Table of CO2 emissions by sector
Row 1: Sectoral Approach contains total CO2 emissions from fuel combustion as calculated using the IPCC Tier 1 Sectoral Approach and corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A. Emissions calculated using a Sectoral Approach include emissions only when the fuel is actually combusted.
Row 2: Main activity producer electricity and heat contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. Emissions from own on-site use of fuel are included. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a.
Row 3: Unallocated autoproducers contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors.
Row 4: Other energy industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the industrial processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both energy and industrial processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
Row 5: Manufacturing industries and construction contains the emissions from combustion of fuels in industry. The IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 2 includes these emissions. However, in the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the IPCC category also includes emissions from industry autoproducers that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, this publication shows autoproducers as a separate item. See Row 3, Unallocated autoproducers. Manufacturing industries and construction also includes emissions from coke inputs into blast furnaces, which may be reported either in the transformation sector, the industry sector or the separate IPCC Source/Sink Category 2, Industrial processes.
Row 6: Transport contains emissions from the combustion of fuel for all transport activity, regardless of the sector, except for international marine bunkers and international aviation. This includes domestic aviation, domestic navigation, road, rail and pipeline transport, and corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3. In addition, the IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the autoproducer consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, this publication shows autoproducers as a separate item. See Row 3, Unallocated autoproducers.
Note: Starting in the 2006 edition, military consumption previously included in domestic aviation and in road should be in non-specified other sectors. See the section on Differences between IEA estimates and UNFCCC submissions, for further details.
Row 7: Road contains the emissions arising from fuel use in road vehicles, including the use of agricultural vehicles on highways. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3 b.
Row 8: Other Sectors contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, agriculture/forestry, fishing, residential and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from auto-producers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, this publication shows autoproducers as a separate item. See Row 3, Unallocated autoproducers.
Row 9: Residential contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b.
Row 10: Reference Approach contains total CO2 emissions from fuel combustion as calculated using the IPCC Reference Approach. The Reference Approach is based on the supply of energy in a country and as a result, all inventories calculated using this method include fugitive emissions from energy transformation (e.g. from oil refineries) which are normally included in Category 1 B. For this reason, Reference Approach estimates are likely to overestimate national CO2 emissions. In these tables, the difference between the Sectoral Approach and the Reference Approach includes statistical differences, product transfers, transformation losses and distribution losses.
Row 11: Differences due to losses and/or transformation contains emissions that result from the transformation of energy from a primary fuel to a secondary or tertiary fuel. Included here are solid fuel transformation, oil refineries, gas works and other fuel transformation industries. These emissions are normally reported as fugitive emissions in the IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 B, but will be included in 1 A in inventories that are calculated using the IPCC Reference Approach. Theoretically, this category should show relatively small emissions representing the loss of carbon by other ways than combustion, such as evaporation or leakage.
Negative emissions for one product and positive emissions for another product would imply a change in the classification of the emission source as a result of an energy transformation between coal and gas, between coal and oil, etc. In practice, however, it often proves difficult to correctly account for all inputs and outputs in energy transformation industries, and to separate energy that is transformed from energy that is combusted. Therefore, the row Differences due to losses and/or transformation sometimes shows quite large positive emissions or even negative ones due to problems in the underlying energy data.
Row 12: Statistical differences can be due to unexplained discrepancies in the underlying energy data. They can also be caused by differences between emissions calculated using the Reference Approach and the Sectoral Approach.
Row 13: International marine bunkers contains emissions from fuels burned by ships of all flags that are engaged in international navigation. The international navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways, and in coastal waters. Consumption by ships engaged in domestic navigation is excluded. The domestic/international split is determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or nationality of the ship. Consumption by fishing vessels and by military forces is also excluded. Emissions from international marine bunkers should be excluded from the national totals. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3 d i.
Row 14: International aviation contains emissions from fuels used by aircraft for international aviation. Fuels used by airlines for their road vehicles are excluded. The domestic/international split should be determined on the basis of departure and landing locations and not by the nationality of the airline. Emissions from international aviation should be excluded from the national totals. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3 a i.
Figures 2 and 3: Emissions by sector
The sector Other includes emissions from commercial and public services, agriculture/forestry and fishing. Emissions from unallocated autoproducers are included in Electricity and heat.
Figure 5: Electricity generation by fuel
The product Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, combustible renewables and waste, etc. Electricity generation includes both main activity producer and autoproducer electricity.
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