References cited

Calculations in this chapter draw from the thermal properties of snow and ice discussed in chapter 2, with the discussion of sea-ice thermodynamics based on Bitz and Lipscomb (1999). This has its roots in the classical model of Maykut and Untersteiner (1971). Bitz and Marshall (2011) extend this to a more general treatment of cryospheric thermodynamics.

Bitz, C.M., and S.J. Marshall (2011). Cryosphere models— ocean and land. In: Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (P. Rasch, ed.). Springer, New York.

Maykut, G.A., and N. Untersteiner (1971). Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 1550-1575.

The equations for modeling of shortwave radiation are outlined in Garnier and Ohmura (1968) and Oke (1987).

Garnier, B.J., and A. Ohmura (1968). A method of calculating the direct short-wave radiation income of slopes. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 7 (5), 796-800.

Oke, T.R. (1987). Boundary Layer Climates, 2nd ed. Methuen, London, 435 pp.

There is a plethora of papers discussing energy balance calculations over snow and ice. Some excellent examples include:

Arnold, N.S., I.C. Willis, M.J. Sharp, K.S. Richards, and M.J. Lawson (1996). A distributed surface energy-balance model for a small valley glacier. I. Development and testing for Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. Journal of Glaciology, 42 (140), 77-89.

Cline, D.W. (1997). Snow surface energy exchanges and snow-melt at a continental, midlatitude Alpine site. Water Resources Research, 33 (4), 689-701.

Marks, D., J. Domingo, D. Susong, T. Link, and D. Garen (1999). A spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt model for application in mountain basins. Hydrological Processes, 16, 1935-1959.

Surface energy balance field data from Kwadacha Glacier was collected by the author (unpublished). The field site and automatic weather station data from this site are discussed in:

Bolch, T., B. Menounos, and R. Wheate (2010). Landsat-based inventory of glaciers in western Canada, 1985-2005. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 114, 127-137.

Losic, M. (2009). On the turbulent heat flux contributions to energy balance at Opabin Glacier, Yoho National Park, Canada. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Calgary.

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