CO2 Saving Limitations of Single Productbased Systems

In Figure 12.7 the cumulative energy demand (CED) of producing existing functional chemical families from the 'traditional petrochemical route' and the 'potential biorefinery route' is presented. CED and CO2eq are interrelated and following the average stoichiometry reveals a conversion factor of 0.071 tonCO 2eq/GJ fossil energy. On the right hand side (crop image): regional agricultural intensity and the crops specific chemical composition yield an associated energy cost for the

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Figure 12.7 Cumulative energy demand of petrochemical and biochemical route. Adapted from Ref [5].

Figure 12.7 Cumulative energy demand of petrochemical and biochemical route. Adapted from Ref [5].

main biochemical group types (carbohydrates, protein, fatty acids, etc.) The right hand dotted lines connect the groups to the existing final chemical products and attempt to graphically represent the processing energy requirements to prepare, convert and purify these chemicals. On the left hand side (oil/naphtha cracker image): fossil fuel feedstock and the imbedded calorific value of the main derivate, naphtha. The left hand dotted lines connect the naphtha feedstock to the final chemical products also in term of process energy requirements. The resulting calorific values of the chemical products depend largely on the degree and type of functionality. Pure hydrocarbons (e.g., ethylene) have a higher calorific value than amines (e.g., caprolactam) which are in turn higher than the oxygenated chemicals (e.g., peroxide). This trend however, does not reflect the CED from the traditional petrochemical production route. Adding functionality requires several additional process stages which in turn demands more energy and indirectly linked CO2 emissions. Biomass feedstock, however, may use the existing biochemical functionally and could be produced using milder and more direct process routes that should lead to less energy intensity. This is symbolized by the magnitude of the dotted lines.

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