References cited

Gosnell's (2005) popular treatise on Ice (cf. chapter 1) offers a well-crafted and accessible discussion of some of the peculiarities of water, including the delightful quote from James Trefil.

Trefil, J. (1986). Meditations at 10,000 Feet: A Scientist in the Mountains. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Those seeking a more physics-based discussion of the crystal structure of snowflakes will find reward in Fletcher (1971) and Libbrecht (2005). Libbrecht provides some stunning photographs of synthetic crystals. There is also an extensive and impressive collection of work on scanning electron microscope images of snowflakes based out of the U.S. Department of Agriculture labs in Beltsville, Maryland (e.g., Wergin et al., 1998; Rango et al., 2000). Bill Wergin kindly provided the microphotograph in figure 2.1b.

Rango, A., W.P. Wergin, E.F. Erbe, and E.G. Josberger (2000). Snow crystal imaging using scanning electron microscopy. III. Glacier ice, snow and biota. Journal of Hydrological Sciences, 45 (3), 357-375.

Wergin, W.P., A. Rango, and E.F. Erbe (1998). Image comparisons of snow and ice crystals photographed by light (video) microscopy and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. Scanning, 20, 285-296.

Different values for the thermodynamic properties of snow and ice are found in the research literature, so it is difficult to distill this to single "recommended" values.

Consistent with the climate-system emphasis within this text, I emphasize the macroscale (rather than molecular-scale) thermodynamic behavior, and recommended values here are based on recent field-data compilations, where possible.

Snow density and snow/ice albedo data from Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rockies (figures 2.2 and 2.4) are from unpublished data collected by the author. The field site, instrumentation, and snow sampling methods are described in:

Shea, J.M., F.S. Anslow, and S.J. Marshall (2005). Hydrome-teorological relationships on the Haig Glacier, Alberta, Canada. Annals of Glaciology, 40, 52-60.

Sinclair, K.E. and S.J. Marshall (2009). The impact of vapour trajectory on the isotope signal of Canadian Rocky Mountain snowpacks. Journal of Glaciology, 55 (191), 485-498.

Values for the density of firn and ice are from Cuffey and Paterson (2010). Herron and Wu (1994) discuss the effects of solar radiation on subsurface melt and the resulting effects on lake ice density during late stages of melt.

Cuffey, K.M., and W.S.B. Paterson (2010). The Physics of Glaciers, 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, oxford, UK, 693 pp.

Herron, R., and M.K. Woo (1994). Decay of a High Arctic lakeice cover: Observations and modelling. Journal of Glaciol-ogy, 40 (135), 283-292.

The effects of dissolved air bubbles, impurities, and pressure on the melting point of glacier ice are discussed in detail in Cuffey and Paterson (2010). Parameterizations for the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of glacier ice are also adopted from Cuffey and Paterson (2010). For sea ice and seasonal snow, these thermodynamic values are synthesized from:

Bitz, C.M., and W.H. Lipscomb (1999). An energy-conserving thermodynamic model of sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 15669-15677.

Pringle, D.J., H. Eicken, H.J. Trodahl, and L.G.E. Backstrom (2007). Thermal conductivity of landfast Antarctic and Arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, C04017, doi:10.1029/2006JC003641.

Sturm, M., J. Holmgren, M. K├Ânig, and K. Morris (1997). The thermal conductivity of seasonal snow. Journal of Glaciol-ogy, 43 (143), 26-41.

Sturm, M., D.K. Perovich, and J. Holmgren (2002). Thermal conductivity and heat transfer through the snow on the ice of the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (C10), 8047, doi:10.1029/2000JC000400.

Untersteiner, N. (1961). On the mass and heat budget of Arctic sea ice. Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. A., 12, 151-182.

Untersteiner, N. (1964). Calculations of temperature regime and heat budget of sea ice in the Central Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 69, 4755-4766.

Anne Nolin kindly provided the data for spectral reflectance of snow as a function of wavelength, based on the model of Wiscombe and Warren (1980). Typical snow and ice albedo values and the physical properties that affect these are gathered from:

Allison, I., R.E. Brandt, and S.G. Warren (1993). East Antarctic sea ice: Albedo, thickness distribution, and snow cover. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98 (C7), 12417-12429.

Grenfell, T.C., S.G. Warren, and P.C. Muller (1994). Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99 (D9), 18699-18684.

Wiscombe, W.J., and S.G. Warren (1980). A model for the spectral albedo of snow, I: Pure snow. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 37, 2712-2733.

Warren, S.G., and W.J. Wiscombe (1980). A model for the spectral albedo of snow, II: Snow containing atmospheric aerosols. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 37, 2734-2745.

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