Choice of emission factors

TIER 1 METHOD

If plant-level information is not available, it is good practice to use default factors. These default values often represent midpoint or mean values of data sets (as determined by expert analysis). The extent to which they represent a specific plant's emission rate is unknown. Default factors by product are provided in Table 3.9, and should be used only in cases where plant-specific data are not available. The default factors are based on estimates of reductant or carbothermal input per unit of output assuming complete conversion of the C content to CO2.

TIER 2 METHOD

Plant-level data provides the most rigorous data for calculating CO2 emissions from titanium dioxide production. For the Tier 3 method, C content of the reductant and carbothermal inputs along with the proportion of C oxidised are the key emission factor variables for deriving the quantity of CO2 emitted.

Table 3.9

Default factors for titanium dioxide production (tonnes CO2 per tonne product)

Product

Emission factor and respective uncertainty (tonnes CO2/tonne product)

Titanium slag1

Not available

Synthetic rutile2

1.43 (± 10%)

Rutile titanium dioxide (chloride route)3

1.34 (± 15%)

Source:

1 A default emission factor is not available because there are two plants only, Richards Bay in South Africa, and Allard Lake in Canada, and data are confidential. It is good practice for the respective countries to include plant specific estimates of emissions in their national greenhouse gas inventories.

2 Derived from data provided by Iluka Resources.

3 Adapted from EIPPCB (2004a; p.99).

Figure 3.6 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from titanium dioxide production

Figure 3.6 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from titanium dioxide production

Note:

1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees.

Note:

1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees.

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