Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice at all primary aluminium production facilities to maintain records of all of the necessary activity data to support calculations of emissions factors as suggested in these guidelines. These records will include production of aluminium, anode effect performance and consumption of carbon materials used in either Prebake or Soderberg cells. In addition, the International Aluminium Institute maintains global summaries of aggregated activity data for these same parameters and regional data are available from regional aluminium associations. It is good practice to aggregate emissions estimates from each smelter to estimate total national emissions. However, if smelter-level production data are unavailable, smelter capacity data may be used along with aggregate national production to estimate smelter production.

It is good practice to verify facility CO2 emission factors per tonne aluminium by comparison with the expected range of variation that would be predicted from the variation noted in Tables 4.10 and 4.11 for carbon dioxide specific emissions. Also, the underlying equation coefficients used for calculating PFC emission factors per tonne aluminium should be compared with those noted in Table 4.15. It is suggested that any inventory value outside the 95 percent confidence range of the data population variance be confirmed with the data source.

Use of standard measurement methods improves the consistency of the resulting data and knowledge of the statistical properties of the data. For primary aluminium, the EPA/IAI Protocol for Measurement of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Emissions from Primary Aluminum Production is the internationally recognized standard (U.S. EPA and IAI, 2003). Inventory compilers should encourage plants to use this method for developing Tier 3 PFC equation coefficients. Significant differences between calculated coefficients based on PFC measurements and the industry average Tier 2 coefficients for similar reduction technology should elicit further review and checks on calculations. Large differences should be explained and documented. An international data set of anode effect performance, which can be used to identify outlier data, is available from the International Aluminium Institute. In addition, an up-to-date database of PFC measurements is also maintained by IAI and should be consulted when assessing the appropriateness of reported data.

Inter-annual changes in emissions of carbon dioxide per tonne aluminium should not exceed +/-10 percent based on the consistency of the underlying processes that produce carbon dioxide. In contrast, inter-annual changes in emissions of PFCs per tonne of aluminium may change by values of up to +/- 100 percent. Increases in PFC specific emissions can result from process instability. Increases in anode effect frequency and duration can be the result of factors such as unanticipated power interruptions, changes in sources of alumina feed materials, cell operational problems, and increases in potline amperage to increase aluminium production. Decreases in PFC specific emissions can result from decreases in anode effect frequency and duration due to changes in the computer algorithms used in cell process control, upgrades in cell technology such as the installation of point feeders, improved work practices and better control of raw materials.

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