Equations For N2o And Other Co2 Emissions From Managed Soils

Equation 11.1

Direct N2O emissions from managed soils (Tier 1)

N20Direct-N — N 20 -NNinputs

N2O-N0S

+ N20-NPRP

N20-NNinputs

Where:

OS,CG,Temp * EF2CG,Temp

OS,F,Temp,NR * EF2F,Temp,NR

PRP,CPP * EF3PRP, CPP

Where:

= annual direct N2O-N emissions produced from managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-= annual direct N2O-N emissions from N inputs to managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-1 = annual direct N2O-N emissions from managed organic soils, kg N2O-N yr-1 = annual direct N2O-N emissions from urine and dung inputs to grazed soils, kg

n2o-nn Inputs

N2O-NPRP

N2O-N yr"1

Fsn = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils, kg N yr"1

Fon = annual amount of animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils (Note: If including sewage sludge, cross-check with Waste sector to ensure there is no double counting of N2O emissions from the N in sewage sludge), kg N yr"1

Fcr = annual amount of N in crop residues (above-ground and below-ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils, kg N yr-1

Fsom = annual amount of N in mineral soils that is mineralised, in association with loss of soil C from soil organic matter as a result of changes to land use or management, kg N yr-1

FOS = annual area of managed/drained organic soils, ha (Note: the subscripts CG, F, Temp, Trop, NR and NP refer to Cropland and Grassland, Forest Land, Temperate, Tropical, Nutrient Rich, and Nutrient Poor, respectively)

Fprp = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock, kg N yr-1 (Note: the subscripts CPP and SO refer to Cattle, Poultry and Pigs, and Sheep and Other animals, respectively)

EF1 = emission factor for N2O emissions from N inputs, kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1 (Table 11.1)

EF1FR = emission factor for N2O emissions from N inputs to flooded rice, kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1 (Table ii.i)

EF2 = emission factor for N2O emissions from drained/managed organic soils, kg N2O-N ha- yr- ; (Table 11.1) (Note: the subscripts CG, F, Temp, Trop, NR and NP refer to Cropland and Grassland, Forest Land, Temperate, Tropical, Nutrient Rich, and Nutrient Poor, respectively)

EF3PRP = emission factor for N2O emissions from urine and dung N deposited on pasture, range and paddock by grazing animals, kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1; (Table 11.1) (Note: the subscripts CPP and SO refer to Cattle, Poultry and Pigs, and Sheep and Other animals, respectively)

Equation 11.2 Direct N2O emissions from managed soils (Tier 2)

N2ÜDmct-N = £ (fsn + fon ) • EFU + (fcr + fSom ) • EFX + N2O-Nos + N2O-NPRP i

Where:

EFi; = emission factors developed for N2O emissions from synthetic fertiliser and organic N application under conditions i (kg N2O-N (kg N input)-1); i = 1, .. .n.

Equation 11.3 N FROM ORGANIC N ADDITIONS APPLIED TO SOILS (TIER 1)

Where:

Fon = total annual amount of organic N fertiliser applied to soils other than by grazing animals, kg N yr-1

Fam = annual amount of animal manure N applied to soils, kg N yr-1

Fsew = annual amount of total sewage N (coordinate with Waste sector to ensure that sewage N is not double-counted) that is applied to soils, kg N yr-1

Fcomp = annual amount of total compost N applied to soils (ensure that manure N in compost is not double-counted), kg N yr-1

Fooa = annual amount of other organic amendments used as fertiliser (e.g., rendering waste, guano, brewery waste, etc.), kg N yr-1

Equation 11.4 N FROM ANIMAL MANURE APPLIED TO SOILS (TIER 1)

FAM = NMMSAvb • 1 - {FraCFEED + FraCFUEL + FraCCNST )J

Where:

Fam = annual amount of animal manure N applied to soils, kg N yr-1

NMMS_Avb = amount of managed manure N available for soil application, feed, fuel or construction, kg N yr-1 (see Equation 10.34 in Chapter 10)

FracFEED = fraction of managed manure used for feed

FracFUEL = fraction of managed manure used for fuel

FracCNST = fraction of managed manure used for construction

Equation 11.5

N IN URINE AND DUNG DEPOSITED BY GRAZING ANIMALS ON PASTURE, RANGE AND PADDOCK

Where:

Fprp = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited on pasture, range, paddock and by grazing animals, kg N yr-1

N(T) = number of head of livestock species/category T in the country (see Chapter 10, Section 10.2)

NeX(T) = annual average N excretion per head of species/category T in the country, kg N animal-1 yr-1 (see Chapter 10, Section 10.5)

MS(T,prp) = fraction of total annual N excretion for each livestock species/category T that is deposited on pasture, range and paddock (see Chapter 10, Section 10.5)

Equation 11.6

N FROM CROP RESIDUES AND FORAGE/PASTURE RENEWAL (TIER 1)

\Crop(T) • (Area(J) - Areaburnt(J) • Cf )• FracRenew(T) •!

G(T) • NAG(T) • ( - FraCRemove(T) )+ RBG(T) • NBG(T) ] J

FCR =Z1

Where:

FCR = annual amount of N in crop residues (above and below ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils annually, kg N yr-1

Crop(rj = harvested annual dry matter yield for crop T, kg d.m. ha-1

Area(rj = total annual area harvested of crop T, ha yr-1

Area burnt (T = annual area of crop T burnt, ha yr-1

Cf = combustion factor (dimensionless) (refer to Chapter 2, Table 2.6)

FracRenew (T) = fraction of total area under crop T that is renewed annually. For countries where pastures are renewed on average every X years, FracRenew = 1/X. For annual crops FracRenew = 1

RAG(T = ratio of above-ground residues dry matter (AGDM(T)) to harvested yield for crop T (Crop^), kg d.m. (kg d.m.)-1,

= AGDM(T) • 1000 / Crop(T) (calculating AGDM(T) from the information in Table 11.2)

NAG(7*) = N content of above-ground residues for crop T, kg N (kg d.m. ) -1, (Table 11.2)

FracRemove(T) = fraction of above-ground residues of crop T removed annually for purposes such as feed, bedding and construction, kg N (kg crop-N)-1. Survey of experts in country is required to obtain data. If data for FracRemove are not available, assume no removal.

RBG(r) = ratio of below-ground residues to harvested yield for crop T, kg d.m. (kg d.m.)-1. If alternative data are not available, RBG(t may be calculated by multiplying RBG-BIO in Table 11.2 by the ratio of total above-ground biomass to crop yield ( = [(AGDM(T) • 1000 + Crop^) / Crop^], (also calculating AGDM(T) from the information in Table 11.2).

NBG(d = N content of below-ground residues for crop T, kg N (kg d.m. )-1, (Table 11.2)

T = crop or forage type

Equation 11.7 Dry-weight correction of reported crop yields

Where:

Crop(T) = harvested dry matter yield for crop T, kg d.m. ha-1 Yield_Fresh(T) = harvested fresh yield for crop T, kg fresh weight ha-1 DRY = dry matter fraction of harvested crop T, kg d.m. (kg fresh weight)-1

Equation 11.7A Alternative approach to estimate Fcr (using Table 11.2)

F _t-MGdm(T) *(Area(T) -Areaburntp) • CF)• FmcRenew(T) •]

CR T jj[AG(T) •i1 - FraCRemove(T) )+ RBG-BIO(T) • NBG(T) ] J

Where:

Fcr = annual amount of N in crop residues (above and below ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils annually, kg N yr-1

Equation 11.8

N MINERALISED IN MINERAL SOILS AS A RESULT OF LOSS OF SOIL C THROUGH CHANGE IN LAND

USE OR MANAGEMENT (TIERS 1 AND 2)

Mineral, LU

Where:

Fsom = the net annual amount of N mineralised in mineral soils as a result of loss of soil carbon through change in land use or management, kg N

ACMmeral, LU = average annual loss of soil carbon for each land-use type (LU ), tonnes C (Note: for Tier 1, ACmineral, lu will have a single value for all land-uses and management systems. Using Tier 2 the value for ACmmeral, LU will be disaggregated by individual land-use and/or management systems.

R = C:N ratio of the soil organic matter. A default value of 15 (uncertainty range from 10 to 30) for the C:N ratio (R) may be used for situations involving land-use change from Forest Land or Grassland to Cropland, in the absence of more specific data for the area. A default value of 10 (range from 8 to 15) may be used for situations involving management changes on Cropland Remaining Cropland. C:N ratio can change over time, land use, or management practice. If countries can document changes in C:N ratio, then different values can be used over the time series, land use, or management practice.

LU = land-use and/or management system type

Equation 11.9

N2O from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils (Tier 1)

N2O(ATD)-N = [(FSN • FracGASF ) + ((FON + FPRP ) • FracGASM )] • EF4

Where:

N20(ATd)-N = annual amount of N2O-N produced from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-1

Fsn = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils, kg N yr-1

FracGASF = fraction of synthetic fertiliser N that volatilises as NH3 and NOx, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied)-1 (Table 11.3)

FON = annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils, kg N yr-1

Fprp = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock, kg N yr-1

FracGASM = fraction of applied organic N fertiliser materials (FON) and of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals (FPRP) that volatilises as NH3 and NOx, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied or deposited)-1 (Table 11.3)

EF4 = emission factor for N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of N on soils and water surfaces, [kg N-N2O (kg NH3-N + NOx-N volatilised)-1] (Table 11.3)

Equation 11.10

N2O from N leaching/runoff from managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs (Tier 1)

N2O( l) -N = (FSN + FON + FPRP + FCR + FSOM )• FraCLEACH-(H)

Where:

N2O(L)-N = annual amount of N2O-N produced from leaching and runoff of N additions to managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N2O-N yr-1

Fsn = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg

Fon = annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1

Fprp= annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1 (from Equation 11.5)

Fcr = amount of N in crop residues (above- and below-ground), including N-fixing crops, and from forage/pasture renewal, returned to soils annually in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1

Fsom = annual amount of N mineralised in mineral soils associated with loss of soil C from soil organic matter as a result of changes to land use or management in regions where leaching/runoff occurs, kg N yr-1 (from Equation 11.8)

FracLEACH-(H) = fraction of all N added to/mineralised in managed soils in regions where leaching/runoff occurs that is lost through leaching and runoff, kg N (kg of N additions)-1 (Table 11.3)

EF5 = emission factor for N2O emissions from N leaching and runoff, kg N2O-N (kg N leached and runoff)-1 (Table 11.3)

Equation 11.11

N2O from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils (Tier 2)

N2O(ATD)-N = \ Z i^SNi • FracGAsPi )+[ + FPRP ) • FraCGASM ] r • EF4

Where:

N2O(ATD)-N = annual amount of N2O-N produced from atmospheric deposition of N volatilised from managed soils, kg N2O-N yr-1

FSNi = annual amount of synthetic fertiliser N applied to soils under different conditions i, kg N yr-1

FracGASFi = fraction of synthetic fertiliser N that volatilises as NH3 and NOx under different conditions i, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied)-1

FON = annual amount of managed animal manure, compost, sewage sludge and other organic N additions applied to soils, kg N yr-1

FPRP = annual amount of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals on pasture, range and paddock, kg N yr-1

FracGASM = fraction of applied organic N fertiliser materials (FON) and of urine and dung N deposited by grazing animals (FPRP) that volatilises as NH3 and NOx, kg N volatilised (kg of N applied or deposited)-1 (Table 11.3)

EF4 = emission factor for N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of N on soils and water surfaces, [kg N-N2O (kg NH3-N + NOx-N volatilised)-1] (Table 11.3)

Equation 11.12 Annual CO2 emissions from lime application

C02-C Emission = (MLlmestone • EFLlmestone ) + (MDolomlte • EFDolomlte)

Where:

CO2-C Emission = annual C emissions from lime application, tonnes C yr-1 M = annual amount of calcic limestone (CaCO3) or dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), tonnes yr-1 EF = emission factor, tonne of C (tonne of limestone or dolomite) -1

Where:

CO2-C Emission = annual C emissions from urea application, tonnes C yr-1 M = annual amount of urea fertilisation, tonnes urea yr-1 EF = emission factor, tonne of C (tonne of urea)-1

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