Equation 11.1

Direct N2O emissions from managed soils (Tier 1)

N20Direct-N — N 20 -NNinputs

N2O-N0S

+ N20-NPRP

N20-NNinputs

Where:

OS,CG,Temp * EF2CG,Temp

OS,F,Temp,NR * EF2F,Temp,NR

PRP,CPP * EF3PRP, CPP

Where:

= annual direct N2O-N emissions produced from managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-= annual direct N2O-N emissions from N inputs to managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-1 = annual direct N2O-N emissions from managed organic soils, kg N2O-N yr-1 = annual direct N2O-N emissions from urine and dung inputs to grazed soils, kg

n2o-nn Inputs

N2O-NPRP

N2O-N yr"1

Fsn = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils, kg N yr"1

Fon = annual amount of animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils (Note: If including sewage sludge, cross-check with Waste sector to ensure there is no double counting of N2O emissions from the N in sewage sludge), kg N yr"1

Fcr = annual amount of N in crop residues (above-ground and below-ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils, kg N yr-1

Fsom = annual amount of N in mineral soils that is mineralised, in association with loss of soil C from soil organic matter as a result of changes to land use or management, kg N yr-1

FOS = annual area of managed/drained organic soils, ha (Note: the subscripts CG, F, Temp, Trop, NR and NP refer to Cropland and Grassland, Forest Land, Temperate, Tropical, Nutrient Rich, and Nutrient Poor, respectively)

Fprp = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock, kg N yr-1 (Note: the subscripts CPP and SO refer to Cattle, Poultry and Pigs, and Sheep and Other animals, respectively)

EF1 = emission factor for N2O emissions from N inputs, kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1 (Table 11.1)

EF1FR = emission factor for N2O emissions from N inputs to flooded rice, kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1 (Table ii.i)

EF2 = emission factor for N2O emissions from drained/managed organic soils, kg N2O-N ha- yr- ; (Table 11.1) (Note: the subscripts CG, F, Temp, Trop, NR and NP refer to Cropland and Grassland, Forest Land, Temperate, Tropical, Nutrient Rich, and Nutrient Poor, respectively)

EF3PRP = emission factor for N2O emissions from urine and dung N deposited on pasture, range and paddock by grazing animals, kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1; (Table 11.1) (Note: the subscripts CPP and SO refer to Cattle, Poultry and Pigs, and Sheep and Other animals, respectively)

Equation 11.2 Direct N2O emissions from managed soils (Tier 2)

N2ÜDmct-N = £ (fsn + fon ) • EFU + (fcr + fSom ) • EFX + N2O-Nos + N2O-NPRP i

Where:

EFi; = emission factors developed for N2O emissions from synthetic fertiliser and organic N application under conditions i (kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1); i = 1, .. .n.

Equation 11.3 N FROM ORGANIC N ADDITIONS APPLIED TO SOILS (TIER 1)

Where:

Fon = total annual amount of organic N fertiliser applied to soils other than by grazing animals, kg N yr-1

Fam = annual amount of animal manure N applied to soils, kg N yr-1

Fsew = annual amount of total sewage N (coordinate with Waste sector to ensure that sewage N is not double-counted) that is applied to soils, kg N yr-1

Fcomp = annual amount of total compost N applied to soils (ensure that manure N in compost is not double-counted), kg N yr-1

Fooa = annual amount of other organic amendments used as fertiliser (e.g., rendering waste, guano, brewery waste, etc.), kg N yr-1

Equation 11.4 N FROM ANIMAL MANURE APPLIED TO SOILS (TIER 1)

FAM = NMMSAvb • 1 - {FraCFEED + FraCFUEL + FraCCNST )J

Where:

Fam = annual amount of animal manure N applied to soils, kg N yr-1

NMMS_Avb = amount of managed manure N available for soil application, feed, fuel or construction, kg N yr-1 (see Equation 10.34 in Chapter 10)

FracFEED = fraction of managed manure used for feed

FracFUEL = fraction of managed manure used for fuel

FracCNST = fraction of managed manure used for construction

Equation 11.5

N IN URINE AND DUNG DEPOSITED BY GRAZING ANIMALS ON PASTURE, RANGE AND PADDOCK

Where:

Fprp = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited on pasture, range, paddock and by grazing animals, kg N yr-1

N(T) = number of head of livestock species/category T in the country (see Chapter 10, Section 10.2)

NeX(T) = annual average N excretion per head of species/category T in the country, kg N animal-1 yr-1 (see Chapter 10, Section 10.5)

MS(T,prp) = fraction of total annual N excretion for each livestock species/category T that is deposited on pasture, range and paddock (see Chapter 10, Section 10.5)

Equation 11.6

N FROM CROP RESIDUES AND FORAGE/PASTURE RENEWAL (TIER 1)

\Crop(T) • (Area(J) - Areaburnt(J) • Cf )• FracRenew(T) •!

G(T) • NAG(T) • ( - FraCRemove(T) )+ RBG(T) • NBG(T) ] J

FCR =Z1

Where:

FCR = annual amount of N in crop residues (above and below ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils annually, kg N yr-1

Crop(rj = harvested annual dry matter yield for crop T, kg d.m. ha-1

Area(rj = total annual area harvested of crop T, ha yr-1

Area burnt (T = annual area of crop T burnt, ha yr-1

Cf = combustion factor (dimensionless) (refer to Chapter 2, Table 2.6)

FracRenew (T) = fraction of total area under crop T that is renewed annually. For countries where pastures are renewed on average every X years, FracRenew = 1/X. For annual crops FracRenew = 1

RAG(T = ratio of above-ground residues dry matter (AGDM(T)) to harvested yield for crop T (Crop^), kg d.m. (kg d.m.)-1,

= AGDM(T) • 1000 / Crop(T) (calculating AGDM(T) from the information in Table 11.2)

NAG(7*) = N content of above-ground residues for crop T, kg N (kg d.m. ) -1, (Table 11.2)

FracRemove(T) = fraction of above-ground residues of crop T removed annually for purposes such as feed, bedding and construction, kg N (kg crop-N)-1. Survey of experts in country is required to obtain data. If data for FracRemove are not available, assume no removal.

RBG(r) = ratio of below-ground residues to harvested yield for crop T, kg d.m. (kg d.m.)-1. If alternative data are not available, RBG(t may be calculated by multiplying RBG-BIO in Table 11.2 by the ratio of total above-ground biomass to crop yield ( = [(AGDM(T) • 1000 + Crop^) / Crop^], (also calculating AGDM(T) from the information in Table 11.2).

NBG(d = N content of below-ground residues for crop T, kg N (kg d.m. )-1, (Table 11.2)

T = crop or forage type

Equation 11.7 Dry-weight correction of reported crop yields

Where:

Crop(T) = harvested dry matter yield for crop T, kg d.m. ha-1 Yield_Fresh(T) = harvested fresh yield for crop T, kg fresh weight ha-1 DRY = dry matter fraction of harvested crop T, kg d.m. (kg fresh weight)-1

Equation 11.7A Alternative approach to estimate Fcr (using Table 11.2)

F _t-MGdm(T) *(Area(T) -Areaburntp) • CF)• FmcRenew(T) •]

CR T jj[AG(T) •i1 - FraCRemove(T) )+ RBG-BIO(T) • NBG(T) ] J

Where:

Fcr = annual amount of N in crop residues (above and below ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils annually, kg N yr-1

Equation 11.8

N MINERALISED IN MINERAL SOILS AS A RESULT OF LOSS OF SOIL C THROUGH CHANGE IN LAND

USE OR MANAGEMENT (TIERS 1 AND 2)

Mineral, LU

Where:

Fsom = the net annual amount of N mineralised in mineral soils as a result of loss of soil carbon through change in land use or management, kg N

ACMmeral, LU = average annual loss of soil carbon for each land-use type (LU ), tonnes C (Note: for Tier 1, ACmineral, lu will have a single value for all land-uses and management systems. Using Tier 2 the value for ACmmeral, LU will be disaggregated by individual land-use and/or management systems.

R = C:N ratio of the soil organic matter. A default value of 15 (uncertainty range from 10 to 30) for the C:N ratio (R) may be used for situations involving land-use change from Forest Land or Grassland to Cropland, in the absence of more specific data for the area. A default value of 10 (range from 8 to 15) may be used for situations involving management changes on Cropland Remaining Cropland. C:N ratio can change over time, land use, or management practice. If countries can document changes in C:N ratio, then different values can be used over the time series, land use, or management practice.

LU = land-use and/or management system type

Equation 11.9

N2O from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils (Tier 1)

N2O(ATD)-N = [(FSN • FracGASF ) + ((FON + FPRP ) • FracGASM )] • EF4

Where:

N20(ATd)-N = annual amount of N2O-N produced from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-1

Fsn = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils, kg N yr-1

FracGASF = fraction of synthetic fertiliser N that volatilises as NH3 and NOx, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied)-1 (Table 11.3)

FON = annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils, kg N yr-1

Fprp = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock, kg N yr-1

FracGASM = fraction of applied organic N fertiliser materials (FON) and of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals (FPRP) that volatilises as NH3 and NOx, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied or deposited)-1 (Table 11.3)

EF4 = emission factor for N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of N on soils and water surfaces, [kg N-N2O (kg NH3-N + NOx-N volatilised)-1] (Table 11.3)

Equation 11.10

N2O from N leaching/runoff from managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs (Tier 1)

N2O( l) -N = (FSN + FON + FPRP + FCR + FSOM )• FraCLEACH-(H)

Where:

N2O(L)-N = annual amount of N2O-N produced from leaching and runoff of N additions to managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N2O-N yr-1

Fsn = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg

Fon = annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1

Fprp= annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1 (from Equation 11.5)

Fcr = amount of N in crop residues (above- and below-ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils annually in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1

Fsom = annual amount of N mineralised in mineral soils associated with loss of soil C from soil organic matter as a result of changes to land use or management in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1 (from Equation 11.8)

FracLEACH-(H) = fraction of all N added to/mineralised in managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs that is lost through leaching and runoff, kg N (kg of N additions)-1 (Table 11.3)

EF5 = emission factor for N2O emissions from N leaching and runoff, kg N2O-N (kg N leached and runoff)-1 (Table 11.3)

Equation 11.11

N2O from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils (Tier 2)

N2O(ATD)-N = \ Z i^SNi • FracGAsPi )+[ + FPRP ) • FraCGASM ] r • EF4

Where:

N2O(ATD)-N = annual amount of N2O-N produced from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-1

FSNi = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils under different conditions i, kg N yr-1

FracGASFi = fraction of synthetic fertiliser N that volatilises as NH3 and NOx under different conditions i, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied)-1

FON = annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils, kg N yr-1

FPRP = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock, kg N yr-1

FracGASM = fraction of applied organic N fertiliser materials (FON) and of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals (FPRP) that volatilises as NH3 and NOx, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied or deposited)-1 (Table 11.3)

EF4 = emission factor for N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of N on soils and water surfaces, [kg N-N2O (kg NH3-N + NOx-N volatilised)-1] (Table 11.3)

Equation 11.12 Annual CO2 emissions from lime application

C02-C Emission = (MLlmestone • EFLlmestone ) + (MDolomlte • EFDolomlte)

Where:

CO2-C Emission = annual C emissions from lime application, tonnes C yr-1 M = annual amount of calcic limestone (CaCO3) or dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), tonnes yr-1 EF = emission factor, tonne of C (tonne of limestone or dolomite) -1

Where:

CO2-C Emission = annual C emissions from urea application, tonnes C yr-1 M = annual amount of urea fertilisation, tonnes urea yr-1 EF = emission factor, tonne of C (tonne of urea)-1

Was this article helpful?

Thousands Have Used Chemicals To Improve Their Medical Condition. This Book Is one Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Chemicals. Not All Chemicals Are Harmful For Your Body – Find Out Those That Helps To Maintain Your Health.

## Post a comment