Carbon Footprint

In the analysis phase all data is collected and analyzed that is necessary to define the baseline of CO2 emission and energy consumption and to elaborate measures for reducing CO2 emission and energy consumption.

The first step in our approach is the determination ofthe specific CO2 emission of a product. This step is not mandatory for energy saving projects. Nevertheless many producers need information about the CO2 footprint of their products because the public and especially their customers ask for that information. We describe here as an example the specific method of Bayer Technology Services to determine the CO2 footprint. This method we call the 'Climate Footprint®'. Other suppliers may apply different approaches. All approaches are based on the ideas of lifecycle analysis. These ideas as well as the carbon footprint and especially the Climate Footprint have been described in detail in Chapter 1.

The idea of the Climate Footprint is to quantify the amount of CO 2 emitted during the manufacturing of one kilogram of a product and to specify the origin of these emissions. The Climate Footprint follows a 'cradle-to-gate' approach; that means we specify the emissions accrued by the raw materials (production and distribution) and the production in the plants of our customer. This cradle-to-gate approach takes into account all the effects a producing company can influence. The methodology is in accordance with the lifecycle analysis rules. The procedure was certified by TÜV Süd, a German 'Notified Body' for certifications.

A typical Climate Footprint is shown in Figure 4.3.

0

Packaging

Direct Emissions

Energy Carrier

Electricity

Steam

Transport

Raw Materials from Suppliers

Own Raw Materials

Basis Footprint Figure 4.3 Climate Footprint.

Basis Footprint Figure 4.3 Climate Footprint.

The figure shows the specific CO2 load that the product carries, split into different sources of CO2 emissions: CO2 footprint of raw materials, CO2 from energy consumption during production, direct CO2 emissions and packaging. Behind the integral numbers detailed values per raw material or per energy (like steam, electricity and so on) are available. The distribution of the product to the customer beyond the gate of the manufacturer is not considered, because he cannot influence this.

The Climate Footprint contains different information:

• The value of the specific CO2 emission during production (in tons of CO2 per tons of product) describes the CO2 relevance of the product. In order to calculate the absolute amount of emitted CO2 the specific footprint has to be multiplied by the output of the plant (in tons).

• The origin of the CO2 gives hints for reduction projects. In cases where the footprint is dominated by the raw material, it is recommended that alternative raw materials or an alternative supplier with a low CO2 production process should be considered in order to reduce the CO2 load of the product. If the energy consumption is the main CO 2 source then an energy savings project should be initiated.

• The development of carbon footprints over the years shows the progress of the manufacturer in reduction of CO2 emissions. After implementation of energy saving projects, the value of CO2 from energy consumption during production will decrease. The change of a supplier can reduce the CO2 from raw materials.

In the systematic approach the Climate Footprint gives quantitative and comparable information about the total CO2 emission and the main CO2 sources. Therefore it can serve as an evaluation tool for strategic decisions and help to answer the following questions:

• Where have the new processes to be developed?

• What investment in new facilities is preferred?

• How efficient are the plants and how can operational excellence be improved?

Additionally it is the basis for the next steps in energy and CO2 reduction projects.

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