Contents

Preface vii

1 Introduction to the Cryosphere 1

2 Material Properties of Snow and Ice 11

3 Snow and Ice Thermodynamics 36

4 Seasonal Snow and Freshwater Ice 65

5 Sea Ice 104

6 Glaciers and Ice Sheets 127

7 Permafrost 165

8 Cryosphere-Climate Processes 180

9 The Cryosphere and Climate Change 201

Glossary 241

Notes 249

Annotated Bibliography 251

Index 285

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