Coordination with reporting for N2O emissions from managed soils

Following storage or treatment in any system of manure management, nearly all the manure will be applied to land. The emissions that subsequently arise from the application of the manure to soil are to be reported under the category N2O emissions from managed soils. The methods for estimating these emissions are discussed in Chapter 11, Section 11.2. In estimating N2O emissions from managed soils, the amount of animal manure nitrogen that is directly applied to soils, or available for use in feed, fuel, or construction purposes, are considered.

A significant proportion of the total nitrogen excreted by animals in managed systems (i.e., all livestock except those in pasture and grazing conditions) is lost prior to final application to managed soils or for use as feed, fuel, or for construction purposes. In order to estimate the amount of animal manure nitrogen that is directly applied to soils, or available for use in feed, fuel, or construction purposes (i.e., the value which is used in Chapter 11, Equation 11.1 or 11.2), it is necessary to reduce the total amount of nitrogen excreted by animals in managed systems by the losses of N through volatilisation (i.e., NH3, N2 and NOx), conversion to N2O and losses through leaching and runoff.

Where organic forms of bedding material (straw, sawdust, chippings, etc.) are used, the additional nitrogen from the bedding material should also be considered as part of the managed manure N applied to soils. Bedding is typically collected with the remaining manure and applied to soils. It should be noted, however, that since mineralization of nitrogen compounds in beddings occurs more slowly compared to manure and the concentration of ammonia fraction in organic beddings is negligible, both volatilization and leaching losses during storage of bedding are assumed to be zero (European Environmental Agency, 2002).

Table 10.22

Default values for nitrogen loss due to volatilisation of NH3 and NOx from manure

MANAGEMENT

Animal type

Manure management system (MMS) a

N loss from MMS due to volatilisation of N-NH3 and N-NOx (%) b FracGasMs (Range of FracGasMs)

Swine

Anaerobic lagoon

40% (25 - 75)

Pit storage

25% (15 - 30)

Deep bedding

40% (10 - 60)

Liquid/slurry

48% (15 - 60)

Solid storage

45% (10 - 65)

Dairy Cow

Anaerobic lagoon

35% (20 - 80)

Liquid/Slurry

40% (15 - 45)

Pit storage

28% (10 - 40)

Dry lot

20% (10 - 35)

Solid storage

30% (10 - 40)

Daily spread

7% (5 - 60)

Poultry

Poultry without litter

55% (40 - 70)

Anaerobic lagoon

40% (25 - 75)

Poultry with litter

40% (10 - 60)

Other Cattle

Dry lot

30% (20 - 50)

Solid storage

45% (10 - 65)

Deep bedding

30% (20 - 40)

Other c

Deep bedding

25% (10 - 30)

Solid storage

12% (5 - 20)

a Manure Management System here includes associated N losses at housing and final storage system. b Volatilization rates based on judgement of IPCC Expert Group and following sources: Rotz ( 2003), Hutchings et al.

(2001), and U.S EPA (2004). c Other includes sheep, horses, and fur-bearing animals.

The estimate of managed manure nitrogen available for application to managed soils, or available for use in feed, fuel, or construction purposes is based on the following equation:

Equation 10.34

Managed manure N available for application to managed soils, feed, fuel or

CONSTRUCTION USES

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