There is wide range of military applications using PFCs or SF6.5 Military electronics are believed to be an important and growing application of PFC heat transfer fluids, which are valued for their stability and dielectric properties. The fluids are used in ground and airborne radar (klystrons), avionics, missile guidance systems, ECM (Electronic Counter Measures), sonar, amphibious assault vehicles, other surveillance aircraft, lasers, SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), and stealth aircraft. PFCs may also be used to cool electric motors, particularly in applications where noise reduction is valued, e.g., in ships and submarines. The specific PFCs used in these applications are believed to be similar to those identified as heat transfer fluids in electronics manufacturing in Chapter 6. Spray cooling, jet impingement cooling, and pool boiling appear to be the favoured systems for heat removal. In all of these cooling applications, the PFC is contained in a closed system, and neither replacement nor replenishment of the PFC liquid appears to be required. Thus, the greatest opportunities for emissions are the manufacture, maintenance, and, especially, the disposal of the equipment.
SF6 is used in high-performance ground and airborne radar systems in their hollow conductors for transmission of high-frequency energy pulses at high voltages from the klystron. Another application of SF6 is as an oxidant of lithium in Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System (SCEPS), e.g., in naval torpedoes and in infrared decoys (Koch, 2004). Apparently, these applications of SF6, like those of the PFC heat transfer fluids enumerated above, are generally more or less enclosed, but servicing and testing procedures may lead to emission. The use of SF6 for the quieting of torpedo propellers has also been reported (NIST, 1997).
In addition, SF6 may be emitted as a by-product of the processing of nuclear material for the production of fuel and nuclear warheads. SF6 is known to be emitted from neutralising excess fluorine during the production of nuclear fuel for civilian applications (AREVA, 2005).
5 David Harris and James Hildebrandt, "Spray Cooling Electrical and Electronic Equipment," COTS Journal, November 2003; C. Shepherd Burton, "Uses and Air Emissions of Liquid PFC Heat Transfer Fluids from the Electronics Sector," Draft report prepared for Scott C. Bartos, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Although it is believed that the total amounts of SF6 and PFCs consumed and emitted in this sector may be significant, no data on quantities are publicly available so far. Therefore, inventory compilers should try to collect further information from the relevant authorities and, if possible, their suppliers. As noted above, the greatest opportunities for emissions from many of these applications appear to be the manufacture, maintenance, and disposal of the equipment. Thus, if inventory compilers can acquire information on emission rates during the manufacture, maintenance, and disposal of the equipment, along with the quantities of equipment manufactured, in use, and disposed, they can use the Tier 2 or Tier 3 method for electrical equipment to estimate emissions. For applications with different emissions profiles (e.g., prompt emissions), the appropriate equation from Section 8.2 may be used.
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