Calculation Tools

The calculations of PCFs are usually simple and can be done using spreadsheet calculators. There are also numerous commercial tools to support the calculation of PCFs on the market [15]. Although these are less flexible, there are some advantages of using commercial tools:

• Quality assurance, data trace-back, and adherence to standards are easier with commercial tools.

• The tools allow scenario studies and verification of the results with different methodologies.

• Some are LCA tools which allow a full life cycle assessment.

• Some include databases or provide interfaces to commercial databases containing various numbers of inventories from secondary sources (different basic chemicals, energy generation processes, modes of transport, packaging materials, etc.).

• Graphical guidance for model building and result analysis is provided. Documentation is standardized and revision is straightforward.

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