1. Based on a global ocean area of 3.62 X 108 km2 and densities of 910 kg m-3 and 1000 kg m-3 for ice and meltwater.

2. The time required to reach (1 - 1/e) (~63%) of an exponential transition from an initial to a final state.


1. Irradiance increases with time as part of the ca. 10-billion-year life cycle of G2-type stars like the Sun.

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Annotated Bibliography

For each chapter, recommendations for further reading are listed followed by literature and Web resources explicitly referenced in the text.

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