Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) of buildings can have a high impact on the total energy consumption of a plant. Especially for pharmaceutical plants with their high requirements for ventilation, air conditioning and air change rates the HVAC experts play an important role in an energy saving project.
During the analysis phase we normally send out data sheets to the plant manager where all ventilation systems will be recorded by the plant. This list will be completed and evaluated during the site visit of the HVAC expert. The energy consumption of the buildings is analyzed and then compared with known benchmarks, expressed for instance as a building footprint in kg CO2e per sqm net floor area. Here local weather conditions taken from databases like Meteonorm (http://www. meteonorm.com/pages/en/meteonorm.php?lang=EN) or from ASHRAE (www. ashrae.org) must be considered for the benchmarking process.
In the idea generation phase different modeling tools for buildings are used, for instance to calculate the energy demand for heating, cooling, ventilation, humidification and dehumidification, domestic hot water and lighting (depending on climate data). Other tools can evaluate the impact of solar collectors and photovoltaic plants.
Another important issue is the air change in pharmaceutical plants. Here the discussion between the energy consultant and quality assurance (QA) people on the customer side can find an optimal air change rate for the plants as a compromise between air purity and energy costs.
The workflow for ideas generation is summarized in Figure 4.10.
First the building is modeled and the calculated energy consumption adjusted with the measured consumptions. Then saving potentials are detected by software tools and the expertise of the consultant. The measures will be elaborated to a certain extent. The feedback of these measures into the model gives information about feasibility and impact of the designed measures.
An example: We analyzed an office and laboratory site for a customer. The energy costs before the project were more than 2 Mio. € ) We found profitable measures
for savings of more than 30% with a payback time less than half a year. The definition of the profitability will be discussed in more detail in Section 4.5.3.
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