Intermediate Reboiler or Condenser

Reboiler Energy Balance

Exergy losses can by reduced by the use of an intermediate reboiler 2 . However, this measure does not lower the total energy requirement of a column. But a certain part of the heat is supplied at a lower temperature in reboiler 2 as illustrated in Figure 7.11, Therefore, the energy cost might be reduced. An intermediate reboiler is advantageous only if several external heat sources, for example, steam pressure levels, are available for the individual reboiler. Analogously to an intermediate...

Energy Awareness and Environmental Sustainability

Individual people and entire organizations are not likely to actively preserve energy or in general act in an environmental friendly way, unless they are aware of the issue and its problems. But what does being aware mean Even though there are many sophisticated definitions of awareness, just in the field of psychology for example, referring to consciousness, the Oxford Dictionary (fourth edition) offers a simple but very useful definition. It states that being aware means having knowledge or...

Melt Crystallization by Cooling

Column Crystallization

Distillation is energy-intensive for solutions that form isomers and azeotropes. In these cases, crystallization can provide better separation and a more energy efficient process. Melt crystallization is the process of separating the components of a liquid mixture by cooling until a quantity of crystallized solid is deposited from the liquid phase. Therefore, melt crystallization is often considered to be commercially attractive, compared with distillation, for the separation of close-boiling...

Centrifugal Compressors

Apart from the minimum theoretical energy for compression, energy consumption also results from gas friction in impellers and diffusers labyrinth leakage both between wheels and into the seal system balance piston leakage from discharge to suction leaking anti-surge valves and or poorly calibrated anti-surge protection. Minimizing these losses can be achieved as follows It is desirable that the compressor' s interior surfaces with a positive pressure gradient are highly polished to reduce...

Efficiency Parameters of CCS

The efficiency ofCCS as a measure for lowering CO2 emissions is described using various parameters energy requirements for CO2 capture, transport and storage First of all, in the process itself, the CO2 capture rate is an important characteristic value and design parameter. It describes how much of the CO 2 that would otherwise be emitted into the atmosphere is captured from the process and stored. In the three methods developed for CO2 capture from power plants, the capture rate is typically...