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Figure 2.1 The 'hockey stick'. Solid lines are instrument records/reconstructions, broken lines indicate simulations, taken from a variety of sources.

Source: M. Mann C. Amman, R. Bradley et al (2003), 'On past temperatures and anomalous late-20th century warmth,' Eos Trans. AGU, 84(27), doi:10.1029/2003E0270003, available at http://www.realclimate.org/ HockeyStickOverview_html_6623cbd6.png. © AGU 2003.

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Year AD

Figure 2.1 The 'hockey stick'. Solid lines are instrument records/reconstructions, broken lines indicate simulations, taken from a variety of sources.

Source: M. Mann C. Amman, R. Bradley et al (2003), 'On past temperatures and anomalous late-20th century warmth,' Eos Trans. AGU, 84(27), doi:10.1029/2003E0270003, available at http://www.realclimate.org/ HockeyStickOverview_html_6623cbd6.png. © AGU 2003.

scientific and political consensus on climate change, and in creating the sense that such climate change constitutes a serious crisis for our societies. Particularly important moments were the statement in the IPCC's Second Assessment Report (1995) that there is now a 'discernable human influence' on global climate. This claim, that observed warming was almost certainly caused by GHG emissions, was made even more assertively in the Third Assessment Report (2001).11 The IPCC's most recent Fourth Assessment Report came out with the strongest statements yet that 'Warming of the climate system is unequivocal ... Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic GHG concentrations.'12

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