Classification And Definition Of Categories

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Table 8.2 introduces the classification and definition of categories and subcategories6 of emissions and removals (consistent with the sectoral, sectoral background and cross-sectoral tables provided in Annex 8A.2). The correspondence with the reporting categories of the 1996 Guidelines is also provided in the third column of Table 8.2. A fourth column identifies gases that may be relevant to each category. Additional guidance on gases is provided in Volumes 2-5 and in Table 7.1 of Chapter 7 of this Volume for indirect gases. 7

6 The nomenclature for the levels within the category list is: category, subcategory - 1st order, subcategory - 2nd order, subcategory - 3rd order, etc.

7 In order to facilitate transparent reporting of emissions of non-CO2 gases and CO2 emissions from liming in the AFOLU Sector, reporting is based on aggregated categories (3C) taking into account that data may not be available to report those emissions by land.

Table 8.2

Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

1 ENRGY

1 A Fuel Combustion Activities

1 A 1 Energy Industries

This category includes all GHG emissions arising from combustion and fugitive releases of fuels. Emissions from the non-energy uses of fuels are generally not included here, but reported under Industrial Processes and Product Use Sector.

Emissions from the intentional oxidation of materials within 1A an apparatus that is designed to raise heat and provide it either as heat or as mechanical work to a process or for use away from the apparatus.

Comprises emissions from fuels combusted by the fuel 1A1 extraction or energy-producing industries.

Main Activity Electricity and Heat Sum of emissions from main activity producers of electricity Production generation, combined heat and power generation, and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be in public or private ownership. Emissions from own on-site use of fuel should be included. Emissions from autoproducers (undertakings which generate electricity/heat wholly or partly for their own use, as an activity that supports their primary activity) should be assigned to the sector where they were generated and not under 1 A 1 a. Autoproducers may be in public or private ownership.

Electricity Generation

Combined Heat and Power Generation (CHP)

Heat Plants

Petroleum Refining

Manufacture of Solid Fuels and Other Energy Industries

Comprises emissions from all fuel use for electricity generation from main activity producers except those from combined heat and power plants.

Emissions from production of both heat and electrical power 1A1a ii from main activity producers for sale to the public, at a single CHP facility.

Production of heat from main activity producers for sale by 1A1a iii pipe network.

All combustion activities supporting the refining of petroleum 1A1b products including on-site combustion for the generation of electricity and heat for own use. Does not include evaporative emissions occurring at the refinery. These emissions should be reported separately under 1 B 2 a.

Combustion emissions from fuel use during the manufacture 1A1c of secondary and tertiary products from solid fuels including production of charcoal. Emissions from own on-site fuel use should be included. Also includes combustion for the generation of electricity and heat for own use in these industries.

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Gases

1 A 1 c ii Other Energy Industries

NMVOC, SO2

1A1c ii

1 A 1 c ii Other Energy Industries

1 A 2 Manufacturing Industries and Construction

1 A 2 a Iron and Steel

Combustion emissions arising from the energy-producing industries own (on-site) energy use not mentioned above or for which separate data are not available. This includes the emissions from own-energy use for the production of charcoal, bagasse, saw dust, cotton stalks and carbonizing of biofuels as well as fuel used for coal mining, oil and gas extraction and the processing and upgrading of natural gas. This category also includes emissions from pre-combustion processing for CO2 capture and storage. Combustion emissions from pipeline transport should be reported under 1 A 3 e.

Emissions from combustion of fuels in industry. Also includes combustion for the generation of electricity and heat for own use in these industries. Emissions from fuel combustion in coke ovens within the iron and steel industry should be reported under 1 A 1 c and not within manufacturing industry. Emissions from the industry sector should be specified by sub-categories that correspond to the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC). Energy used for transport by industry should not be reported here but under Transport (1 A 3). Emissions arising from off-road and other mobile machinery in industry should, if possible, be broken out as a separate subcategory. For each country, the emissions from the largest fuel-consuming industrial categories ISIC should be reported, as well as those from significant emitters of pollutants. A suggested list of categories is outlined below.

ISIC Group 271 and Class 2731.

1 A 2 c Chemicals

ISIC Division 24.

Food Processing, Beverages and Tobacco

ISIC Divisions 15 and 16.

1 A 2 g Transport Equipment

ISIC Divisions 34 and 35.

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

1 A 2 c Chemicals

ISIC Division 24.

NMVOC, SO2

1 A2c

NMVOC, SO2

Food Processing, Beverages and Tobacco

ISIC Divisions 15 and 16.

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

1 A 2 g Transport Equipment

ISIC Divisions 34 and 35.

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

1A1c ii

1 A2c

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Gases

1 A 2 h Machinery

Includes fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment other than transport equipment. ISIC Divisions 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32.

NMVOC, SO2

1 A 2 h Machinery

1 A 2 i Mining (excluding fuels) and Quarrying

1 A 2 j Wood and Wood Products

Includes fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment other than transport equipment. ISIC Divisions 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32.

ISIC Divisions 13 and 14.

ISIC Division 20.

1 A 2 l Textile and Leather

1 A 2 m Non-specified Industry:

1 A 3 Transport

1 A 3 a Civil Aviation

International Aviation (International Bunkers)

Domestic Aviation

ISIC Divisions 17, 18 and 19.

Any manufacturing industry/construction not included above NA or for which separate data are not available. Includes ISIC Divisions 25, 33, 36 and 37.

Emissions from the combustion and evaporation of fuel for 1A3 all transport activity (excluding military transport), regardless of the sector, specified by sub-categories below. Emissions from fuel sold to any air or marine vessel engaged in international transport (1 A 3 a i and 1 A 3 d i) should as far as possible be excluded from the totals and subtotals in this category and should be reported separately.

Emissions from international and domestic civil aviation, 1A3a including take-offs and landings. Comprises civil commercial use of airplanes, including: scheduled and charter traffic for passengers and freight, air taxiing, and general aviation. The international/domestic split should be determined on the basis of departure and landing locations for each flight stage and not by the nationality of the airline. Exclude use of fuel at airports for ground transport which is reported under 1 A 3 e Other Transportation. Also exclude fuel for stationary combustion at airports; report this information under the appropriate stationary combustion category.

Emissions from flights that depart in one country and arrive 1A3a i in a different country. Include take-offs and landings for these flight stages. Emissions from international military aviation can be included as a separate sub-category of international aviation provided that the same definitional distinction is applied and data are available to support the definition.

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

1 A 2 k

Construction

ISIC Division 45.

1A2f

CO2,

ch4,

n2o,

NOx,

CO,

NMVOC,

SO2

1 A 2 l Textile and Leather

ISIC Divisions 17, 18 and 19.

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

Emissions from civil domestic passenger and freight traffic 1A3a ii CO2, that departs and arrives in the same country (commercial, n^o'

private, agriculture, etc.), including take-offs and landings nox,'

for these flight stages. Note that this may include journeys CO, of considerable length between two airports in a country (e.g. San Francisco to Honolulu). Exclude military, which should be reported under 1 A 5 b.

NMVOC, SO2

NA

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Gases

1 A 3 b Road Transportation

All combustion and evaporative emissions arising from fuel use in road vehicles, including the use of agricultural vehicles on paved roads.

ch4'

NMVOC' SO2

1 A 3 b i Cars Emissions from automobiles so designated in the vehicle 1A3b i CO2,

registering country primarily for transport of persons and N O'

normally having a capacity of 12 persons or fewer. nox'

NMVOC' SO2

1 A3 b i 1 Passenger Cars With 3-way Emissions from passenger car vehicles with 3-way 1A3b i CO2,

Catalysts catalysts. ¡^O'

NOx'

NMVOC' SO2

NOx'

NMVOC' SO2

1 A3 b ii Light-duty Trucks

Emissions from vehicles so designated in the vehicle registering country primarily for transportation of lightweight cargo or which are equipped with special features such as four-wheel drive for off-road operation. The gross vehicle weight normally ranges up to 3500-3900 kg or less.

1A3b ii, 1A3b i

CO2'

ch4'

N2O'

nox,

NMVOC' SO2

1 A3 b ii Light-duty Trucks

Emissions from vehicles so designated in the vehicle registering country primarily for transportation of lightweight cargo or which are equipped with special features such as four-wheel drive for off-road operation. The gross vehicle weight normally ranges up to 3500-3900 kg or less.

1A3b ii, 1A3b i

CO2'

ch4'

N2O'

nox,

NMVOC' SO2

1 A3 b ii 2 Light-duty Trucks Without 3-way Emissions from light duty trucks without 3-way catalysts. 1A3b ii CO2, Catalysts

NMVOC' SO2

1 A3 b ii 2 Light-duty Trucks Without 3-way Emissions from light duty trucks without 3-way catalysts. 1A3b ii CO2, Catalysts

NMVOC' SO2

1 A3 b iii Heavy-duty Trucks and Buses Emissions from any vehicles so designated in the vehicle 1A3b iii CO2, registering country. Normally the gross vehicle weight Nm ranges from 3500-3900 kg or more for heavy duty trucks nox,'

and the buses are rated to carry more than 12 persons. CO,

NMVOC,

1 A3 b iv Motorcycles Emissions from any motor vehicle designed to travel with 1A3b iv CO2, not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and Nm weighing less than 680 kg. nox,'

NMVOC, SO2

1 A3 b v Evaporative Emissions from Evaporative emissions from vehicles (e.g. hot soak, running 1A3b v CO2.

Vehicles losses) are included here. Emissions from loading fuel into ¡¡^O'

vehicles are excluded. nox,'

NMVOC, SO2

1 A3 b vi Urea-based Catalysts CO2 emissions from use of urea-based additives in catalytic CO2, converters (non-combustive emissions). n^o'

NMVOC' SO2

1 A 3 c Railways Emissions from railway transport for both freight and 1A3c CO2'

passenger traffic routes. CO'

NMVOC' SO2

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Water-borne Navigation

Emissions from fuels used to propel water-borne vessels, including hovercraft and hydrofoils, but excluding fishing vessels. The international/domestic split should be determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or nationality of the ship.

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

Water-borne Navigation

Emissions from fuels used to propel water-borne vessels, including hovercraft and hydrofoils, but excluding fishing vessels. The international/domestic split should be determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or nationality of the ship.

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

1 A S d i International Water-borne Navigation (International Bunkers)

Domestic Water-borne Navigation

Other Transportation

1 A S e i Pipeline Transport

1 AS e ii Off-road

1 A 4 Other Sectors

1 A 4 a Commercial/Institutional

1 A 4 b Residential

Emissions from fuels used by vessels of all flags that are 1A3d i engaged in international water-borne navigation. The international navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways and in coastal waters. Includes emissions from journeys that depart in one country and arrive in a different country. Exclude consumption by fishing vessels (see Other Sector - Fishing). Emissions from international military water-borne navigation can be included as a separate sub-category of international waterborne navigation provided that the same definitional distinction is applied and data are available to support the definition.

Emissions from fuels used by vessels of all flags that depart 1A3d ii and arrive in the same country (exclude fishing, which should be reported under 1 A 4 c iii, and military, which should be reported under 1 A 5 b). Note that this may include journeys of considerable length between two ports in a country (e.g. San Francisco to Honolulu).

Combustion emissions from all remaining transport 1A3de activities including pipeline transportation, ground activities in airports and harbours, and off-road activities not otherwise reported under 1 A 4 c Agriculture or 1 A 2. Manufacturing Industries and Construction. Military transport should be reported under 1 A 5 (see 1 A 5 Non-specified).

Combustion related emissions from the operation of pump 1 A3e stations and maintenance of pipelines. Transport via pipelines includes transport of gases, liquids, slurry and other commodities via pipelines. Distribution of natural or manufactured gas, water or steam from the distributor to final users is excluded and should be reported in 1 A 1 c ii or 1 A 4 a.

Combustion emissions from Other Transportation excluding 1A3e Pipeline Transport.

Emissions from combustion activities as described below, 1A4 including combustion for the generation of electricity and heat for own use in these sectors.

Emissions from fuel combustion in commercial and 1A 4 a institutional buildings; all activities included in ISIC Divisions 41,50, 51, 52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.

All emissions from fuel combustion in households.

1 A 4 c Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing/Fish Emissions from fuel combustion in agriculture, forestry,

Farms fishing and fishing industries such as fish farms. Activities included in ISIC Divisions 01, 02 and 05. Highway agricultural transportation is excluded.

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

CO2,

CH4,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

1A4c

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Gases

1 A 4 c i Stationary

Emissions from fuels combusted in pumps, grain drying, horticultural greenhouses and other agriculture, forestry or stationary combustion in the fishing industry.

NMVOC, SO2

1 A4ci

1 A 4 c i Stationary

Emissions from fuels combusted in pumps, grain drying, horticultural greenhouses and other agriculture, forestry or stationary combustion in the fishing industry.

Fishing (mobile combustion)

1 A 5 Non-Specified

1 A 5 a Stationary

1 A 5 b Mobile

1 A 5 b i Mobile (Aviation Component)

1 A 5 b ii Mobile (Water-borne Component)

1 A 5 c Multilateral Operations

Emissions from fuels combusted for inland, coastal and deep-sea fishing. Fishing should cover vessels of all flags that have refuelled in the country (include international fishing).

All remaining emissions from fuel combustion that are not 1A5 specified elsewhere. Include emissions from fuel delivered to the military in the country and delivered to the military of other countries that are not engaged in multilateral operations

Emissions from fuel sold to any air or marine vessel engaged in multilateral operation pursuant to the Charter of the United Nations should be excluded from the totals and subtotals of the military transport, and should be reported separately.

Emissions from fuel combustion in stationary sources that 1A5a are not specified elsewhere.

Emissions from vehicles and other machinery, marine and 1A5b aviation (not included in 1 A 4 c ii or elsewhere).

All remaining aviation emissions from fuel combustion that are not specified elsewhere. Include emissions from fuel delivered to the country's military not otherwise included separately in 1 A3 a i as well as fuel delivered within that country but used by militaries of other countries that are not engaged in multilateral operation pursuant to the Charter of the United Nations.

All remaining water-borne emissions from fuel combustion that are not specified elsewhere. Include emissions from fuel delivered to the country's military not otherwise included separately in 1 A3 d i as well as fuel delivered within that country but used by militaries of other countries that are not engaged in multilateral operation pursuant to the Charter of the United Nations.

All remaining emissions from mobile sources not included elsewhere.

Emissions from fuel sold to any air or marine vessel engaged in multilateral operations pursuant to the Charter of the United Nations should be excluded from the totals and subtotals of the military transport, and should be reported separately.

NMVOC, SO2

Fishing (mobile combustion)

Emissions from fuels combusted for inland, coastal and deep-sea fishing. Fishing should cover vessels of all flags that have refuelled in the country (include international fishing).

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

1 A4ci

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

96 GLs

Category Code and Name Definition Category

3 1 Code

1 B Fugitive Emissions from Fuels Includes all intentional and unintentional emissions from the 1B

extraction, processing, storage and transport of fuel to the point of final use.

Gases

NOx,

NMVOC,

1

B

1

Solid Fuels

Includes all intentional and unintentional emissions from the extraction, processing, storage and transport of fuel to the point of final use.

1B1

CO2, ch4,

1

B

1

a

Coal Mining and Handling

Includes all fugitive emissions from coal.

1 B1a

CO2, CH4,

1

B

1

a

i

Underground Mines

Includes all emissions arising from mining, post-mining, abandoned mines and flaring of drained methane.

1B1a i

CO2, ch4,

1

B

1

a

i 1

Mining

Includes all seam gas emissions vented to atmosphere from coal mine ventilation air and degasification systems.

CH4,

1

B

1

a

i 2

Post-mining Seam Gas Emissions

Includes methane and CO2 emitted after coal has been mined, brought to the surface and subsequently processed, stored and transported.

1B1a i

CO2, ch4,

1

B

1

a

i 3

Abandoned Underground Mines

Includes methane emissions from abandoned underground mines.

1B1a i

CO2, CH4,

1

B

1

a

i 4

Flaring of Drained Methane or Conversion of Methane to CO2

Methane drained and flared, or ventilation gas converted to CO2 by an oxidation process should be included here. Methane used for energy production should be included in Volume 2, Energy, Chapter 2 'Stationary Combustion'.

1B1a i

CO2, ch4,

1

B

1

a

ii

Surface Mines

Includes all seam gas emissions arising from surface coal mining.

1B1a ii

CO2, CH4,

1

B

1

a

ii 1

Mining

Includes methane and CO2 emitted during mining from breakage of coal and associated strata and leakage from the pit floor and high wall.

CO2, ch4,

1

B

1

a

ii 2

Post-mining Seam Gas Emissions

Includes methane and CO2 emitted after coal has been mined, subsequently processed, stored and transported.

1B1a ii

CO2, CH4,

1

B

1

b

Uncontrolled Combustion, and Burning Coal Dumps

Includes fugitive emissions of CO2 from uncontrolled combustion in coal.

NMVOC, SO2

1 B 1 c Solid Fuel Transformation Fugitive emissions arising during the manufacture of 1B1b CO

secondary and tertiary products from solid fuels. n^o'

1 B 1 c Solid Fuel Transformation Fugitive emissions arising during the manufacture of 1B1b CO

secondary and tertiary products from solid fuels. n^o'

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

1 B 2

Oil and Natural Gas

Comprises fugitive emissions from all oil and natural gas 1B2

NOx,

activities. The primary sources of these emissions may

include fugitive equipment leaks, evaporation losses,

venting, flaring and accidental releases.

NMVOC,

1 B 2 a Oil Comprises emissions from venting, flaring and all other 1B2a CO2.

1 B 2 a Oil Comprises emissions from venting, flaring and all other 1B2a CO2.

fugitive sources associated with the exploration, production, Nmv transmission, upgrading, and refining of crude oil and distribution of crude oil products.

1 B 2 a i Venting Emissions from venting of associated gas and waste CO2.

gas/vapour streams at oil facilities. nmvoc

1 B 2 a ii Flaring Emissions from flaring of natural gas and waste gas/vapour CO2, streams at oil facilities. ¡^O'

NOx,

NMVOC,

NOx,

NMVOC,

1 B 2 a iii

All Other

Fugitive emissions at oil facilities from equipment leaks,

NOx,

storage losses, pipeline breaks, well blowouts, land farms,

gas migration to the surface around the outside of

wellhead casing, surface casing vent bows, biogenic gas

NMVOC,

formation from tailings ponds and any other gas or vapour

releases not specifically accounted for as venting or flaring.

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Gases

1 B 2 a iii I Exploration

Fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) from oil well drilling, drill stem testing, and well completions.

1 B2a I

CO2, CH4, NMVOC,

1 B 2 a iii 2 Production and Upgrading

Fugitive emissions from oil production (excluding venting and flaring) occur at the oil wellhead or at the oil sands or shale oil mine through to the start of the oil transmission system. This includes fugitive emissions related to well servicing, oil sands or shale oil mining, transport of

NMVOC,

untreated production (i.e , well effluent, emulsion, oil shale and oilsands) to treating or extraction facilities, activities at extraction and upgrading facilities, associated gas reinjection systems and produced water disposal systems. Fugitive emission from upgraders are grouped with those from production rather than those from refining since the upgraders are often integrated with extraction facilities and their relative emission contributions are difficult to establish. However, upgraders may also be integrated with refineries, co-generation plants or other industrial facilities and their relative emission contributions can be difficult to establish in these cases.

1 B 2 a iii 3 Transport Fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) related to the transport of marketable crude oil (including conventional, heavy and synthetic crude oil and bitumen) to upgraders and refineries. The transportation systems may comprise pipelines, marine tankers, tank trucks and rail cars. Evaporation losses from storage, filling and unloading activities and fugitive equipment leaks are the primary sources of these emissions.

1 B 2 a iii 4 Refining Fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) at petroleum refineries. Refineries process crude oils, natural gas liquids and synthetic crude oils to produce final refined products (e.g., primarily fuels and lubricants). Where refineries are integrated with other facilities (for example, upgraders or co-generation plants) their relative emission contributions can be difficult to establish.

1 B 2 a iii 5 Distribution of Oil Products This comprises fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) from the transport and distribution of refined products, including those at bulk terminals and retail facilities. Evaporation losses from storage, filling and unloading activities and fugitive equipment leaks are the primary sources of these emissions.

1 B 2 a iii 6 Other Fugitive emissions from oil systems (excluding venting and flaring) not otherwise accounted for in the above categories. This includes fugitive emissions from spills and other accidental releases, waste oil treatment facilities and oilfield waste disposal facilities.

1

B

2

b

Natural Gas

Comprises emissions from venting, flaring and all other 1B2b fugitive sources associated with the exploration, production, processing, transmission, storage and distribution of natural gas (including both associated and non-associated gas).

CO2, CH4, NMVOC,

1

B

2

b I

Venting

Emissions from venting of natural gas and waste gas/vapour streams at gas facilities.

NMVOC,

1

B

2

b II

Flaring

Emissions from flaring of natural gas and waste gas/vapour streams at gas facilities.

NOx,

NMVOC,

1

B

2

b III

All Other

Fugitive emissions at natural gas facilities from equipment leaks, storage losses, pipeline breaks, well blowouts, gas migration to the surface around the outside of wellhead casing, surface casing vent bows and any other gas or vapour releases not specifically accounted for as venting or flaring.

NMVOC,

1

B

2

b III

1 ExploratIon

Fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) from gas 1Bb i well drilling, drill stem testing and well completions.

CO2, CH4, NMVOC,

1B2a IV CO2, CH4, NMVOC,

1B2a VI CO2, CH4, NMVOC,

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Gases

1 B 2 b iii 2 Production

1 B 2 b iii 2 Production

1 B 2 b iii 3 Processing

Fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) from the 1Bb " gas wellhead through to the inlet of gas processing plants, or, where processing is not required, to the tie-in points on gas transmission systems. This includes fugitive emissions related to well servicing, gas gathering, processing and associated waste water and acid gas disposal activities.

Fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) from gas 1Bb iii processing facilities.

NMVOC,

1 B 2 b iii 4 Transmission and Storage

Fugitive emissions from systems used to transport processed natural gas to market (i.e., to industrial consumers and natural gas distribution systems). Fugitive emissions from natural gas storage systems should also be included in this category. Emissions from natural gas liquids extraction plants on gas transmission systems should be reported as part of natural gas processing (Sector 1.B.2.b.iii.3). Fugitive emissions related to the transmission of natural gas liquids should be reported under Category 1.B.2.a.iii.3.

Pipelines

Fugitive emissions from the pipeline system used to transport CO2 to the injection site.

Other (please specify)

Fugitive emissions from other systems used to transport CO2 to the injection site and temporary storage

1 B 2 b iii 5 Distribution

Fugitive emissions (excluding venting and flaring) from the NA distribution of natural gas to end users.

NMVOC,

1 B 2 b iii a Other

Fugitive emissions from natural gas systems (excluding 1B2 c venting and flaring) not otherwise accounted for in the above categories. This may include emissions from well blowouts and pipeline ruptures or dig-ins.

CO2, CH4, NMVOC,

1 B 3

Other Emissions from Energy Production

Other fugitive emissions for example, from geo thermal energy production, peat and other energy production not included in I.B.2.

NMVOC,

1 C

Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage

Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) involves the capture of CO2 from anthropogenic sources, its transport to a storage location and its long-term isolation from the atmosphere. Emissions associated with CO2 transport, injection and storage are covered under category 1C. Emissions (and reductions) associated with CO2 capture should be reported under the IPCC Sector in which capture takes place (e.g. Fuel Combustion or Industrial Activities).

CO2,

1 C 1

Transport of CO2

This comprises fugitive emissions from the systems used to transport captured CO2 from the source to the injection site. These emissions may comprise losses due to fugitive equipment leaks, venting and releases due to pipeline ruptures or other accidental releases (e.g., temporary storage).

Pipelines

Fugitive emissions from the pipeline system used to transport CO2 to the injection site.

1 C 1 b

Ships

Fugitive emissions from the ships used to transport CO2 to

CO2,

the injection site.

Other (please specify)

Fugitive emissions from other systems used to transport CO2 to the injection site and temporary storage

1 C 2

Injection and Storage

Fugitive emissions from activities and equipment at the injection site and those from the end containment once the CO2 is placed in storage.

CO2,

1 C 2 a

Injection

Fugitive emissions from activities and equipment at the injection site.

CO2,

1 C 2 b

Storage

Fugitive emissions from the end equipment once the CO2 is placed in storage.

CO2,

1 C 3

Other

Any other emissions from CCS not reported elsewhere.

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE

Definition

Emissions from industrial processes and product use, excluding those related to energy combustion (reported under 1A), extraction, processing and transport of fuels (reported under 1B) and CO2 transport, injection and storage (reported under 1C).

96 GLs

Category

Code

HFCs, PFCs, sf6, other halogen ated gases,

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

J

A

Mineral Industry

NMVOC, SOJ

J

A

i

Cement Production

Process-related emissions from the production of various types of cement (ISIC: D2694).

JA1

COJ, ch4,

J

A

J

Lime Production

Process-related emissions from the production of various types of lime (ISIC: D2694).

JAJ

COJ, ch4

J

A

S

Glass Production

Process-related emissions from the production of various types of glass (ISIC: D2610).

JAS, JA4

COJ, ch4

J

A

4

Other Process Uses of Carbonates

Includes limestone, dolomite and other carbonates etc. Emissions from the use of limestone, dolomite and other carbonates should be included in the industrial source category where they are emitted. Therefore, for example, where a carbonate is used as a flux for iron and steel production, resultant emissions should be reported under 2C1 "Iron and Steel Production" rather than this subcategory.

NMVOC, SOJ

2 A 4 a Ceramics Process-related emissions from the production of bricks and roof tiles, vitrified clay pipes, refractory products, expanded clay products, wall and floor tiles, table and ornamental ware (household ceramics), sanitary ware, technical ceramics, and inorganic bonded abrasives (ISIC: D2691, D2692 and D2693).

2 A 4 b Other Uses of Soda Ash This should include emissions from soda ash use that are 2A4 CO2, not included elsewhere. For example, soda ash used for NO4, glass should be reported in 2A3. co!"

NMVOC, SO2

2 A 4 c Non Metallurgical Magnesia This source category should include emissions from 2A3 CO

Production magnesia production that are not included elsewhere. For example, where magnesia production is used for primary and secondary magnesium production, emissions should be reported in relevant source category in Metals.

2 A 4 d Other (please specify) Process-related emissions reported under this sub-category 2A3 CO2, should include all other miscellaneous uses of limestone, NO4, dolomite and other carbonates, except from uses already co" '

listed in the sub-categories above, and uses as fluxes or Nivivœ,

slagging agents in the Metals and Chemicals industries, or 2

for the liming of soils and wetlands in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (ISIC D269).

2 A 5 Other (please specify) 2A7 ^

NMVOC, SOJ

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

Category

Code

Gases

Chemical Industry

HFCs, PFCs, sf6, other halogen ated gases,

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

Chemical Industry

Ammonia Production

Nitric Acid Production

Adipic Acid Production

Carbide Production

Titanium Dioxide Production

J B 4 Caprolactam, Glyoxal and Glyoxylic Acid Production

Ammonia (NH3) is a major industrial chemical and the most 2B1 important nitrogenous material produced. Ammonia gas is used directly as a fertilizer, in heat treating, paper pulping, nitric acid and nitrates manufacture, nitric acid ester and nitro compound manufacture, explosives of various types, and as a refrigerant. Amines, amides, and miscellaneous other organic compounds, such as urea, are made from ammonia. The main greenhouse gas emitted from NH3 production is CO2. CO2 used in the production of urea, a downstream process, should be subtracted from the CO2 generated and accounted for in the AFOLU Sector.

Nitric acid is used as a raw material mainly in the 2B2

manufacture of nitrogenous-based fertiliser. Nitric acid may also be used in the production of adipic acid and explosives (e.g., dynamite), for metal etching and in the processing of ferrous metals. The main greenhouse gas emitted from HNO3 production is nitrous oxide.

Adipic acid is used in the manufacture of a large number of 2B3 products including synthetic fibres, coatings, plastics, urethane foams, elastomers and synthetic lubricants. The production of Nylon 6.6 accounts for the bulk of adipic acid use. The main greenhouse gas emitted from adipic acid production is nitrous oxide.

Most of the annual production of caprolactam 2B5

(NH(CH2)5CO) is consumed as the monomer for nylon-6 fibres and plastics, with a substantial proportion of the fibre used in carpet manufacturing. All commercial processes for the manufacture of caprolactam are based on either toluene or benzene. This subcategory also covers production of glyoxal (ethanedial) and glyoxylic acid production. The main greenhouse gas emitted from this subcategory is nitrous oxide.

The production of carbide can result in emissions of CO2, 2B4 CH4, CO and SO2. Silicon carbide is a significant artificial abrasive. It is produced from silica sand or quartz and petroleum coke. Calcium carbide is used in the production of acetylene, in the manufacture of cyanamide (a minor historical use), and as a reductant in electric arc steel furnaces. It is made from calcium carbonate (limestone) and carbon-containing reductant (petroleum coke).

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most important white pigment. 2B5 The main use is in paint manufacture followed by paper, plastics, rubber, ceramics, fabrics, floor covering, printing ink, and other miscellaneous uses. The main production process is the chloride route, giving rise to CO2 emissions that are likely to be significant. This category also includes synthetic rutile production using the Becher process, and titanium slag production, both of which are reduction processes using fossil fuels and resulting in CO2 emissions. Synthetic rutile is the major input to TiO2 production using the chloride route.

n2o,

HFCs, PFCs, sf6, other halogen ated gases,

NOx,

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC, SO2

NOx,

NMVOC,

NOx,

NOx,

NMVOC,

NMVOC,

NOx,

NMVOC,

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

2 B 7 Soda Ash Production

2 B 8 Petrochemical and Carbon Black Production

2 B S a Methanol

2 B S b Ethylene

Definition

Soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) is a white crystalline solid that is used as a raw material in a large number of industries including glass manufacture, soap and detergents, pulp and paper production and water treatment. Emissions of CO2 from the production of soda ash vary dependent on the manufacturing process. Four different processes may be used to produce soda ash. Three of these processes, monohydrate, sodium sesquicarbonate (trona) and direct carbonation, are referred to as natural processes. The fourth, the Solvay process, is classified as a synthetic process.

96 GLs

Category

Gases

Code

2A4

CO2,

CH4,

N2O,

NOx,

CO,

NMVOC,

Methanol production covers production of methanol from fossil fuel feedstocks [natural gas, petroleum, coal] using steam reforming or partial oxidation processes. Production of methanol from biogenic feedstocks (e.g., by fermentation) is not included in this source category.

Ethylene production covers production of ethylene from fossil fuel-derived feedstocks at petrochemical plants by the steam cracking process. Production of ethylene from processes situation within the boundaries of petroleum refineries is not included in this source category. The greenhouse gases produced from ethylene production are carbon dioxide and methane.

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC

NMVOC, SO2

Ethylene Dichloride and Vinyl Chloride Monomer

Ethylene Oxide

Acrylonitrile

2 B S f Carbon Black

2 B 9 Fluorochemical Production

2 B 9 a By-product Emissions

Ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer production 2B5 covers production of ethylene dichloride by direct oxidation or oxychloination of ethylene, and the production of vinyl chloride monomer from ethylene dichloride. The greenhouse gases produced from production of ethylene dichloride production and vinyl chloride monomer production are carbon dioxide and methane.

Ethylene oxide production covers production of ethylene 2B5 oxide by reaction of ethylene and oxygen by catalytic oxidation. The greenhouse gases produced from ethylene oxide production are carbon dioxide and methane.

Acrylonitrile production covers production of acrylonitrile 2B5 from ammoxidation of propylene, and associated production of acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide from the ammoxidation process. The greenhouse gases produced from production of acrylonitrile are carbon dioxide and methane.

Carbon black production covers production of carbon black 2B5, 3C from fossil fuel-derived feedstocks (petroleum or coal-derived carbon black feedstock, natural gas, acetylene). Production of carbon black from biogenic feedstocks is not included in this source category.

Fluorochemical Production covers the complete range of fluorochemicals, whether or not the principal products are greenhouse gases. Emissions encompass HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and all other halogenated gases with global warming potential listed in IPCC assessment reports. The most significant by-product emission is that of HFC-23 from the manufacture of HCFC-22 and this is described separately.

NMVOC

NMVOC, SO2

NMVOC

NMVOC, SO2

HFCs, PFCs, sf6, other halogen ated gases,

HFCs, PFCs, sf6, other halogen ated gases

Table 8.2 (Continued) Classification and definition of categories of emissions and removals

Category Code and Name

2 B 9 b Fugitive Emissions

2 B 10 Other (Please specify)

J C Metal Industry

2 C 1 Iron and Steel Production

J C J Ferroalloys Production

J C S Aluminium Production

J C 4 Magnesium Production

Definition

These are emissions of the principal product from the process to manufacture it and so fluorochemical production in this context is limited to HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and other halogenated gases with global warming potential listed in IPCC assessment reports.

For example, gases with global warming potential listed in IPCC assessment reports that do not fall within any categories above could be reported here, if they are estimated.

Carbon dioxide is the predominant gas emitted from the production of iron and steel. The sources of the carbon dioxide emissions include that from carbon-containing reducing agents such as coke and pulverized coal, and, from minerals such as limestone and dolomite added.

Ferroalloys production covers emissions from primary metallurgical reduction production of the most common ferroalloys, i.e. ferro-silicon, silicon metal, ferro-manganese, silicon manganese, and ferro-chromium, excluding those emissions relating to fuel use. From the production of these alloys, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) originating from ore- and reductant raw materials, is emitted.

Aluminium Production covers primary production of aluminium, except the emissions related to the use of fuel. Carbon dioxide emissions result from the electrochemical reduction reaction of alumina with a carbon-based anode. Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and hexafluoroethane (C2F6) are also produced intermittently. No greenhouse gases are produced in recycling of aluminium other than from the fuels uses for metal remelting. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions are not associated with primary aluminium production; however, casting of some high magnesium containing alloys does result in SF6 emissions and these emissions are accounted for in Section 2C4, Magnesium Production.

Magnesium production covers GHG emissions related to both primary magnesium production as well as oxidation protection of magnesium metal during processing (recycling and casting), excluding those emissions relating to fuel use. In the primary production of magnesium, carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted during calcination of dolomite and magnesite raw materials. Primary production of magnesium from non-carbonate raw materials does not emit carbon dioxide. In the processing of liquid magnesium, cover gases containing carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), the hydrofluorocarbon hFc 134a or the fluorinated ketone FK 5-1 -12 ( CsFy^O^Fs) may be used. Partial thermal decomposition and/or reaction between these compounds and liquid magnesium generates secondary compounds such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are emitted in addition to unreacted cover gas constituents.

96 GLs

Category

Gases

Code

JEJ

HFCs,

PFCs,

SFs,

other

halogen

ated

gases

JB5

CO2,

ch4,

n2o,

HFCs,

PFCs,

SFs,

other

halogen

ated

gases,

NOx,

CO,

NMVOC,

SO2

JC

CO2,

CH4,

N2O,

HFCs,

PFCs,

SFs,

other

halogen

ated

gases,

NOx,

CO,

NMVOC,

SO2

JC1

CO2,

ch4,

n2o,

NOx,

CO,

NMVOC,

SO2

JCJ

CO2,

CH4,

N2O,

NOx,

CO,

NMVOC,

SO2

JCS

CO2,

ch4,

PFCs,

NOx,

CO,

NMVOC,

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