Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC Reporting and Documentation

Free Power Secrets

Making Your Own Fuel

Get Instant Access

QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this source category. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA/QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4.

Comparison of emissions estimates using different approaches

Inventory compilers should compare the estimate based on aggregated producer-level data to an estimate based on national production data and the suggested default emission factors. They should investigate significant discrepancies in cooperation with the producers to determine if there are unexplained differences.

REPORTING AND DOCUMENTATION

Confidentiality issues may arise where there are limited numbers of manufacturers. In these cases more aggregate reporting of total national emissions may be necessary. If survey responses cannot be released as public information, third-party review of survey data may be necessary to support data verification efforts.

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national emissions inventory estimates as outlined in Volume 1, Section 6.11. It is not practical to include all documentation in the national inventory report. However, the inventory should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be retraced.

References

Ashford, R.D. (1994). Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals, Wavelength Publications Ltd, London England.

Austin, G.T. (1984). Shreve's Chemical Process Industries, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., USA.

Babusiaux, P. (2005). Note on production of Glyoxal and Glyoxylic acid, Clariant, Lamotte, France.

Bockman, O. and Granli, T. (1994). 'Nitrous oxide from agriculture'. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Supplement No. 12. Norsk Hydro Research Centre, Porsgrunn, Norway.

Bouwman, A.F., van der Hoek, K.W. and Olivier, J.G.J. (1995). 'Uncertainties in the global source distribution of nitrous oxide'. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100:D2, pp. 2785-2800, February 20, 1995.

Burtscher, K. (1999). Personal communication between Kurt Burtscher of Federal Environment Agency of Austria and plant operator of chemical industry in Linz, Austria, 1999.

Chemlink (1997). Website http://www.chemlink.com.au/titanium.htm. Chemlink Pty Ltd ACN 007 034 022. Publications 1997.

Choe J.S., Gook, P.J. and Petrocelli, F.P. (1993). Developing N2O abatement technology for the nitric acid industry. Paper presented at the 1993 ANPSG Conference, Destin, Florida, USA, 6 October, 1993.

Cook, P. (1999). Personal communication between Phillip Cook of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., USA, and Heike Mainhardt of ICF, Inc., USA. March 5, 1999.

Cotton, F.A. and Wilkinson, G. (1988). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th Edition, ISBN 0-471-84997-9. Wiley, New York, USA.

de Beer, J., Phylipsen, D. and Bates, J. (2001). Economic Evaluation of Sectoral Emission Reduction Objectives for Climate Change: Economic Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide Emission Reductions in Industry in the EU - Bottom-up Analysis, Contribution to a Study for DG Environment, European Commission by Ecofys Energy and Environment, AEA Technology Environment and National Technical University of Athens.

Environment Canada (1987). Review of the Canadian Fertiliser Industry and Evaluation of Control Technology, Conservation and Protection Report EPS 2/AG/1.

EFMA (2000a). European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry: Production of Ammonia, Booklet No. 1 of 8, European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Brussels.

EFMA (2000b). European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry: Production of Nitric Acid, Booklet No. 2 of 8, European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Brussels.

EFMA (2000c). European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry: Production of Urea and Urea Ammonium Nitrate, Booklet No. 5 of 8, European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Brussels.

EIPPCB (2004a). European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau, Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals, Ammonia, Acids and Fertilisers Industries, Draft March 2004, European Commission Directorate General JRC, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Spain.

EIPPCB (2004b). European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau, Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals-Solid and Others Industry, Draft August 2004, European Commission Directorate General JRC, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Spain.

Hocking, M. B. (1998). Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control, Academic Press USA.

IPCC (1997). Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories. Houghton J.T., Meira Filho L.G., Lim B., Treanton K., Mamaty I., Bonduki Y., Griggs D.J. Callander B.A. (Eds). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), IPCC/OECD/IEA, Paris, France.

Japan Environment Agency (1995). Study of Emission Factors for N2O from Stationary Sources.

Kirk-Othmer (1999). Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USA.

Lowenheim, F.A. and Moran, M.K. (1975). Faith, Keyes, and Clark's Industrial Chemicals, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USA.

Olivier, J. (1999). Personal communication between Jos Olivier of National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), The Netherlands and Heike Mainhardt of ICF, Inc., USA. February 2, 1999.

Olsen, S.E. (1991). Kalsiumkarbid og CO2, STF34 A91142. SINTEF.

Perez-Ramirez, J., Kapteijn, F., Shoffel, K. and Moulijn, J. A. (2003). 'Formation and control of N2O in nitric acid production: Where do we stand today?', Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 44, pp. 117-131, Elsevier Science B.V.

Raaness, O. (1991). Silisiumkarbid og CO2, STF34 A91134. SINTEF 1991.

Reimer, R.A., Slaten, C.S., Seapan, M., Koch, T.A. and Triner, V.G. (1999). 'Implementation of Technologies for Abatement of N2O Emissions Associated with Adipic Acid Manufacture. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-2), Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 8-10 Sept. 1999, Ed. J. van Ham et al, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 347-358.

Reimer, R., (1999a). Personal communication between Ron Reimer of DuPont, USA and Heike Mainhardt of ICF, Inc., USA. February 8, 1999.

Reimer, R., (1999b). Personal communication between Ron Reimer of DuPont, USA and Heike Mainhardt of ICF, Inc., USA. May 19, 1999.

Reimschuessel, H. K. (1977). 'Nylon 6 Chemistry and Mechanisms', Journal of Polymer Science: Macromolecular Reviews, Vol. 12, 65-139, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Scott, A. (1998). 'The winners and losers of N2O emission control'. Chemical Week, February 18, 1998.

Thiemens, M.H. and Trogler, W.C. (1991). 'Nylon production; an unknown source of atmospheric nitrous oxide'. Science, 251, pp. 932-934.

U.S. EPA (1985). Criteria Pollutant Emissions Factors. Volume 1, Stationary Point and Area Sources. AP-42 4th Edition (and Supplements A and B). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

van Balken, J.A.M. (2005). Personal communication from J.A.M. van Balken (European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association).

SECTION 3.9

AGO (2005). Australian Methodology for the Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks 2003: Industrial Processes, Australian Government, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Greenhouse Gas Office, 2005, Table 4, Page 18.

BASF (2006). Personal Communication from Silke Schmidt, BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwidshafen, Germany to Robert Lanza, ICF Consulting, Inc., Washington, DC, USA, January 9, 2006.

Boustead, I. (1999). Eco-Profiles of Plastics and Related Intermediates, published by APME, Brussels, 1999.

Boustead, I. (2003a). Eco-Profiles of the European Plastics Industry: Olefins. A Report for the European Association of Plastics Manufacturers (APME), Brussels, July 2003, Table 7, Page 9. http://www.apme.org/dashboard/business_layer/template.asp?url=http://www.apme.org/media/public_do cuments/20030820_114355/olefinsreport_july2003.pdf&title=Microsoft+Word+%2D+olefins%2Edoc&k euze1=&keuze2=&keuze3=&invulstrook=olefin+AND+eco%2Dprofile

Boustead, I. (2003b). Eco-Profiles of the European Plastics Industry, Methodology: A Report for APME, Brussels, July 2003. http://www.apme.org/media/public_documents/20010817_141031/method.pdf

Boustead, I. (2005). ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE: A report by I Boustead for The European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM) & PlasticsEurope, March 2005.

DOE (2000). Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical Industry, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies, May 2000, Section 3.1.4, Page 92.

DSM (2002). DSM Responsible Care Progress Report 2001; Safety, Health and Environmental Management at DSM, 2002

EEA (2005). EMEP/CORINAIR. Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2005, European Environment Agency, Technical report No 30. Copenhagen, Denmark, (December 2005). Available from web site see: http ://reports.eea.eu.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/en

European IPPC Bureau (2005). Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals (LVIC) - Solid and Others Industry, EK/EIPPCB/LVIC-S_Draft_2, Draft, June 2005. http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm

European IPPC Bureau (2003). Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Organic Chemical (LVOC) Industry, February 2003. http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm

FgH-ISI (1999). Fraunhofer-Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung. C-Ströme Abschätzung der Material -Energie und CO2 Ströme für Modellsysteme in Zuzammenhang mit dem nichenergetishen Verbrauch, orientiert am Lebensweg - Stand und Szenarienbetractthung, Karlsrue, 1999. Cited in Neelis, M; Patel, M; de Feber, M; 2003. Improvement of CO2 Emissions Estimates from the Non-energy Use of Fossil Fuels in the Netherlands. Report Number NW&S-E-2003-10, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, Utrecht, The Netherlands, April 2003

Hinderink, et al. (1996). Exergy Analysis with Flowsheeting Simulator - II Application Synthesis Gas Production from Natural Gas, Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 51, No. 20, Page 4701-4715, 1996. Cited in Neelis, M; Patel, M; de Feber, M; 2003. Improvement of CO2 Emissions Estimates from the Non-energy Use of Fossil Fuels in the Netherlands. Report Number NW&S-E-2003-10, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, Utrecht, The Netherlands, April 2003

Houdek, J.M., Andersen, J. (2005). "On Purpose" Propylene - Technology Developments, UOP LLC. Presented at the ARTC 8th Annual Meeting, Kuala Lumpur, April 29, 2005, Figure 1, Page 3 and Page 4.

Kirk Othmer (1992). Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition, Volume 4, 1992. Carbon Black. Page 1054.

Lurgi (2004a). Lurgi Mega Methanol. Lurgi Oel-Gas-Chemie

Lurgi (2004b). Integrated Low Pressure Methanol Process: Synthesis Gas Production by Combined Reforming of Natural Gas or Oil Associated Gas. Lurgi Oel-Gas-Chemie. http://www.lurgi-oel.de/lurgi_oel/english/nbsp/main/info/methanol_combined_reforming.pdf

Lurgi (2004c). Integrated Low Pressure Methanol Process: Synthesis Gas Production by Conventional Steam Reforming of Natural Gas or Oil Associated Gas. Lurgi Oel-Gas-Chemie. http://www.lurgi-oel.de/lurgi_oel/english/nbsp/main/info/methanol_conventional_reforming.pdf

Methanex (1996). Methanex Corporation Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program Action Plan, September 1996. http://www.vcr-mvr.ca/registry/out/C969-METHANEX-W52.PDF

Methanex (2003). Global Environmental Excellence Report 2002, Methanex Corporation, 2003

Neelis, M., Patel, M. and de Feber, M. (2003). Improvement of CO2 Emissions Estimates from the Non-energy Use of Fossil Fuels in the Netherlands, Report Number NW&S-E-2003-10, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, Utrecht, The Netherlands, April 2003.

Qenos (2003). Annual Report on Manufacturing Operations at Qenos Olefins, Plastics, Resins, and Elastomers Sites to Altona Complex Neighborhood Consultative Group, April 2003, Qenos Pty. Ltd.

Qenos (2005). 2004 Annual Report on Manufacturing Operations at Qenos Olefins, Plastics, Resins, and Elastomers Sites to Altona Complex Neighborhood Consultative Group, April 2005, Qenos Pty. Ltd.

SFT (2003a). Self-reporting of emissions to the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority based on direct measurements at Statoil Tjeldbergodden Methanol Plant. (In Norwegian).

SFT (2003b). Self-reporting of emissions to the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority based on direct measurements at Nordetyl ethylene Plant. (In Norwegian).

Struker, A. and Blok, K. (1995). Sectorstudie organische chemie, National Energy Efficiency Data Informatie Systeem (NEEDIS), Patten, December 1995. Cited in Neelis, M; Patel, M; de Feber, M; 2003. Improvement of CO2 Emissions Estimates from the Non-energy Use of Fossil Fuels in the Netherlands, Report Number NW&S-E-2003-10, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, Utrecht, The Netherlands, April 2003

SECTION 3.10.1

Defra (2002a). Protocol C1: Measurement of HFCs and PFCs from the Manufacture of HF, CTF, HCFC-22, HFC-125 and HFC-134a, in Guidelines for the Measurement and Reporting of Emissions by Direct Participants in the UK Emissions Trading Scheme, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Report No. UKETS(01)05rev1, Defra, London, 2002.

Defra (2002b). Protocol C9: Measurement of HFCs and PFCs from Chemical Process Operations, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, as above, London, 2002.

EFCTC (2003). Protocol for the Measurement of HFC and PFC Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Chemical Process Operations, Standard Methodology, European Fluorocarbon Technical Committee, Cefic, Brussels, 2003.

IPCC (1997). Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories. Houghton J.T., Meira Filho L.G., Lim B., Tréanton K., Mamaty I., Bonduki Y., Griggs D.J. Callander B.A. (Eds). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), IPCC/OECD/IEA, Paris, France.

IPCC (2000). Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Penman J., Kruger D., Galbally I., Hiraishi T., Nyenzi B., Emmanuel S., Buendia L., Hoppaus R., Martinsen T., Meijer J., Miwa K., Tanabe K. (Eds). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), IPCC/OECD/IEA/IGES, Hayama, Japan.

McCulloch A. (1992). Global Production and Emissions of Bromochlorodifluoromethane and Bromotrifluoromethane (Halons 1211 and 1301), Atmos. Environ., 26A(7), 1325-1329.

Oram D.E., Sturges, W.T., Penkett, S.A., McCulloch, A. and Fraser, P.J. (1998). Growth of fluoroform (CHF3, HFC-23) in the background atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(1), 35-38.

RTI, Cadmus, (1998). 'Performance Standards for Determining Emissions of HFC-23 from the Production of HCFC-22', draft final report prepared for USEPA, February 1998.

UN (2004). Approved baseline methodology, 'Incineration of HFC 23 waste streams', AM0001/Version 02, CDM - Executive Board, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 7 April 2004

U.S. EPA (2001). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Report No. EPA 236-R-01-001, Washington, U.S.A., 2001.

SECTION 3.10.2

AFEAS (2004). Production, Sales and Estimated Atmospheric Emissions of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs, Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study, Arlington, U.S.A., 2004. Available at

Preisegger, E. (1999). Statement on experiences of Solvay Fluor und Derivate GmbH, Hannover, Germany regarding an emission factor at the IPCC expert group meeting on Good practice in Inventory Preparation, Washington D.C. Jan, 1999.

Suizu, T. (1999). Partnership activities for SF6 gas emission reduction from gas insulated electrical equipment in Japan. Proc. Joint IPCC/TEAP Expert Meeting on Options for the Limitation of Emissions of HFCs and PFCs, Petten, Netherlands, 26-28 May 1999. ECN, Petten.

UNFCCC (2005). Belgium's Greenhouse Gas Inventory (1990-2003), National Inventory Report 2005, submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, April 2005.

http://unfccc.int/national_reports/annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/2761. php.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment