Circulation Pumps

These are some of the larger pumps in any installation and so it is worth ensuring they are as efficient as possible. There are two types that are normally selected. Due to the low NPSH available, they are either vertical turbine type or horizontal with double suction impellers. These pumps operate without control valves against system friction back pressure. It is difficult to monitor pump condition since, for example, wear ring erosion results in loss of output but the resulting internal...

Avoidance of overdrying

Avoidance of over-drying is another aspect of further improvement of dryers' operation. This may be achieved by online measurement of product moisture content. In addition, the product moisture often lies below the required specification for further processing or sale, which also contributes to higher energy consumption as not only the additional solvent is to be evaporated but also higher off-gas temperatures are necessary increasing the heat losses over the gas outlet. For this reason, the...

Data Retrieval and Data Sources

A PCF is a summation of the individual contributions from its production chain or its total life cycle. We can distinguish between data from publicly available sources (secondary sources), from approximations and analogies, and from detailed calculations of the specific situation (primary sources). The method must be chosen according to the scope and the relevance of the contribution. If we consider a footprint for a chemical intermediate with intensive energy consumption supplied by an on-site...

Chemical Projects by Country

Distribution of CDM projects by type and geography for the chemical and petrochemical industries. It is interesting to note that while there are a number of different types of projects for the chemical industry, projects to reduce HFCs represent nearly 70 of the registered emission reduction volume 27 . Project Types and Applicability Criteria The CDM provides a framework to develop a wide range of project-based opportunities that reduce gases covered under the Kyoto Protocol.19' Each new...

Carbon FootprintsA Few Examples

The fight against global warming will finally always have to end up in reducing GHG emissions. This can be partly achieved by measures at the source of the emissions (direct emissions), for example, by increasing efficiencies of fossil-fired power plants to reduce the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of electrical power produced. Another lever is to influence the demand side that causes indirect emissions, for example, by applying more energy efficient devices, by avoiding or dispensing energy...

Crystallization

Crystallization is based on the formation of solid crystals precipitating from a solution or melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas. The physical principle of crystallization is a mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase. Supersaturation must be achieved before crystals can grow. The supersaturated condition can be achieved by two main alternatives. One is to decrease the solution temperature carried out in cooling crystallization. However,...

Energy Distribution per Utility

Normally an energy project includes other utilities, too. Typically the following energy categories will be regarded steam at different pressure levels electricity (sometimes considering different voltages) special energies like ammonia, compressed nitrogen and others. For energy saving and CO2 reduction projects the consultant needs a comprehensive and, if possible, consistent data set of the real energy consumption in the plants, process steps and equipment. In order to obtain this...

Goal Setting Talks

The energy change documents, which contain catalogs of measures to reduce energy use developed from the facility and production staff within the above-mentioned workshops, will be reviewed by members of the energy awareness planning committee and (direct) superiors to align them with the corporate vision and agenda agreed on within the energy audit (Section 3.3.1.2) through upper top management. Eventually, specific information or interests from the pre-analyses and energy audits contradict...

Cooling Water

Cooling water can be provided either by a once-through or a closed-loop system. Once iihrough systems normally take fresh and cool water from a river, lake or seawater and pump it directly to heat exchangers. This stream is just filtered on trash racks and screens, before circulating water pumps suction side, to remove suspended bulky materials and regularly, no additional treatment for suspended solids is required. Eventually, if the presence of organic matter and microorganisms is...

Reporting and Target Setting

A common definition and a common measurement of the energy consumption in a company open up the opportunity of consolidating the gathered energy information within the company from the plant level up to company level. That can be used in two directions Firstly for reporting we recommend energy consumption reporting for all operational units of the company. This means that all hierarchy levels are provided with given consumption information for their units. The plant manager will get 3XHQ...

Energy and Utility Systems

An energy saving project is incomplete if it does not consider the energy and utility generation and distribution. In our workflow we regard the generation and distribution of the following utilities steam (different pressure levels) electrical power (different voltages) water (for industrial use, demineralized water, cooling towers, chilled water, brine, condensate reuse, ultra pure water) air (for industrial use, instrumentation) A detailed view on this topic is given in Chapter 10 of this...

Feedback Instruments and Talks

Feedback raises awareness, motivates high performance 28 and positively effects performance achievement 27 . Environmental sustainability studies in households show energy savings up to 20 , when feedback was provided (e.g., 29-31 ). It also enhances the effectiveness of goal-setting because progress can be controlled and the final achievement realized and celebrated. Also in households, Becker 34 found that difficult goals with feedback three times a week about how much energy was consumed,...

O

Figure 7.9 Distillation column with vapor recompression. was introduced in chemical and petrochemical industries. As shown in Figure 7.9, the overhead vapor is compressed to the level that enables the use of the condensation heat in the reboiler. The vapor recompression separation scheme brings substantial energy savings for fractionating mixtures characterizing in close boiling points, where small temperature differences between the top and bottom of the column, small compression ratios and...

Planning Organizing and Preparing the Program

Before an energy awareness program can be planned, organized and implemented, it is necessary to have a concrete assignment for it. The general ultimate goal, to reduce the amount of energy consumption through the implementation of an energy awareness program, has to be clear as well as who is responsible and carries out the project. What department is in charge, is it a team or single person effort Who leads, to whom will the process be reported and how does the decision process work Are...

Theories About Feedback

Feedback refers to the process of gaining information about for example, the status of a system, the quality of a product, someone's performance or behavior, which allows an assessment, evaluation and reaction with possible changes. As early as in the 1950s and 1960s, research about feedback showed increases in learning new tasks 27 as well as positive effects of feedback on motivation to perform tasks 28 and performance achievement 27 . With regard to sustainable behavior or energy use,...

Energy SavingAward Programs

The copying effects of behavior modeling are also seen within regular everyday social interaction. Darley 52 found in a study of energy conservation equipment that the installation of clock thermostats spread from the initial users to their friends, colleagues, and co- workers. The adoptions of instruments or measures, referred through social networks, are based on trust or at least knowledge about biases and values, which can be considered. Actions of friends and associates serve as...

United States of America [29

In June 2009 the House of Representatives approved the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA), an energy bill that would establish a variant of a cap-and-trade plan for greenhouse gases to address climate change. The bill is also known as the Waxman-Markey Bill. It was approved by the House of Representatives, but until today (August 2009) has not yet been approved by the Senate. Implementation of the cap would reduce emissions from covered sources to 17 below 2005 levels by 2020 and 83...

Improved Design for Multi Columns

Several distillation steps are required for the complete separation of a multicom-ponent mixture into individual components. For complete fractionation of multi-component mixtures a large number of different separating sequences are possible. The selected separating path determines the investment and operating costs. Operating costs are determined primarily by energy costs. In processes with several distillation columns the coupling of columns is advantageous. Columns are directly coupled by...

Methodology for Sustainable Process Design

A methodology to generate new sustainable design alternatives has been developed and can be applied in any chemical and biochemical industrial process. This tool is particularly useful for retrofitting studies. The methodology identifies the critical points in the process related to energy consumption, raw materials consumption, water consumption, environmental impact reduction and safety. Once those points are identified, sustainable design targets are set and new process (retrofit)...

Scaling up the CDM via Benchmarking

The concept of benchmarking,'2) already widely used by industry, is a powerful tool under discussion for streamlining the CDM to demonstrate additionality. This approach to demonstrating additionality allows for certain project types to always 22) Benchmarking in the manufacturing sector refers to a measured performance indicator for which to compare a group of facilities. gain additionality approval, providing more certainty to investors by securing carbon revenues at the project design phase....

Separation of Organic Vapors

With membranes, organic vapors can be separated continuously from large scale production processes. Application areas in polyolefin and polymer production are raw material purification, product purification and finishing. Propylene, ethylene, and hexane, for example are separated from process streams and recycled for further use 24 . Another example of industrial application is the recovery of vinyl chloride monomer from off-gas from PVC. In the conventional recovery process, the off-gas is...

Recovery of Reaction Heat

Often an appropriate option to reduce the energy demand of an entire process is use of the heat of an exothermal reaction. This can be done directly in the process or in other processes on the same site (see Section 7.10). In the latter case this is realized in general by means of heating utilities, for example steam. There are manifold options for the recovery of reaction heat. The energy can be used to preheat feed streams, to generate steam or to support the subsequent separation. An example...

Overview

Biomass resources, which could be used as renewable carbon sources in the chemical industry, are for the most part used for food and feed. Plant derived and refined starch, sugar, and oils fats account for the biggest volumes and will therefore be considered in more detail. In terms of CO2 reduction, however, a closer look has to be given to the use of plant residues and thus biomass as a whole. In 2007, about 7 of all chemical sales were generated using bio - based feedstock, biotechnological...

Hans Joachim Leimkhler Climate Change

There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions rising concerns in companies, the public and scientific community about climate change or global warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs. 'Climate change' 1 in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition...

Opportunities within a Compliance Market

While emissions caps may lead to increased production costs for industrial installations that fall under compliance, emissions trading offers companies the ability to deploy new technologies when the MAC at their own facilities is below the market value of allowances. Where technology measures reduce the emissions level below the target for the facility, surplus allowances represent value to installations that fall short of their commitments. Emissions trading can also offer provisions for...

Roger Grundy Introduction

Most existing installations were built before the latest energy efficient technology was available, and also at a time when energy costs were lower. As a result, the main focus for 'new build' projects was (and often still is) to minimize investment cost. This chapter therefore examines how existing equipment can be improved as well as the choices available for energy efficient new equipment. There are many references in this chapter to new product types. Most, if not all of these can be...

Sustainable Chemical Process Design

Matos and Ana Isabel Cerqueira de Sousa Gouveia Carvalho Introduction Economic and industrial activities are continuously increasing, which means that energy consumption, depletion of raw materials and the environmental impact are also growing in their importance to modern society. One of the major concerns, related to the environmental issues, is the increase in CO2 emissions. The substantial increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere may be attributed as the...

Oils for Chemicals

Traditionally many soaps and detergents were originally produced from fatty acids and despite the gradual transition to petrochemical-based production routes, their organic oil basis still contributes to a major proportion to their production. This route can be classified as a sort white-based chemical, but due to its historical and continued use cannot be associated with any CO2 reduction potential. Conversion of fatty acids to biolubricants could present significant savings. In the EU (2006),...

Multistage Evaporation

Multistage evaporation exploits the latent evaporation heat of the solvent vapors from the first stage as a heating medium for a succeeding stage, where it is condensed. Such systems have a reduced energy consumption compared with the traditional single . stage systems, as only the first stage needs to be heated with steam. Vapors generated in the last stage must be condensed by a cooling medium, thus reducing cooling water usage. Figure 7.20 shows an evaporation unit with four stages and heat...

Membrane Separation

Membranes can be successfully applied in a variety of fields ranging from production of oxygen-enriched air for combustion, volatile organic carbon recovery, and hydrogen purification. In addition, membranes are used for desalination of sea water and for recovery and recycling of wastewater. They are efficient tools for the concentration and purification of food and pharmaceutical products and the production of base chemicals 21 . Membranes have also been combined with conventional techniques...

Bioacrylic Acid

The Consumption For Acrylic Acid

Currently, more than 3 Mton of acrylic acid as a monomer for super absorbent polymers (SAPs) and other applications are annually produced globally. The classical propylene process is based on the gas phase oxidation via acrolein to acrylic Figure 12.6 The 12 proposed sugar-based chemical building blocks 23 . Figure 12.6 The 12 proposed sugar-based chemical building blocks 23 . acid. Several new bio-based production routes are becoming available. Carbohydrates could be converted via fermentation...

Communication

It is demanding to get management and employee support for energy efficiency efforts, and that is achieved through a continuous, consistent, and open dialog. The organization must explain to employees the reasons and the goals it wants to accomplish through its energy efficiency programs. This aims to gain support and to indicate to them what their role is concerning involvement and requirements. A direct link must be drawn to the company strategy, vision and business plan, otherwise it may...

Team and Resources Budget

Now that the support of the upper top management is guaranteed and the implementation plan with its methods and measures specified, it is necessary to identify and organize required resources. First, the energy awareness planning committee has to be enlarged because tasks such as marketing, writing and editing, graphic designing, producing informational materials, workshop and training sessions as well as the program evaluation need additional and expert personnel. The new project members...

Political Framework and Trends

The beginning of the political activity against climate change was the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, also called The Earth Summit 20 . Three international treaties were the main result on this conference the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification. These conventions all involve matters strongly affected by climate change. The starting point...

General Developments

High volume biofuels, such as bioethanol, and food and feed applications, such as amino acids and vitamins already exist. In the near future, biopolymers are expected with their substantial growth to be added to the list. Several companies have or intend to add a variety of products based on fermentable carbohydrates to their portfolio. Polylactic acid (PLA) and 1,3-propanediol (PDO) have already been commercialized by Cargill and DuPont, respectively. Bioethanol-based polyethylene (PE- is...

General Considerations

Gas temperature greatly affects compressor power requirement, regardless of compressor type. As a general rule, suction temperature should be as low as possible for each stage. Keeping coolers internally clean and optimizing cooling water flow to these critical exchangers therefore saves energy. Similarly, incorrect use of suction strainers-often left in place after pre - commissioning - results in higher than necessary pressure ratio and increased energy consumption. Generally, suction...

Situation before the B ayer C limate C heck

In the last 20 years Bayer, like other chemical companies, has shown a strong commitment to reduce the GHG emissions of its production facilities. As a result, between 1990 and 2007 the company managed to reduce its direct and indirect GHG emissions by 37.2 or 4.5 million tons of CO2 equivalents. The total energy consumption of the Bayer group in 2007 equaled 91.7 Petajoule (that means 25.5 Terawatthours). In order to continue this development the board decided to initiate the Bayer Climate...

Reaction and Entire Processes

For many chemical processes, improvements in the reaction and modification in the overall process design mostly offer the biggest potential for reducing energy consumption. The reaction and the entire process are closely related, since measures in the reaction usually have a large influence on other parts of the process. The separation and purification of the product often dominates the total energy costs of the entire process. A yield increase in the reaction often reduces the process energy...

Rational Economic Theory

The rational-economic theory is based on the principle that people behave in a certain manner primarily determined through their financial interests. Individuals will engage in a process of cost-benefit analysis to determine which actions to take, which determines their subsequent behavior - 11 - Therefore it is obvious, which interventions have to follow this approach not just to foster energy awareness and sustainability but any attitude or change in behavior. In using this model, the...

Energy Prices

We all noticed in recent years that energy prices, and by this energy costs, have risen dramatically. As an example in Figure 12 we see the petroleum price development over the last 20 years. While the petroleum price was relatively stable during the 1990s at a level around 20 per barrel we observe a strong increase in the last 10 years. In 2008 the petroleum price rocketed, achieving its peak at 140 per barrel. Although it came down during the economic crisis in 2009 the prices of petroleum...

Methods Measures and Goals

In general, the methods and measures have to be chosen in compliance with the theoretical approach to awareness behavior change programs (see Section 3.2) and the preliminary plan with its goal (see Section 3.3.1.1) to guarantee their effectiveness. Methods already used at the beginning of the planning phase (see Section 3.3.1.1) are documented on an interview-based energy analysis conducted with the goal of obtaining information about the current status of energy use, saving potential and...

Process Model

A process model including mass and energy balance of the entire process is an important basis for process optimization projects. A model is useful not only for energy saving projects but also for de-bottlenecking studies, quality improvement projects and operating cost reduction. It provides the operator with information about mass and heat streams, a complete set of operational parameters and internal variables of reactors, columns and heat exchangers. Values that cannot be measured are...

Total energy costs 898 Mio a

Figure 4.5 Typical energy distribution expressed in of the total energy costs. Figure 4.5 Typical energy distribution expressed in of the total energy costs. will concentrate on steam and electricity measures in order to reduce the effort of the energy study without loosing relevant saving potential.

Flexible Mechanisms [24

Emissions Trading Parties with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Parties) have accepted targets for limiting or reducing emissions. These targets are expressed as levels of allowed emissions, or 'assigned amounts,' over the period of commitment between 2008 and 2012. Emissions trading, as set out in the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare (i.e., emissions permitted to an individual country, that are higher then the level of current emissions) to sell...

Mitigation Policy

The long term vision is agreed by relevant parties like the decision of the G8 in Heiligendamm 2007 or in Toyako 2008 Halving the global 1990 level of GHG emissions by 2050. But more of the interest is the discussion for intermediate targets for 2020. There the USA position is fixed by President Obama's commitment to seek legislation to reduce GHG emissions by 14 below 2005 levels by 2020, and approximately 83 below 2005 levels by 2050. This means coming back to 1990 levels in 2020. The...

Operational Parameters

Operational parameters are needed for analysis of the process and of the main energy consumers. Typical data for operating parameters are pressure levels and reflux ratios of columns, temperatures in heat exchangers and number of revolutions or pressure ratios for compressors. The sources for operational parameters are design documents and actual information from the control system. Today many plants have process data information systems. In this case it is easy for the consultant to analyze...

Post Kyoto Negotiations

As mentioned in Section 4 the Kyoto protocol will expire in 2012. Therefore at the conference of signatory states to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bali in 2007, an official start was made to negotiations to draft a new climate protocol which follows the Kyoto Protocol and to adopt the new protocol at the conference of signatory states in Copenhagen in 2009. The key negotiation blocks are Mitigation, which means an agreement of all countries to reduce GHG emissions in order to...

Buildings and Facilities

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) of buildings can have a high impact on the total energy consumption of a plant. Especially for pharmaceutical plants with their high requirements for ventilation, air conditioning and air change rates the HVAC experts play an important role in an energy saving project. During the analysis phase we normally send out data sheets to the plant manager where all ventilation systems will be recorded by the plant. This list will be completed and...

Main Energy Consumers

In the last section it was mentioned that the consultant will try to concentrate on the relevant utilities. Equally it is necessary to identify the main energy consumers and find measures to reduce the energy consumption of this equipment. There are different ways to find energy intensive equipment 1) The main consumers are in many cases equipped with measuring devices. Big evaporators or compressors have dedicated meters for steam or electricity. The availability of data depends strongly on...

Defining Sectors within a Regulated Environment

In order for the chemical industry to adequately manage risks and contribute to the design of an effective emissions trading scheme, it is important to understand various climate policy instruments and how to categorize the business in terms of energy and GHG emissions as well as end products and trade markets. Cefic strongly advocates for dividing chemical processes into eight major categories in order to appropriately allocate emissions allowances to avoid putting unilateral cost burden on...

Kyoto Process and National Programs Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto protocol and its instruments will be discussed in detail in Chapter 2. The Kyoto Protocol 23 is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 24 . The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European Community for reducing GHG( emissions. This amounts to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. The major distinction between...

Information Materials and Events

Information about the energy awareness project, its content, and the necessity to conserve energy needs to be passed on to every employee of the particular organization or the pilot department. First, posters should be placed at gathering point such as cafeterias, canteens, and blackboards. A video on energy or the environment could boost the informative effect through vividness and at the same time function as a role model, showing people acting sustainably. Newsletters, leaflets, and flyers...

Participative Workshops and Specific Techniques

Workshops for energy conservation are very efficient in raising awareness, increasing knowledge, and building strong intentions to implement energy saving measure (see also -41 - . They should be moderated through well-trained energy awareness planning committee members, who promote the project, answer questions, and make sure that every participant is being involved and contributes. Again, it is vital that all employees are enabled to give input about energy conservation so that all...

Amino Acids

Currently, almost 2 Mton of amino acids are globally allocated for feed applications. They are very effective in reducing the overall consumption of proteins and thereby indirectly reduce the environmental impact of animal production. For example, per kg weight gain, it is feasible, through selective feeding of amino acids, to reduce the nitrogen content of manure by 50 . This relates to a substantial reduction of nitrogen deposition in soil and lower atmospheric N2O emissions. Another example...

Axial Compressors

These machines have around 6 to 8 better polytropic efficiency than centrifugal compressors but are highly susceptible to loss of performance due to fouling. The selection of a more efficient axial type over centrifugal is partly driven by the duty in terms of volume flow rate and pressure ratio. Nevertheless, a number of users have found it economically attractive to retrofit axial machines to replace centrifugal machines, for instance FCC air blowers. Axial compressors are often fitted with...

Concept of Offsetting

International carbon offsets further take advantage of the least cost of abatement or MAC to lessen the economic burden for industry and governments to achieve emissions targets. Similar to an emissions allowance, a carbon offset is measured in tonnes of C02e and represents one certified metric tonne of C02 reduction. While the voluntary market participates in this arena, it is largely led by the compliance market which reached 118 billion USS in 2008 24 . Under the Kyoto Protocol, carbon...

Reciprocating Compressors

Large, low speed machines are more efficient than smaller (cheaper) high speed units. Also, valve and bearing life is longer giving reduced maintenance cost. Traditional compressor control is step -wise through the use of suction valve unloaders. Capacity is therefore typically 0 (at start-up) 25 , 50 , 75 and 100 . Where the process requires some intermediate flow, it is normally achieved by spilling flow back from discharge to suction. This wastes energy. Further, operators often do not make...

Historical Evolution from Energy Conservation to Energy Efficiency in Refineries

Energy conservation emerged during the oil crisis in the 1970s as a matter of survival for refiners. Since a refinery is an energy converting machine, that uses energy to perform this task, reducing its consumption means fewer costs and more products to sell, leading to better overall results. And at that time, as the industry faced pinched margins, that was a matter of survival. Because of this urge for survival, energy conservation evokes energy rationing and usually means restrictions and...

Carbon Footprint

In the analysis phase all data is collected and analyzed that is necessary to define the baseline of CO2 emission and energy consumption and to elaborate measures for reducing CO2 emission and energy consumption. The first step in our approach is the determination ofthe specific CO2 emission of a product. This step is not mandatory for energy saving projects. Nevertheless many producers need information about the CO2 footprint of their products because the public and especially their customers...

Definition of Scope and Task

The first step in most projects is a clear definition of scope and tasks. The scope for an energy saving project can be a single plant or a chemical, petrochemical or pharmaceutical site. In many cases enterprises start a global program that consists of different sites worldwide. The advantage of a comprehensive program is that synergies between similar plants in different sites can be exploited. Best practices in energy saving measures are exchanged between the sites. Definition ofthe scope...

Evaporation

Evaporation is a widely used and energy-intensive unit operation in the chemical and pharmaceutical as well as in the food and beverage industry. Evaporation is used as a thermal separation technology, in which thermal energy is applied to concentrate or separate liquid solutions, suspensions and emulsions. Solutions consisting of a solvent and dissolved solid substance are vaporized to concentrate the residual solid. Efficiency improvement measures can reduce the energy consumption...

Frank Schwendig Background

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a technology for separating the CO2 produced in technical processes and for its permanent leak-tight sequestration in depositories located well below the Earth ' s surface, thus ensuring that the CO2 no longer reaches the atmosphere. This technology can give major CO2-producing processes a climate-compatible shape. Carbon dioxide is produced in industrial processes primarily when fossil fuels are burned in heat and electricity generation. The three fossil...

Key Messages Moving Forward

Evidence is mounting to support the need to better understand and manage carbon liability at a corporate level within the context of climate policy. It is becoming ever more critical for chemical companies to form a corporate position on key issues such as emissions trading, taxation, allocations and border tax adjustments, and to develop general strategies to maximize asset management under a global carbon trading framework. This chapter examined the key vulnerabilities and opportunities of...

Managing the Regulatory Environment

2.2 Overview of Climate Policy 59 2.2.1 Economics of Climate Change 59 2.2.2 Policy Measures to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions 59 2.2.2.3 Hybridization of Taxation and Trading 62 2.3 Carbon Compliance for the Chemical Process Industry 63 2.3.1 Carbon Pricing and Industry Exposure 63 2.3.2 Applying Carbon Pricing to the Chemical Production Chain 64 2.3.2.1 Electricity Generation and Supply 66 2.3.2.2 Feedstock Extraction, Transportation, and Preparation 67 2.3.2.3 Basic Chemical Preparation...

Single Stage Turbines

Work is defined as force exerted multiplied by the distance this force causes an object to move. So, the maximum force steam can exert on a turbine wheel occurs if the wheel is held stationary. As the wheel speed increases, the force falls until finally it reaches zero when the turbine blades are moving at the same speed as the stea0m. Distance moved is zero if the wheel is stationary reaching a maximum when the force falls to zero. Multiplying force x distance thus produces theoretical maximum...

Brainstorming Sessions

The first step in the idea generation phase is a brainstorming session with the partners in the plant. Often we combine this brainstorming session with the Milestone 1 meeting described in Section 4.3.6) This procedure guarantees that the plant staff is involved at an early phase of the project. Operators on the plants know their plant very well and normally have many ideas for energy saving. It is important to involve them and accept these ideas if possible. Our experience shows that ideas...

Xi

Formic Acid Flowsheet

32 Su 5 taxability Metrics 3.3 Safety Indices Sensitivity analysis operational parameters Sensitivity analysis operational parameters Generate.'Evaluate new design alternatives Batch Processes M Tools ----Data-Flow Performance Analysis pro 23 Aspen Tech f J ICAS-WAR algorithm Super Pro Designer ICAS11 M CAPEC Database ICAS - ProCamd Bpqt .r, Gproms 4 HYSYS Sa ICAS-ProPred ICAS-Thermodynamic insights Figure 5.1 Activity-flow of the indicator-based methodology. in the system can be due to its...

CO2Neutral Production Fact or Fiction 419

Stefan Nordhoff, Thomas Tacke, Benjamin Brehmer, Yvonne Schiemann, Thomas Bohland, and Christos Lecou 12.2.2 Volumes, Trading and Pricing 421 12.2.2.1 Renewable Feedstock Trends 421 12.2.2.5 Biomass and Residues 425 12.2.3.1 Competition between Fossil and Renewable Feedstocks 426 12.2.3.2 Yields and Efficiency of Chemical Processing 427 12.3 Industrial Biotechnological Processes 429 12.3.1 Market, Field of Application, and Currently Available Products 429 12.3.2 Existing and Future...

Power Recovery Equipment 8241 Turbo Expanders

These units are used instead of letting gas pressure down through control valves or multiple orifice chambers. There are three main applications fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) regenerator gas at around 750 C and 3 bar(g) letting down to near atmospheric pressure natural gas expanders supplied to a plant at anywhere from 10 to 100 bar(g) and letting down to 3 bar(g) for fuel gas and cryogenic expanders linked to compressors in cold box service. Each service has its own design requirements and...

Underground Storage of CO2

At the core of the idea of CCS technology is the subterranean, permanent storage of CO2 to prevent it entering the atmosphere. The CO2 is injected below imperme able cap rock which prevents the CO2 from escaping to the Earth ' s surface. This is modeled on natural gas which, in such conditions, has been fixed in subterranean deposits across geological periods. The subsoil, with its structure, offers various options that can serve as storage sites for CO2. Located below the impermeable cap rock...

Operational Improvements for Convective Dryers

Often convective dryers are operated with a hot gas stream which is directly or indirectly heated. Usually the heating medium is air. But inert gases, exhaust gases or superheated steam are also applied. Superheated steam as the heating medium has energetic advantages. By condensation of the used steam and the evaporated liquids from the wet solid a high rate of energy recovery of approx. 90 is possible 3 . On the other hand higher temperature ranges have to be applied resulting in higher...

References

1 Grant, C.D. (2005) Energy management in chemical industry, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VC H Verlag GmbH, Weinheim. 2 Stichlmair, J. (2005) Distillation and rectification, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim. 3 Sattler, K. (2001) Thermische Trennverfahren Grundlagen, Auslegung, Apparate, Wiley-VC H Verlag GmbH, Weinheim. 4 Fenske, M.R. (1932) Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 24, 482 . 5 Underwood, A.J.V. (1948)...

Fired Heaters

Fired heaters (including boilers) are unavoidable in many processes. Efficiency is generally best with the lowest possible stack temperature and oxygen content. 8.3 Fixed Equipment 291 The amount of fuel required can be reduced in a number of ways including The process fluid requiring heating should use waste heat as efficiently as possible to maximize the heater coil inlet temperature and minimize heater duty. Forced draft burners can generally be controlled to lower stack oxygen than natural...

PCF from Cradle to Gate

In the following we will discuss the contributions for a cradle -to-gate footprint. There will be a general part on relevance and options for retrieving the data including a discussion on consequences. Calculations are illustrated using an example from the bulk chemical industry, chlorine production via electrolysis. The data is 7.2 Product Carbon Footprints (PCF) 43 Coding Sulfuric 7.2 Product Carbon Footprints (PCF) 43 Coding Sulfuric Figure 1.5 Block diagram for the example chlor-alkali...

Energy Efficiency in the Chemical Industry

Energy efficiency has become one ofthe key topics not only in the chemical industry. There are three main reasons for that development 1) As mentioned in the last section energy prices rose significantly during the last ten years. In parallel with the energy prices the energy costs increased as a percentage of the production costs. Therefore there was and there is a high pressure on the industry, and especially the energy-intensive chemical industry, to work on the reduction of the specific...

Hans Joachim Leimkuhler Overview

Successful energy and CO 2 reduction projects require a systematic approach. In this chapter we will give an overview over the procedure we recommend for energy saving and CO2 reduction projects. This procedure was developed and proven in many different projects. Some key aspects for a successful project execution are Clear scope and well defined targets. Continuous collaboration between project team and the partners in the plants. Systematic, comprehensive and traceable methodology....

Process Control

The aim of the control system for a distillation column is to stabilize and to optimize the operation. The control system should also ensure the production of products in specification at the minimum energy consumption. Conventional control systems are often designed for stabilization only. They rely on the intervention of an operator for any optimization. In Figure 7.4 a conventional control system for a two-component separation is shown 1 . In this conventional control system the product...

Language

Good communication tells the audience what they need to know about the current situation and what they should do differently in the future. Some energy data must be provided, so the audience can understand their role and course of action, where they fit and what they can do. For that reason, pertinent information must be delivered in a language that is appropriate to their position, background and usual tasks. This helps to support their engagement with energy efficiency. The message must be...

Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in the Chemical Industry

The chemical process industry is an energy intensive industry. The ICCA study 12 shows that the fuel consumption linked to the chemical industry amounts to 9 Exajoule in 2005. Here the fuel consumption for energy generation is considered, but not petroleum, coal or natural gas used as raw materials. The global energy consumption in 2005 was about 485 EJ (see Figure 5 in Section 3.1), that means the chemical industry consumes about 1.9 of the total global energy. Figure 10 shows the breakdown of...

Vapor Recompression

In a conventional evaporator, the vapor stream is condensed, so that its valuable energy content in form of condensation heat is lost. Vapor recompression evaporation is based on the heat-pumping technique. A portion or the total vapor flow is compressed to a higher pressure and subsequently condensed in the same evaporator. In many cases, only multistage evaporator systems with three to five stages achieve the same specific efficiencies 15 . For the recompression of solvent vapors, steam jet...

Carbon Pricing and Industry Exposure

The fundamental purpose of climate policy, whether through emissions trading, taxation, or a combination of both, is to introduce an economic value on global warming gases and reduce the negative externalities of industry on the economy. The most efficient tool for accomplishing this goal is through carbon pricing, either by penalizing industry for polluting or by economically incentivizing the reduction of emissions. As discussed previously, a cap-and-trade scheme distributes emissions...

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Figure 6.25 Exploiting a path to save energy. Figure 6.26 Exploiting a loop the reduce the number of exchangers. Figure 6.26 Exploiting a loop the reduce the number of exchangers. In a grassroots design, the skilled engineer would try to eliminate the loops, as they are always caused by having more than the minimum number of heat exchangers and indicate some redundancy in the network. By breaking a loop, the number of heat exchangers, and hence investment cost, will reduce (Figure 6.26). In a...

C02 scrubbing

Figure 11.6 Basic idea of pre-combustion C02 capture based on the ICCC process. Figure 11.6 Basic idea of pre-combustion C02 capture based on the ICCC process. The fuel gas mixture now consists of C02 and H2, with the hydrogen stemming from gasification and the CO shift reaction. In a second process step, the C02 is now washed out of the fuel gas. Pure hydrogen finally reaches the gas turbine, so that the waste gas no longer contains C02. Because the C02 is captured before (complete)...

Centrifugal Compressors

Apart from the minimum theoretical energy for compression, energy consumption also results from gas friction in impellers and diffusers labyrinth leakage both between wheels and into the seal system balance piston leakage from discharge to suction leaking anti-surge valves and or poorly calibrated anti-surge protection. Minimizing these losses can be achieved as follows It is desirable that the compressor' s interior surfaces with a positive pressure gradient are highly polished to reduce...

Goal and Concept of the Bayer Climate Program

The Bayer Climate Program tackles two issues setting ambitious targets for the own production and development of climate friendly products and production processes. Based on the GHG emissions in 2005 Bayer MaterialScience plans to reduce the specific GHG emissions per ton of product by 25 until 2020. At Bayer HealthCare and Bayer CropScience the target reductions amount to 5 and 15 of the absolute emissions, respectively. For these targets, the direct and indirect emissions of GHG were...

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Grand Composite Curve

Figure 6.13 Using low pressure steam instead of high pressure. Figure 6.14 Construction of the grand composite curve. Figure 6.14 Construction of the grand composite curve. Figure 6.15 The grand composite curve for multiple utilities targeting. Figure 6.15 The grand composite curve for multiple utilities targeting. As will be discussed later, when the pinch rules are introduced, an ideal process does not transfer heat through the pinch point. Because of this, the grand composite curve,...

Company Carbon Balances

Many industrial and business companies today report their impact on global warming. It has become an important aspect of their sustainability reports. Beside aspects of public attention and corporate image, this is becoming more and more business relevant. To be considered 'green' is a competitive advantage particularly in certain end consumer businesses. However, this trend is also pushing upstream into the product supply chain and it is becoming more relevant in business -to-business...

Tank Gas Blanketing

Fixed roof tanks containing volatile flammable liquid, even with an internal floating roof, will develop an explosive gas air mix above the liquid level unless the oxygen content inside is kept below the lower flammable limit (LFL). Some operators rely on flame arrestors fitted to the roof vents but a safer option is achieved by gas blanketing. Without a vapor recovery system, this results in venting the gas mixture to atmosphere during tank filling. Many operators use nitrogen as blanket gas,...

Energy Awareness in Plants

We mentioned before that one of the main targets of an energy savings project is the sustainability and permanency of the savings. Therefore, it is important that the implemented measures will be accepted by the plant staff. We have to avoid for instance that process control loops implemented during a project will be operated manually after a while or that the performance monitoring implemented in the DCS will lose the attention of the plant staff. In order to assure this sustainabil-ity it is...

Feed Preheating

In the evaporation of aqueous solutions, the ratio of heating steam to generated vapors is in the region of 1.2. By preheating the fresh feed solution by condensing a small portion of the vaporized solvent, it is possible to achieve efficiency improvement, of the order of 10 to 15 15 . A diagram representing the principle of introducing this technique is presented on the Figure 7.19. A small portion of the vapor preheats the feed by condensing in the preheater. A cooling medium is used to...

Energy Efficient Unit Operations and Processes 223

7.3 Centrifugal Pumps and Blowers 226 7.4.2 Operation and Control 231 7.4.2.1 Purity of the Product 231 7.4.2.3 Sub-Cooling of the Reflux Flow 232 7.4.2.4 Location of Feed Point 232 7.4.2.5 Fouling or Damage of Internals 232 7.4.3 Improved Design for Single Columns 234 7.4.3.3 Vapor Recompression 236 7.4.3.4 Intermediate Reboiler or Condenser 238 7.4.3.5 Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) 240 7.4.4 Improved Design for Multi Columns 241 7.4.4.1 Dividing Wall Column 241 7.4.4.2 Indirect...

Realization and Results

The Bayer Climate Check follows the systematic approach described in the first parts of this chapter (Chapter 4). It incorporates two essential elements, that is, quantification of the climate relevance of the manufactured product by means of the Climate Footprint and identification of savings potential through an 'Energy Efficiency Check'. The value of Bayer Climate Check derives from combining sustainability goals with the corporate-wide motivation to increase its efficiency, reduce costs,...

Total Site Network

In comparison to other branches in industry, the production chains in chemical industry are characterized by high complexity. The manufacturing processes of fine chemicals, basic chemicals, polymers or even pharmaceuticals are integrated in complex systems. This applies not only to physical integration of the production line but also integration resulting from using the same platform for energy and utilities supply. For this reason, chemical industries tend to cluster together, to benefit from...

Steam Turbines

Steam turbines convert steam pressure energy into power, being widely used in power plants throughout industry and electric utilities. They use high pressure and high temperature superheated steam that flows through an expander, forcing the turbine to rotate, moving any equipment attached to the same shaft. After expansion, steam exits at lower pressure and temperature. The major difference of the steam turbine, relative to other primary movers like internal combustion engines and gas turbines,...

Header Pressure and Temperature Control

Most steam systems have nominal HP, MP and LP headers. Typically, HP steam is 40bar, MP steam 10bar and LP steam 3bar. These pressures, chosen at the design stage, are not necessarily the most energy efficient. Rather than run at 'design' pressure, it is generally better to experiment by monitoring fuel consump tion as the HP MP LP pressure set points are slowly changed to find the optimum combination. Turbines use less steam if inlet temperature is increased. This is especially important for...

Centrifugal Pumps

Vfd Control Valve

This work horse of the process industries offers one of the largest opportunities for energy saving. The design process is usually conservative when specifying pumps, especially when calculating the required discharge pressure. As a result, the pressure drop across the discharge control valve is commonly higher (sometimes much higher) than needed for process control. Many, if not the majority, of centrifugal pumps in the oil, gas and petrochemical industries are specified to meet the Code API -...

Cradle to Grave Carbon Footprints

Cradle Grave Waste Management

Cradle -to-grave carbon footprints include the contributions downstream of the production. The upstream part is handled as described in the previous section. Downstream contributions can be very diverse and typically come from logistics Raw Materials. transportation. other Figure 1.7 Cradle-to-gate footprints (electrolysis example) with different allocation methods. and packaging, additional production or finishing, purchasing (mostly a logistic effort), product application and disposal. Most...

Raw Materials

In Section 4.3.1 the carbon footprint or, the method developed by Bayer Technology Services, the Climate Footprint was presented. As a part of the result of carbon footprint analysis, the CO2 load of a product caused by the raw materials is delivered. Now the consultant together with the customer will assess that value and decide if an investigation for alternative raw materials, or an alternative supplier for the same raw materials is a way to decrease the footprint. The search for alternative...

Boiler Water

Water is the working fluid for steam generation and boilers, which are among the most costly and vital pieces of equipment in an industrial complex. Proper treatment and conditioning of water can increase boiler performance, energy efficiency, maintain production capability and reduce operating costs while extending its operational life. Boiler water treatment avoids scaling and corrosion, insuring safe and reliable operation. Lack of appropriate treatment can cause a series of problems to...

Efficiency Parameters of CCS

The efficiency ofCCS as a measure for lowering CO2 emissions is described using various parameters energy requirements for CO2 capture, transport and storage First of all, in the process itself, the CO2 capture rate is an important characteristic value and design parameter. It describes how much of the CO 2 that would otherwise be emitted into the atmosphere is captured from the process and stored. In the three methods developed for CO2 capture from power plants, the capture rate is typically...