Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

In addition to the general guidance on QA/QC, specific procedures of relevance to this source category are outlined below.


Comparisons could be made between emissions estimated using different tiers. For example, if a bottom-up approach is used to collect activity data (i.e., collection of plant-specific data), then inventory compilers should compare the emissions estimates to the estimates calculated using national production data for cement or clinker (top-down approach). In cases where a hybrid Tier 1/2 or Tier 2/3 approach is used during a transition period, it is considered good practice also to estimate emissions for all facilities using the lower Tier in order to compare the results of the analysis to the results derived using the hybrid approach. The results of such comparisons should be recorded for internal documentation, including explanations for any discrepancies.


Inventory compilers should compare aggregated national emission factors with the IPCC default factors in order to determine if the national factor is reasonable relative to the IPCC default. Differences between national factors and default factors should be explained and documented, particularly if they are representative of different circumstances.

If the aggregated top-down approach is used, but some limited plant-specific data are available, inventory compilers should compare the site or plant level factors with the aggregated factor used for the national estimate. This will provide an indication of the reasonableness and the representativity of the data.


For site-specific data, inventory compilers should review inconsistencies between sites to establish whether they reflect errors, different measurement techniques, or result from real differences in emissions, operational conditions or technology. For cement production, inventory compilers should compare plant data (content of CaO in clinker, content of clinker in cement) with other plants in the country.

Inventory compilers should ensure that emission factors and activity data are developed in accordance with internationally recognised and proven measurement methods. If the measurement practices fail this criterion, then the use of these emissions or activity data should be carefully evaluated, uncertainty estimates reconsidered and qualifications documented. If there is a high standard of measurement and QA/QC in place at most sites, then the uncertainty of the emissions estimates may be revised downwards.

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