## Equations

Equation 3.1 CO2 emissions from ammonia production - Tier 1 3.12

Equation 3.2 Total fuel requirement for ammonia production - Tier 2 3.13

Equation 3.3 CO2 emissions from ammonia production - Tier 2 and 3 3.13

Equation 3.4 Total fuel requirement for ammonia production - Tier 3 3.13

Equation 3.5 N2O emissions from nitric acid production - Tier 1 3.21

Equation 3.6 N2O emissions from nitric acid production - Tier 2 3.21

Equation 3.7 N2O emissions from adipic acid production - Tier 1 3.27

Equation 3.8 N2O emissions from adipic acid production - Tier 2 3.28

Equation 3.9 N2O emissions from caprolactam production - Tier 1 3.34

Equation 3.10 N2O emissions from caprolactam production - Tier 2 3.35

Equation 3.11 Emissions from carbide production 3.41

Equation 3.12 CO2 emissions from titanium slag, synthetic rutile and rutile TiO2 production - Tier 1 3.48

Equation 3.13 CO2 emissions from titanium slag, synthetic rutile and rutile TiO2 production - Tier 2 3.48

Equation 3.14 CO2 emissions from natural soda ash production - Tier 1 3.52

Equation 3.15 Tier 1 CO2 emission calculation 3.65

Equation 3.16 Primary product production estimate calculation 3.65

Equation 3.17 Overall Tier 2 mass balance equation 3.67

Equation 3.18 Estimate secondary product production from primary product [ethylene] production 3.67

Equation 3.19 Estimate secondary product production from primary product [acrylonitrile] production ..3.67

Equation 3.20 Tier 3 CO2 emissions calculation equation 3.68

Equation 3.21 Fuel combustion Tier 3 CO2 emissions calculation 3.68

Equation 3.22 Flare gas Tier 3 CO2 emissions calculation 3.69

Equation 3.23 Tier 1 CH4 fugitive emission calculation 3.70

Equation 3.24 Tier 1 CH4 process vent emission calculation 3.70

Equation 3.25 Tier 1 CH4 total emissions calculation 3.70

Equation 3.26 Tier 3 CH4 emission calculation based on atmospheric measurement data 3.71

Equation 3.27 Tier 3 CH4 emissions calculation equation 3.71

Equation 3.28 Fuel combustion Tier 3 CH4 emissions calculation 3.72

Equation 3.29 Flare gas Tier 3 CH4 emissions calculation 3.72

Equation 3.30 Tier 1 calculation of HFC-23 from HCFC-22 (produced) using default factor 3.93

Equation 3.31 Tier 2 calculation of HFC-23 from HCFC-22 (produced) using factor(s) calculated from process efficiencies 3.93

Equation 3.32 Calculation of HFC-23 emission factor from carbon balance efficiency 3.93

Equation 3.33 Calculation of HFC-23 emission factor from fluorine balance efficiency 3.94

Equation 3.34 Tier 3a calculation of HFC-23 emissions from individual process streams (direct method) 3.94

Equation 3.35 Tier 3b calculation of HFC-23 emissions from individual process streams (proxy method) 3.94

Equation 3.36 Tier 3c calculation of HFC-23 emissions from individual process streams (by monitoring reactor product) 3.95

Equation 3.37 Tier 3a calculation of 'instantaneous' HFC-23 emissions in an individual process stream

(direct method) 3.95

Equation 3.38 Tier 3b calculation of HFC-23 emissions in an individual process stream (proxy method) 3.96

Equation 3.39 Tier 3b calculation of standard emission for proxy method 3.96

Equation 3.40 Tier 3c calculation of HFC-23 emissions from an individual facility by in-process measurement 3.97

Equation 3.41 Tier 1 calculation of production-related emissions 3.103

Equation 3.42 Tier 3 direct calculation of production-related emissions 3.104

Equation 3.43 Tier 3 proxy calculation of production-related emissions 3.104

Figures

Figure 3.1 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from ammonia production 3.14

Figure 3.2 Decision tree for estimation of N2O emissions from nitric acid production 3.22

Figure 3.3 Decision tree for estimation of N2O emissions from adipic acid production 3.29

Figure 3.4 Decision tree for estimation of N2O emissions from caprolactam, glyoxal or glyoxylic acid production 3.36

Figure 3.5 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 and CH4 emissions from carbide production 3.43

Figure 3.6 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from titanium dioxide production 3.49

Figure 3.7 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from natural soda ash production 3.53

Figure 3.8 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from petrochemical industry and carbon black industry 3.63

Figure 3.9 Decision tree for estimation of CH4 emissions from petrochemical industry and carbon black industry 3.64

Figure 3.10 Tier 2 carbon mass balance flow diagram 3.66

Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram 3.90

Figure 3.12 Ethylene dichloride production feedstock-product flow diagram 3.90

Figure 3.13 Ethylene oxide production feedstock-product flow diagram 3.91

Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram 3.91

Figure 3.15 Carbon black production feedstock-product flow diagram 3.91

Figure 3.16 Decision tree for HFC-23 emissions from HCFC-22 production

(or other similar by-product emissions from fluorochemical production) 3.98

Figure 3.17 Decision tree for emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases from production processes, applicable to both fugitive and by-product emissions 3.105

## Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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