Further Reading

The classical text edited by Norbert Untersteiner, The Geophysics of Sea Ice, contains many fundamentals that shape current understanding and modeling of sea ice, including several topics that were not possible to cover here. Several other seminal articles are recommended here.

Ackley, S.F., and W.F. Weeks (1990). Sea Ice Properties and Processes. CRREL Monograph 90-i. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Hibler, W.D., III (1979). A dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 9, 815-846.

Maykut, G.A., and N. Untersteiner (1971). Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 1550-1575.

Hunke, E.C., and J.K. Dukowicz (1997). An elastic-viscous-plastic model for sea ice dynamics. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 1849-1867.

Thorndike, A.S., D.S. Rothrock, G.A. Maykut, and R. Colony (1975). The thickness distribution of sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 4501-4513.

Untersteiner, N., ed. (1986). The Geophysics of Sea Ice. NATO ASI Series B, Vol. 146. Plenum Press, New York, 1196 pp.

Numerous texts examine ocean physics and the properties of seawater: essential background reading for those who wish to delve further into sea-ice dynamics. Pond and Pickard (1991) is a very readable introduction. The text by Vallis (2012) in this series also offers a fresh and accessible overview.

Pond, S., and G.L. Pickard (1991). Introductory Dynamical Oceanography, 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 329 pp.

Vallis, G. (2012). Climate and the Oceans. Princeton Primers in Climate. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

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