Globalisation, which favours delocalisation of production activities, also delocalises pollution. Driven by a search for the most competitive production conditions, firms choose to locate in geographic sectors where environmental regulations are most lax.
Production sites concentrating polluting activities, sometimes called 'pollution havens', are set up in the developing countries. The effect of globalisation is therefore to reduce pollution in the richest countries and aggravate it in the developing countries .
Pollution tends to spread to a larger and larger scale; from local, it becomes regional, and then global.
Formation of the 'ozone hole' over the pole, due to destruction of tropospheric ozone by the halogenated compounds formerly used in particular as refrigerating fluids, is a case of global pollution. The problem was solved by an international agreement banning the use of these fluids .
Over the last ten years, the issue of climate change has become one of the most worrying. Directly related to the considerable emissions of CO2 resulting from the use of fossil fuels, it now represents the main global pollution.
An international agreement between most of the countries concerned must be set up to cope with this situation. The degree of difficulty in reaching this type of agreement obviously depends on the degree of effort required.
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