Hybridisation of sources

The energy transition will be favoured by setting up hybrid systems, powered by different energy sources. - In the field of transport, plug-in hybrid propulsion systems will play this role. The autonomy of the current hybrid vehicles, for example the Toyota Prius, is extremely limited (about 2 km) in purely electric mode. In addition, all the energy consumed is produced from the onboard fuel. Increasing the capacity of the electricity storage system and making the electric battery rechargeable...

Towards the positive energy building

The design of buildings must evolve by taking into account the energy balance. It is necessary to avoid energy losses and to increase solar energy inputs through the best adapted orientation and design of the building (bioclimatic architecture), and by imagining innovative solutions thus, a vegetation cover can limit energy losses while improving the integration of the building into the surrounding environment. New concepts of climatic housing, which have been developed, are applicable not only...

Biomass energy and biofuels potentialities and risks

Biomass is a renewable energy source, which presents the advantage of storing energy. We can expect to see an increase in the role of biomass for energy production in the future. Biomass offers the advantage of being a renewable energy which is also storable. In the European Union, energy from biomass reached 61 Mtoe in 2006, an increase of 3.1 Mtoe compared with 2004. In the world, biomass represents the main source of renewable energy, amounting to 1186 Mtoe in 2006 1, 66 . The production of...

The role of CO2 geological storage

CCS should contribute significantly in the future to the reduction of CO2 emissions. It is typically a 'transition technology' to be used for providing an answer to the risk of climate change for the period during which fossil fuels will still contribute significantly to the energy supply. Geological storage should be considered as a prerequisite before any new large scale development of the use of coal for electricity generation. Without CCS, the comeback of coal might result in even higher...

Wind energy an already mature energy

Wind power technology is already relatively mature, producing electricity under almost profitable conditions. Current machines can develop powers from 1.25 to 2.5 MW. The rotors fitted on 2.5 MW machines have a span of up to 80 m 59 . Virtually all high-power wind turbines have a three-blade rotor, which offers higher efficiency than two-blade rotors, without making construction of the wind turbine overcomplicated. Wind energy is almost competitive, the cost price of the electricity produced...

Energy efficiency

ADEME www.ADEME.fr Energy Star www.energystar.gov Association negawatt www.negawatt.com Batirbio www.batirbio.org Energie-Cites www.energie-cites.eu Eurocities www.eurocities.org Federation nationale des associations des usagers de transport (Fnaut) www.fnaut.asso.fr Groupement des autorit s responsables des transports (GART) www.gart.org Centre d'etudes sur les reseaux, les transports et l'urbanisme (Cerfu) www.cerfu.fr World Urbanization Prospects www.esa.un.org Groupe energies renouvelables,...

Hybrid propulsion

One further option for reducing passenger car CO2 emissions is the use of hybrid propulsion. The hybrid propulsion concept for passenger cars was initially introduced in 1997 by Toyota in the Prius car. It consists of using the association between a thermal engine and an electric engine for ensuring the propulsion of the vehicle. A battery for electricity storage is required to supply the energy needed by the electrical engine. Using a hybrid propulsion system makes it possible to reduce energy...