Methodological issues 7621 Choice of method

As with the refrigeration and air conditioning application, the fire protection application offers the possibility of using both Approach A (emission-factor approach) and Approach B (mass-balance approach). The latter is justified by the fact that a considerable proportion of net consumption is likely to be targeted at equipment servicing rather than new equipment. However, the fire protection application differs from the refrigeration and air conditioning application in that the sub-applications are less numerous and more homogeneous. This means that the Tier 1a or Tier 1b method may be sufficient to provide appropriate emissions reporting, although, to be strictly correct, the inclusion of end-of-life considerations would normally warrant a Tier 2 approach.

However, as with both foam and refrigeration/air conditioning, it is necessary in the fire protection application to deal with the development and tracking of banks. This means that an historical time series of country-specific or globally or regionally derived activity data is required dating back to the introduction of any new HFC or PFC.

Since HFCs and PFCs in fire protection are emitted over a period longer than one year, countries need to represent emissions from equipment charged during previous years. Choosing an annual production-based emission factor to reflect a multi-year emission process can lead to considerable error and is not considered good practice.

Equation 7.17 indicates how the approach should be modified to consider the time dependence of the emissions and to consider what activity data could most likely be made available.

Equation 7.17

Time dependence of emissions from fire protection equipment

Bankt and

Bank t = Production i+ Imports.\ - Exports.\ - Destruction - Emissions.\_j)- RRLt i=t0

Where:

Emissionst = emissions of agent from fire protection equipment in year t, tonnes Bankt = bank of agent in fire protection equipment in year t, tonnes

EF = fraction of agent in equipment emitted each year (excluding emissions from retired equipment or otherwise removed from service), dimensionless

RRLt = Recovery Release or Loss: emissions of agent during recovery, recycling or disposal at the time of removal from use of existing fire protection equipment in year t, tonnes

Productiont = amount of newly supplied agent (i.e., excluding recycled agent) in fire protection equipment produced in year t, tonnes

Importst = amount of agent in fire protection equipment imported in year t, tonnes

Exportst = amount of agent in fire protection equipment exported in year t, tonnes

Destructiont = amount of agent from retired fire protection equipment that is collected and destroyed, tonnes t = year for which emissions are being estimated (e.g., 2006, 2007, etc.) t0 = first year of chemical production and/or use i = counter from first year of chemical production and/or use t0 to current year t

It is good practice to apply Equation 7.17 to each individual greenhouse gas used in fire protection equipment. The calculation of the emissions must be performed for each year and applied to the next year's calculation.

With this background in mind, the decision tree for the fire protection application as set out in Figure 7.9 becomes very straight-forward.

As with Tier 1 methods adopted in both foams and refrigeration and air conditioning, it is possible to create a simple spreadsheet that accounts for the development of banks and the subsequent emissions from them. The following spreadsheet extract provides an example:

Figure 7.8

Example of spreadsheet calculation for Tier 1 method

Tier 1 FIRE PROTECTION Austria - HFC-227ea

Figure 7.8

Tier 1 FIRE PROTECTION Austria - HFC-227ea

Total new agent to domestic market

Year of Introduction of HFC-227ea Growth Rate in New Equipment Sales

Year of Introduction of HFC-227ea Growth Rate in New Equipment Sales

Tier 1 Defaults

Assumed Equipment Lifetime (years) Emission Factor from installed base % of HFC-227ea destroyed at End-of-Life

15

4%

Country: Austria Agent: HFC-227ea Year: 2005

Emission: 27.1 tonnes

In Bank: 678.4 tonnes

Current Year

2005I

30

Data

Used

25

Use in current year - 2005 (tonnes)

Here

Production of HFC-227ea

120

20

Imports in current Year

80

Exports in current year

24

15

Total new agent to domestic market

In Bank: 678.4 tonnes

2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014

Estimated data for earlier years

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Production

0

0

12

25

39

53

69

85

102

120

Agent in Exports

0

0

2

5

8

11

14

17

20

24

Agent in Imports

0

0

8

17

26

36

46

57

68

80

Total New Agent in Domestic Equipment

0

0

18

37

57

78

101

124

150

176

Agent in Retired Equipment

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Destruction of agent in retired equipment

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Release of agent from retired equipment

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bank

0

0

18

54

109

183

276

389

523

678

Emission

0

0

1

2

4

7

11

16

21

27

It is intended that such a spreadsheet facilitates the calculation for the Fire Protection application, supported, where necessary, by activity data from an appropriate globally or regionally derived dataset23.

23 As noted in Box 7.1, inclusion in the IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB) will indicate general adherence to due process, but it is good practice for countries to ensure that all data taken from the EFDB are appropriate for their national circumstances.

Figure 7.9 Decision tree for actual emissions from the fire protection application

Figure 7.9 Decision tree for actual emissions from the fire protection application

Box 1: Tier 1b

Note:

1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees.

Box 1: Tier 1b

Note:

1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees.

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