In these Guidelines, the CO2 capture and geological storage chain is subdivided into four systems (Figure 5.1)

1. Capture and compression system. The systems boundary includes capture, compression and, where necessary, conditioning, for transport.

2. Transport system. Pipelines and ships are considered the most likely means of large-scale CO2 transport. The upstream systems boundary is the outlet of the compression / conditioning plant in the capture and compression system. The downstream systems boundary is the downstream end of a transport pipeline, or a ship offloading facility. It should be noted that there may be compressor stations located along the pipeline system, which would be additional to any compression in System 1 or System 3.

3. Injection system. The injection system comprises surface facilities at the injection site, e.g. storage facilities, distribution manifold at end of transport pipeline, distribution pipelines to wells, additional compression facilities, measurement and control systems, wellhead(s) and the injection wells. The upstream systems boundary is the downstream end of transport pipeline, or ship offloading facility. The downstream systems boundary is the geological storage reservoir.

4. Storage system. The storage system comprises the geological storage reservoir.

1 Examples of large point sources of CO2 where capture is possible include power generation, iron and steel manufacturing, natural gas processing, cement manufacture, ammonia production, hydrogen production and ethanol manufacturing plants.

Figure 5.1 Schematic representation of the carbon capture and storage process with numbering linked to systems discussion above.

Plant power plant, industrial process

CO2 Capture





Intermediate Storage


Intermediate Storage

2 Pipeline Transport

Intermediate Storage

Possible Emissions (emission values linked to Table 5.1)

This chapter does not include guidance for CO2 capture and compression. A brief summary and information on where to find emissions estimation guidelines for CO2 capture and compression can be found in Section 5.3. Guidelines for compiling inventories of emissions from the CO2 transport, injection and storage systems of the CCGS chain are given in Sections 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 of this Chapter, respectively. Fugitive emissions from surface facilities at EOR, EGR and ECBM site (with or without CO2 storage) are classified as oil and gas operations and Volume 2, Chapter 4 provides guidance on estimating these emissions. Emissions from underground storage reservoirs at EOR, EGR and ECBM sites are classified as emissions from geological storage sites and Section 5.7 of this Chapter provides guidance on estimating these emissions.

Table 5.1 shows the categories in which the emissions from the CO2 transport, injection and storage systems are reported.

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