 Competition between Fossil and Renewable Feedstocks 426

12.2.3.2 Yields and Efficiency of Chemical Processing 427

12.3 Industrial Biotechnological Processes 429

12.3.1 Market, Field of Application, and Currently Available Products 429

12.3.2 Existing and Future Opportunities of Industrial Biotechnology 430

12.3.2.1 General Developments 430

12.3.2.2 Amino Acids 430

12.3.2.3 Bioethanol and Bioethylene 431

12.3.2.4 Building Blocks 432

12.3.2.5 Bioacrylic Acid 432

12.3.2.6 Oils for Chemicals 433

12.3.2.7 Biocatalysis for the Production of Emollient Esters 434

12.4 Expansion to Multiproduct Biorefineries 435

12.4.1 CO2 Saving Limitations of Single Product-based Systems 435

12.4.2 Entire Biomass Use 436

12.4.2.1 Chemical Breakdown 436

12.4.2.2 Pure Syngas 437

12.4.2.3 Partial Syngas and Partial Biochar 437

12.4.2.4 Chemical Structure Retention 437

12.4.2.5 Proteins for Functionalized Chemicals 438

12.4.3 Technical Gaps and Future Development Considerations 439

12.5 Determination of CO2 Emissions in Processes of Chemical Industry 439

12.5.1 Data Generation 439

12.5.2 The Diversity in the Interpretation of Data 440

12.6 The Three-Pillar Interpretation of Sustainability 442

12.6.1 Common Practice and Future Needs 442

12.6.2 Fuel vs. Food and other Misbalances 443

12.7 Outlook 444 References 445

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