Land Being Converted for Peat Extraction

Equation 7.8

CO2 -C EMISSIONS IN PEATLAND BEING DRAINED FOR PEAT EXTRACTION

}2 -CLWpeat on-sie =[~ACWW j + [~ACWW j + CO2 -°LWpeat _ drain

LWpeat _ drainage

Where:

CO2-CLWpeat_on-site = CO2-C emissions from land being converted for peat extraction, Gg C yr-ACwwpeat b = CO2-C emissions from change in carbon stocks in living biomass, Gg C yr-1 ACWWpeatDOM = CO2-C emissions from change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter pool, Gg C yr" CO2-CLWpeat drainage = CO2-C emissions from soils during drainage, Gg C yr-1

CHOICE OF METHOD Tier 2

None of the procedures for estimating these quantities is unique to this category, except for emissions from soils during drainage. If pre-clearing standing vegetation is Forest Land or Grassland, the estimation procedures for emissions from the living biomass from the conversion of Forest Land or Grassland to Cropland is discussed in Chapter 5, Section 5.3. Where fires are used to clear vegetation, emissions of non-CO2 gases, i.e., CH4 and N2O will also occur. These emissions can be estimated following guidance also provided in Chapter 2. Biomass burning and decay of unburned biomass and dead organic matter can be estimated, if country-specific emission factors are available. The areas of land being drained can be broken down according to peat fertility, peat type, and previous land-use or land cover. Countries may be able to refine emission factors accordingly.

Equation 7.9 provides the general approach to estimate emissions from soil during drainage. Conceptually, it is the same as Equation 7.6 used to determined CO2-C WW peat . for managed peatlands.

Equation 7.9

CO2 -C EMISSIONS FROM SOILS IN PEATLAND BEING DRAINED FOR PEAT EXTRACTION

x^drained peatRich • EFCÜ2drained peatRkh / + / \

v drained peatPoo^ CÜ2drained peatPoor J

1000

CO2-CLW peat _drainage = CO2-C emissions from soils on lands converted for peat extraction, Gg C yr-1

Adrained

Where:

CO2-CLW peat _drainage = CO2-C emissions from soils on lands converted for peat extraction, Gg C yr-1

Adrained peatRich = area of nutrient-rich peat soils being ha

Adrained peatPoor = area of nutrient-poor peat soils being drained, ha

EFCo2drained peatRi h = emission factors for CO2-C from nutrient-rich peat soils being drained, tonnes C ha-1

yr-1 ic

EFCO drained peat = emission factors for CO2-C from nutrient-poor peat soils being drained, tonnes C ha-1

yr-1 oor

Tier 3

Tier 3 methods involve a comprehensive understanding and representation of the dynamics of CO2 emissions and removals on Land Being Converted for Peat Extraction, including the effect of peat type and fertility, site characteristics such as blanket or raised bogs, and previous land-use or land cover if relevant, which could be combined with appropriate emission factors and/or process-based models. The methodology includes the fate of C in all pools, C transfers between pools upon conversion (e.g., biomass to dead organic matter), and distinguishes immediate and delayed emissions. Estimates based on changes in stocks should be corrected for carbon losses due to the leaching of dissolved organic carbon, losses of dead organic matter through runoff, or as CH4 emissions.

CHOICE OF EMISSION/REMOVAL FACTORS Tier 2

Countries applying Tier 2 methods will develop country-specific emission factors EFCo2drained peatRich and EFCO2 drained peatPoor to differentiate emission rates during land conversion, from the ongoing emissions during the peat extraction phase. It may be possible to differentiate emission factors further by type of peat, its fertility, and drainage depth, previous land use or land cover, and climatic zones.

Tier 3

Under Tier 3, all parameters should be country-specific. The literature is sparse and it is good practice to derive country-specific emission factors and data should be shared between countries with similar environmental conditions.

CHOICE OF ACTIVITY DATA Tier 2

The basic activity data required are the area of organic soils converted for peat extraction and disaggregated by nutrient status (or fertility). Possible sources of area data are peat extraction firms, peat industry associations, and government ministries responsible for land information. Under Tier 2, countries can also incorporate information based on the original land use, peat type and peat fertility of the lands being converted. This information could be gathered from regular updates of the national peatland inventory.

Tier 3

Under Tier 3, detailed information on the original land use, peat type, and peat fertility of areas converted for peat extraction, is needed. More specific data needs may be defined depending on the estimation procedures.

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