Choice of emission factors

This section provides default emission factors for CO2, CH4 and N2O, and discusses provision of emission factors at higher Tiers. CO2 emission factors for all Tiers reflect the full carbon content of the fuel less any non-oxidised fraction of carbon retained in the ash, particulates or soot. Since this fraction is usually small, the Tier 1 default emission factors derived in Chapter 1 of this Volume neglect this effect by assuming a complete oxidation of the carbon contained in the fuel (carbon oxidation factor equal to 1). For some solid fuels, this fraction will not necessarily be negligible, and higher Tier estimates can be applied. Where this is known to be the case it is good practice to use country-specific values, based on measurements or other well documented data. The Emission Factor Database (EFDB) provides a variety of well-documented emission factors and other parameters that may be better suited to national circumstances than the default values, although the responsibility to ensure appropriate application of material from the database remains with the inventory compiler.

This section presents for each of the fuels used in stationary sources a set of default emission factors for use in Tier 1 emission estimates for the source categories. In a number of source categories, the same fuels are used. These will have the same emission factors for CO2. The derivation of the CO2 emission factors is presented in the Introduction chapter of this Volume. Emission factors for CO2 are in units of kg CO2/TJ on a net calorific value basis and reflect the carbon content of the fuel and the assumption that the carbon oxidation factor is 1.

Emission factors for CH4 and N2O for different source categories differ due to differences in combustion technologies applied in the different source categories. The default factors presented for Tier 1 apply to technologies without emission controls. The default emission factors, particularly those in Tables 2.2 and 2.3, assume effective combustion in high temperature. They are applicable for steady and optimal conditions and do not take into account the impact of start-ups, shut downs or combustion with partial loads.

Default emission factors for stationary combustion are given in Tables 2.2 to 2.5. The CO2 emission factors are the same ones as presented in Table 1.4 of the Introduction chapter. The emission factors for CH4 and N2O are based on the IPCC 1996 Guidelines. These emission factors were established using the expert judgement of a large group of inventory experts and are still considered valid. Since not many measurements of these types of emission factors are available, the uncertainty ranges are set at plus or minus a factor of three. Tables 2.2 to 2.5 do not provide default emission factors for CH4 and N2O emissions from combustion by off-road machinery that are reported in the 1A category. These emission factors are provided in Section 3.3 of this Volume.

Figure 2.1 Generalised decision tree for estimating emissions from stationary combustion

Figure 2.1 Generalised decision tree for estimating emissions from stationary combustion

Note: See Volume 1 Chapter 4, "Methodological Choice and Key Categories" (noting section 4.1.2 on limited resources) for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees.

Table 2.2

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the energy industries (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

Table 2.2

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the energy industries (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

CO2

CH4

N2O

Fuel

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Crude Oil

73 300

71 100

75 500

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Orimulsion

r 77 000

69 300

85 400

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Natural Gas Liquids

r 64 200

58 300

70 400

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

"o

Motor Gasoline

r 69 300

67 500

73 000

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Aviation Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

m tí O

Jet Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Jet Kerosene

r 71 500

69 700

74 400

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Other Kerosene

71 900

70 800

73 700

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Shale Oil

73 300

67 800

79 200

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Gas/Diesel Oil

74 100

72 600

74 800

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Residual Fuel Oil

77 400

75 500

78 800

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Liquefied Petroleum Gases

63 100

61 600

65 600

r

1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Ethane

61 600

56 500

68 600

r

1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Naphtha

73 300

69 300

76 300

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Bitumen

80 700

73 000

89 900

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Lubricants

73 300

71 900

75 200

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Petroleum Coke

r 97 500

82 900

115 000

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Refinery Feedstocks

73 300

68 900

76 600

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Refinery Gas

n 57 600

48 200

69 000

r

1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Paraffin Waxes

73 300

72 200

74 400

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

se

White Spirit and SBP

73 300

72 200

74 400

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

É

Other Petroleum Products

73 300

72 200

74 400

r

3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Anthracite

98 300

94 600

101 000

1

0.3

3

r

1.5

0.5

5

Coking Coal

94 600

87 300

101 000

1

0.3

3

r

1. 5

0.5

5

Other Bituminous Coal

94 600

89 500

99 700

1

0.3

3

r

1. 5

0.5

5

Sub-Bituminous Coal

96 100

92 800

100 000

1

0.3

3

r

1.5

0.5

5

Lignite

101 000

90 900

115 000

1

0.3

3

r

1. 5

0.5

5

Oil Shale and Tar Sands

107 000

90 200

125 000

1

0.3

3

r

1. 5

0.5

5

Brown Coal Briquettes

97 500

87 300

109 000

n 1

0.3

3

r

1. 5

0.5

5

Patent Fuel

97 500

87 300

109 000

1

0.3

3

n

1. 5

0.5

5

e

Coke Oven Coke and Lignite Coke

r 107 000

95 700

119 000

1

0.3

3

r

1. 5

0.5

5

O

Gas Coke

r 107 000

95 700

119 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Coal Tar

n 80 700

68 200

95 300

n 1

0.3

3

r

1. 5

0.5

5

s

Gas Works Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

n 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

s tí O

Coke Oven Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

>

Blast Furnace Gas

n 260 000

219 000

308 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Q

Oxygen Steel Furnace Gas

n 182 000

145 000

202 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Natural Gas

56 100

54 300

58 300

1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Table 2.2 (continued) Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the energy industries (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

CO2

CH4

N2O

Fuel

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Municipal Wastes (non-biomass fraction)

n 91 700

73 300

121 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

Industrial Wastes

n 143 000

110 000

183 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

Waste Oils

n 73 300

72 200

74 400

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

Peat

106 000

100 000

108 000

n 1

0.3

3

n 1.5

0.5

5

Wood / Wood Waste

n 112 000

95 000

132 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

ls el

Sulphite lyes (Black Liquor)a

n 95 300

80 700

110 000

n 3

1

18

n 2

1

S

Other Primary Solid Biomass

n 100 000

84 700

117 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

Cfl

Charcoal

n 112 000

95 000

132 000

200

70

600

4

1.5

15

Biogasoline

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

C/2

Biodiesels

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

J m

Other Liquid Biofuels

n 79 600

67 100

95 300

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Landfill Gas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

s tí s

Sludge Gas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Gas Bioi

Other Biogas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Other nonfossil fuels

Municipal Wastes (biomass fraction)

n 100 000

84 700

117 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

(a) Includes the biomass-derived CO2 emitted from the black liquor combustion unit and the biomass-derived CO2 emitted from the kraft mill lime kiln. n indicates a new emission factor which was not present in the 1996 Guidelines r indicates an emission factor that has been revised since the 1996 Guidelines

Table 2.3

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

Table 2.3

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

CO2

CH4

N2O

Fuel

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Crude Oil

73 300

71 100

75 500

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Orimulsion

r 77 000

69 300

85 400

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Natural Gas Liquids

r 64 200

58 300

70 400

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

"o

Motor Gasoline

r 69 300

67 500

73 000

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Aviation Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

O

Jet Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Jet Kerosene

71 500

69 700

74 400

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Other Kerosene

71 900

70 800

73 700

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Shale Oil

73 300

67 800

79 200

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Gas/Diesel Oil

74 100

72 600

74 800

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Residual Fuel Oil

77 400

75 500

78 800

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Liquefied Petroleum Gases

63 100

61 600

65 600

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Ethane

61 600

56 500

68 600

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Naphtha

73 300

69 300

76 300

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Bitumen

80 700

73 000

89 900

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Lubricants

73 300

71 900

75 200

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Petroleum Coke

r 97 500

82 900

115 000

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Refinery Feedstocks

73 300

68 900

76 600

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Refinery Gas

n 57 600

48 200

69 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Paraffin Waxes

73 300

72 200

74 400

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

se

White Spirit and SBP

73 300

72 200

74 400

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

É

Other Petroleum Products

73 300

72 200

74 400

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Anthracite

98 300

94 600

101 000

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

Coking Coal

94 600

87 300

101 000

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

Other Bituminous Coal

94 600

89 500

99 700

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

Sub-Bituminous Coal

96 100

92 800

100 000

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

Lignite

101 000

90 900

115 000

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

Oil Shale and Tar Sands

107 000

90 200

125 000

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

Brown Coal Briquettes

n 97 500

87 300

109 000

n 10

3

30

n 1.5

0.5

5

Patent Fuel

97 500

87 300

109 000

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

e

Coke Oven Coke and Lignite Coke

r 107 000

95 700

119 000

10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

O

Gas Coke

r 107 000

95 700

119 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Coal Tar

n 80 700

68 200

95 300

n 10

3

30

n 1.5

0.5

5

s

Gas Works Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

s tí O

Coke Oven Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

>

Blast Furnace Gas

n260 000

219 000

308 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Q

Oxygen Steel Furnace Gas

n 182 000

145 000

202 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Natural Gas

56 100

54 300

58 300

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Table 2.3 (continued)

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

CO2

CH4

n2O

Fuel

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Municipal Wastes (non-biomass fraction)

n 91 700

73 300

121 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

Industrial Wastes

n143 000

110 000

183 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

Waste Oils

n 73 300

72 200

74 400

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

Peat

106 000

100 000

108 000

n 2

0.6

6

n 1.5

0.5

5

Wood / Wood Waste

n 112 000

95 000

132 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

£

Sulphite lyes (Black Liquor)a

n 95 300

80 700

110 000

n 3

1

18

n 2

1

21

S

Other Primary Solid Biomass

n 100 000

84 700

117 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

Cfl

Charcoal

n 112 000

95 000

132 000

200

70

600

4

1.5

15

Biogasoline

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

ZA

Biodiesels

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

J ffl

Other Liquid Biofuels

n 79 600

67 100

95 300

r 3

1

10

0.6

0.2

2

Landfill Gas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

s tí s

Sludge Gas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Gas Bioi

Other Biogas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

r 1

0.3

3

0.1

0.03

0.3

Other non-fossil fuels

Municipal Wastes (biomass fraction)

n100 000

84 700

117 000

30

10

100

4

1.5

15

(a) Includes the biomass-derived CO2 emitted from the black liquor combustion unit and the biomass-derived CO2 emitted from the kraft mill lime kiln. n indicates a new emission factor which was not present in the 1996 Guidelines r indicates an emission factor that has been revised since the 1996 Guidelines

Table 2.4

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the commercial/institutional category (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

Table 2.4

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the commercial/institutional category (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

Fuel

CO2

CH4

N2O

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Crude Oil

73 300

71 100

75 500

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Orimulsion

r 77 000

69 300

85 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Natural Gas Liquids

r 64 200

58 300

70 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Gasoline

Motor Gasoline

r 69 300

67 500

73 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Aviation Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Jet Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Jet Kerosene

r 71 500

69 700

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Other Kerosene

71 900

70 800

73 700

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Shale Oil

73 300

67 800

79 200

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Gas/Diesel Oil

74 100

72 600

74 800

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Residual Fuel Oil

77 400

75 500

78 800

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Liquefied Petroleum Gases

63 100

61 600

65 600

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Ethane

61 600

56 500

68 600

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Naphtha

73 300

69 300

76 300

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Bitumen

80 700

73 000

89 900

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Lubricants

73 300

71 900

75 200

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Petroleum Coke

r 97 500

82 900

115 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Refinery Feedstocks

73 300

68 900

76 600

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Other Oil

Refinery Gas

n 57 600

48 200

69 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Paraffin Waxes

73 300

72 200

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

White Spirit and SBP

73 300

72 200

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Other Petroleum Products

73 300

72 200

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Anthracite

r 98 300

94 600

101 000

10

3

30

1.5

0.5

5

Coking Coal

94 600

87 300

101 000

10

3

30

1.5

0.5

5

Other Bituminous Coal

94 600

89 500

99 700

10

3

30

1.5

0.5

5

Sub-Bituminous Coal

96 100

92 800

100 000

10

3

30

1.5

0.5

5

Lignite

101 000

90 900

115 000

10

3

30

1.5

0.5

5

Oil Shale and Tar Sands

107 000

90 200

125 000

10

3

30

1.5

0.5

5

Brown Coal Briquettes

n 97 500

87 300

109 000

n 10

3

30

r 1.5

0.5

5

Patent Fuel

97 500

87 300

109 000

10

3

30

n 1.5

0.5

5

Coke

Coke Oven Coke and Lignite Coke

n 107 000

95 700

119 000

10

3

30

1.5

0.5

4

Gas Coke

n 107 000

95 700

119 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Table 2.4 (continued)

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the commercial/institutional category (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

Fuel

CO2

CH4

N2O

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Coal Tar

n 80 700

68 200

95 300

n 10

30

30

n 1.5

0.5

5

Derived Gases

Gas Works Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Coke Oven Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Blast Furnace Gas

n 260 000

219 000

308 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Oxygen Steel Furnace Gas

n 182 000

145 000

202 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Natural Gas

56 100

54 300

58 300

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Municipal Wastes (non-biomass fraction)

n 91 700

73 300

121 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Industrial Wastes

n 143 000

110 000

183 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Waste Oils

n 73 300

72 200

74 400

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Peat

106 000

100 000

108 000

n 10

3

30

n 1.4

0.5

5

Solid Biofuels

Wood / Wood Waste

r 112 000

95 000

132 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Sulphite lyes (Black Liquor)a

n 95 300

80 700

110 000

n 3

1

18

n 2

1

21

Other Primary Solid Biomass

n 100 000

84 700

117 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Charcoal

n 112 000

95 000

132 000

200

70

600

1

0.3

3

Liquid Biofuels

Biogasoline

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Biodiesels

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Other Liquid Biofuels

n 79 600

67 100

95 300

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Biomass

Landfill Gas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Sludge Gas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Other Biogas

n 54 600

46 200

66 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Other non-

Municipal Wastes (biomass fraction)

n 100 000

84 700

117 000

300

100

900

4

1..5

15

(a) Includes the biomass-derived CO2 emitted from the black liquor combustion unit and the biomass-derived CO2 emitted from the kraft mill lime kiln. n indicates a new emission factor which was not present in the 1996 Guidelines r indicates an emission factor that has been revised since the 1996 Guidelines

Table 2.5

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the residential and agriculture/forestry/fishing/fishing farms categories (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

Table 2.5

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the residential and agriculture/forestry/fishing/fishing farms categories (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

Fuel

CO2

CH4

N2O

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Crude Oil

73 300

71 100

75 500

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Orimulsion

r 77 000

69 300

85 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Natural Gas Liquids

r 64 200

58 300

70 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Gasoline

Motor Gasoline

r 69 300

67 500

73 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Aviation Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Jet Gasoline

r 70 000

67 500

73 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Jet Kerosene

r 71 500

69 700

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Other Kerosene

71 900

70 800

73 700

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Shale Oil

73 300

67 800

79 200

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Gas/Diesel Oil

74 100

72 600

74 800

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Residual Fuel Oil

77 400

75 500

78 800

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Liquefied Petroleum Gases

63 100

61 600

65 600

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Ethane

61 600

56 500

68 600

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Naphtha

73 300

69 300

76 300

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Bitumen

80 700

73 000

89 900

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Lubricants

73 300

71 900

75 200

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Petroleum Coke

r 97 500

82 900

115 000

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Refinery Feedstocks

73 300

68 900

76 600

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Other Oil

Refinery Gas

n 57 600

48 200

69 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Paraffin Waxes

73 300

72 200

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

White Spirit and SBP

73 300

72 200

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

3

Other Petroleum Products

73 300

72 200

74 400

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Anthracite

98 300

94 600

101 000

300

100

900

1.5

0.5

5

Coking Coal

94 600

87 300

101 000

300

100

900

1.5

0.5

5

Other Bituminous Coal

94 600

89 500

99 700

300

100

900

1.5

0.5

5

Sub-Bituminous Coal

96 100

92 800

100 000

300

100

900

1.5

0.5

5

Lignite

101 000

90 900

115 000

300

100

900

1.5

0.5

5

Oil Shale and Tar Sands

107 000

90 200

125 000

300

100

900

1.5

0.5

5

Brown Coal Briquettes

n 97 500

87 300

109 000

n 300

100

900

n 1.5

0.5

5

Patent Fuel

97 500

87 300

109 000

300

100

900

1.5

0.5

5

Coke

Coke Oven Coke and Lignite Coke

r 107 000

95 700

119 000

300

100

900

n 1.5

0.5

5

Gas Coke

r 107 000

95 700

119 000

r 5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Coal Tar

n 80 700

68 200

95 300

n 300

100

900

n 1.5

0.5

5

Derived Gases

Gas Works Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Coke Oven Gas

n 44 400

37 300

54 100

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Blast Furnace Gas

n 260 000

219 000

308 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Oxygen Steel Furnace Gas

n 182 000

145 000

202 000

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Table 2.5 (continued)

Default emission factors for stationary combustion in the residential and agriculture/forestry/fishing/fishing farms categories (kg of greenhouse gas per TJ on a Net Calorific Basis)

CO2

CH4

N2O

Fuel

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Default Emission Factor

Lower

Upper

Natural Gas

56 100

54 300

58 300

5

1.5

15

0.1

0.03

0.3

Municipal Wastes (non-biomass fraction)

n 91 700

73 300

121 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Industrial Wastes

n 143 000

110 000

183 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Waste Oils

n 73 300

72 200

74 400

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

Peat

106 000

100 000

108 000

n 300

100

900

n 1.4

0.5

5

Wood / Wood Waste

n 112 000

95 000

132 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

15

ls el

Sulphite lyes (Black Liquor)a

n 95 300

80 700

110 000

n 3

1

18

n 2

1

21

a io rn

Other Primary Solid Biomass

n 100 000

84 700

117 000

300

100

900

4

1.5

Cfl

Charcoal

n 112 000

95 000

132 000

200

70

600

1

0.3

3

Biogasoline

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Biodiesels

n 70 800

59 800

84 300

10

3

30

0.6

0.2

2

Liqu

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