Systems

Figures 8A.1 and 8A.2 illustrate the Tier 3 Hybrid approach as it is currently applied in Germany for closed pressure (high voltage) and sealed-pressure (medium voltage) equipment (Schwarz, 2006). In the diagram, 'MB' indicates processes or life cycle stages for which the mass-balance approach is used, while 'EF' indicates processes and life cycle stages for which emission factors are used. For example, in manufacturing, the massbalance approach is used to estimate emissions from the filling of gas-insulated switchgear, while emission factors are used to estimate emissions from the filling of bushings, instrument transformers, and circuit breakers. In Germany, the latter processes have emission rates of 1 percent or less, making emissions difficult to measure using mass-balance methods. Note that this diagram is intended to be an example only; when implementing the Tier 3 approach, countries are encouraged to choose approaches and emission factors appropriate to their national circumstances.

Figure 8A.1

Example of Tier 3 approach: Germany, High-Voltage equipment

Figure 8A.1

Legend for Emissions Estimation in HV

Mass Balance Approach

Symbol

Equation

MB I

Development Emissions = Consumption for Developing minus Return from Development Department

MB II

GIS Charging Emissions = Consumption for Charging minus Charge (nameplate capacities); also applicable to Gas insulated Lines (GIL's)

MB m

Operating Emissions I = Annually surveyed topping up by equipment operators

MB IV

Operating Emissions II = Nameplate capacity of decommissioned equipment minus gas recovered from this equipment

Emission Factor (EF) Approach

Symbol

Kind of Emission Factor (EF)

Multiplied by

EF 1

Factory Filling EF Bushings*

NC** of bushings filled in factory

EF 2

Factory Filling EF Outdoor Instrument Transformers (ITs)

NC of ITs filled in factory

EF 3

Factory Filling EF Gas Circuit Breakers (GCBs)

NC of GCBs filled in factory

EF 4

Site Erection EF GIS and GIL

NC of GIS and GIL filled on site

EF 5

Site Erection EF GCBs

NC of GCBs filled on site

EF 6

Site Erection EF Outdoor ITs

NC of Outdoor ITs filled on site

EF 7

Disposal EF

NC of decommissioned equipment

* Bushings are treated as integral parts of GIS as of Site erection.

**NC = Total nameplate capacity of equipment undergoing a given process

* Bushings are treated as integral parts of GIS as of Site erection.

**NC = Total nameplate capacity of equipment undergoing a given process

Figure 8A.2

Example of Tier 3 approach: Germany, Medium-Voltage equipment

Figure 8A.2

Legend for Emissions Estimation in MV

Mass Balance Approach

Symbol

Equation

MB I

Development Emissions = Consumption for Developing minus Return from Development Department*

Emission Factor (EF) Approach

Symbol

Kind of Emission Factor (EF)

Multiplied by

EF 1

Factory Filling EF

NC** filled in factory

EF 2

Site Erection EF

NC*** filled on site

EF 3

Operating EF

NC of operating equipment (total bank from this and previous years)

EF 4

Disposal EF

NC decommissioned

* This mass balance approach also applies to manufacturing of Cast Resin Instrument Transformers (ITs). **NC = Total nameplate capacity of equipment undergoing a given process.

*** In countries where MV equipment is already gas-filled in factories, site erection emissions are negligible.

* This mass balance approach also applies to manufacturing of Cast Resin Instrument Transformers (ITs). **NC = Total nameplate capacity of equipment undergoing a given process.

*** In countries where MV equipment is already gas-filled in factories, site erection emissions are negligible.

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