Annex 4A1 Glossary for Forest Land

Terminology for stocks and changes in forests as defined in this volume

Component

State

Increase

Decrease from harvest

Merchantable volume

growing stock

net annual increment

removals

Biomass in the merchantable volume

growing stock biomass

increment biomass

removals biomass

Total above-ground biomass

above-ground biomass

above-ground biomass growth

above-ground biomass removals

Total below-ground biomass

below-ground biomass

below-ground biomass growth

below-ground biomass1 removals

Total above-ground and below-ground biomass

total biomass

total biomass growth

biomass removals

(in any of the compartments above, e.g., carbon in growing stock or biomass removals), or in litter, dead wood and soil organic matter

Above-ground biomass

All biomass of living vegetation, both woody and herbaceous, above the soil including stems, stumps, branches, bark, seeds, and foliage.

Note: In cases where forest understory is a relatively small component of the above-ground biomass carbon pool, it is acceptable for the methodologies and associated data used in some tiers to exclude it, provided the tiers are used in a consistent manner throughout the inventory time series.

Above-ground biomass growth

Oven-dry weight of net annual increment (s.b.) of a tree, stand or forest plus oven-dry weight of annual growth of branches, twigs, foliage, top and stump. The term "growth" is used here instead of "increment", since the latter term tends to be understood in terms of merchantable volume.

Afforestation2

The direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources.

AGROFORESTRY

A land-use system that involves deliberate retention, introduction, or mixture of trees or other woody perennials in crop and animal production systems to take advantage of economic or ecological interactions among the components (Dictionary of Forestry, helms, 1998, Society of American Foresters).

Basic wood density

Ratio between oven dry mass and fresh stem-wood volume without bark.

Below-ground biomass

All biomass of live roots. Fine roots of less than (suggested) 2mm diameter are often excluded because these often cannot be distinguished empirically from soil organic matter or litter.

Biomass Conversion and expansion Factor (BCEF)

A multiplication factor that coverts merchantable volume of growing stock, merchantable volume of net annual increment, or merchantable volume of wood-removal and fuelwood-removals to above-ground biomass, above-ground biomass growth, or biomass removals, repectively. Biomass conversion and expansion factors for

1 Occurs in some cases, e.g., where root stocks (walnut) or entire root systems are removed (biomass harvesting).

2 In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, as stipulated by the Marrakesh Accords, cf. paragraph 1 of the Annex to draft decision -/CMP.1 (Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry) contained in document FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1, p.58.

growing stock (BCEFS), for net annual increment (BCEFI), and for wood-removal and fuelwood-removals (BCEFr) usually differ. As used in these guidelines, they account for above-ground components only. For more detail see Box 4.2.

Biomass expansion Factor (BEF)

A multiplication factor that expands the dry-weight of growing stock biomass, increment biomass, and biomass of wood-removal or fuelwood-removals to account for non-merchantable or non-commercial biomass components, such as stump, branches, twigs, foliage, and, sometimes, non-commercial trees. Biomass expansion factors usually differ for growing stock (BEFS), net annual increment (BEFI), and wood-removal and fuelwood-removals (BEFR). As used in these guidelines, biomass expansion factors account for above-ground components only. For more detail see Box 4.2.

Biomass removals

Biomass of wood-removal and firewood-removals (s.b.) plus oven-dry weight of branches, twigs, foliage of the trees or stands removed.

Canopy cover

See crown cover Carbon content

Absolute amount of carbon in a pool or parts of it. Carbon fraction Tonnes of carbon per tonne of biomass dry matter. Carbon in...

See table above; absolute amount in tonnes, obtained by multiplying amount of biomass in respective component by the applicable carbon fraction, usually 50%.

Carbon stock

The quantity of carbon in a pool. Carbon stock change

The carbon stock in a pool changes due to gains and losses. When losses exceed gains, the stock decreases, and the pool acts as a source; when gains exceed losses, the pools accumulate carbon, and the pools act as a sink.

Closed forest

Formations where trees, in the various stories and the undergrowth, cover a high proportion of the ground (>40%).

Conversion

Change of one land use to another. Conversion factor

Multiplier that transforms the measurement units of an item without affecting its size or amount. For example, basic wood density is a conversion factor that transforms green volume of wood into dry weight.

Crown cover

The percentage of the ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of the foliage (cannot exceed 100%).

Dead wood

Includes all non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing, lying on the ground, or in the soil. Dead wood includes wood lying on the surface, dead roots, and stumps, larger than or equal to 10cm in diameter (or the diameter specified by the country).

Dead wood biomass

All non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing, lying on the ground, or in the soil. Dead wood includes wood lying on the surface, dead roots down to a diameter of 2mm, and stumps larger than or equal to 10cm in diameter or any other diameter used by the country.

Deforestation3

The direct human-induced conversion of forested land to non-forested land. Disturbance

A disturbance is defined as an environmental fluctuation and destructive event that disturb forest health, structure, and/or change resources or physical environment at any given spatial or temporal scale. Disturbances that affect health and vitality which include biotic agents such as insects and diseases, and abiotic agents such as fire, pollution, and extreme weather conditions (see also below, mortality and other disturbance).

Disturbance by diseases

Disturbances caused by diseases attributable to pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, phytoplasma, or virus. Disturbance by fire

Disturbance caused by wildfire regardless of whether it broke out inside or outside the Forest. A wildfire is any unplanned and uncontrolled wildland fire which, regardless of ignition source, may require suppression response.

Disturbance by insects

Disturbance caused by insect pests that are detrimental to tree health. Dry (forest)

Moisture regimes for boreal and temperate zones are defined by the ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential evapotranspiration (PET): Dry (MAP/PET < 1) and Wet (MAP/PET > 1); and for tropical zones by precipitation alone: Dry (MAP < 1,000mm), Moist (MAP: 1,000-2,000mm) and Wet (MAP > 2,000mm).

Dry matter refers to biomass that has been dried to an oven-dry state, often at 70°C. Fellings

Volume (over bark) of all trees, living or dead, above a 10cm diameter at breast height, felled annually in forests or other wooded land. It includes volume of all felled trees whether or not they are removed. It includes silvicultural and pre-commercial thinning and cleanings of trees of more than 10cm diameter, left in the forest, and natural losses that are recovered.

Note: In these guidelines, only the terms "wood-removal" and "fuelwood-removals" are used, consistent with GFRA 2005. Removals are generally a subset of fellings.

Forest4

Forest is a minimum area of land of 0.05 - 1.0 hectares with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 - 30 per cent with trees with the potential to reach a minimum height of 2 - 5 metres at maturity in situ. A forest may consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high portion of the ground or open forest. Young natural stands and all plantations which have yet to reach a crown density of 10 - 30 per cent or tree height of 2 - 5 metres are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention such as harvesting or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest.

Forest inventory

System for measuring the extent, quantity, and condition of a forest, usually by sampling:

1. A set of objective sampling methods designed to quantify the spatial distribution, composition, and rates of change of forest parameters within specified levels of precision for the purpose of management;

2. The listing of data from such a survey. May be made of all forest resources including trees and other vegetation, fish, insects, and wildlife, as well as street trees and urban forest trees.

3 In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, as stipulated by the Marrakesh Accords, cf. paragraph 1 of the Annex to draft decision -/CMP.1 (Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry) contained in document FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1, p.58.

4 In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, as stipulated by the Marrakesh Accords, cf. paragraph 1 of the Annex to draft decision -/CMP.1 (Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry) contained in document FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1, p.58.

Forest Land

This category includes all land with woody vegetation consistent with thresholds used to define Forest Land in the national greenhouse gas inventory. It also includes systems with a vegetation structure that currently fall below, but in situ could potentially reach the threshold values used by a country to define the Forest Land category.

Forest management5

A system of practices for stewardship and use of forest land aimed at fulfilling relevant ecological (including biological diversity), economic and social functions of the forest in a sustainable manner.

Forest plantation

Forest stands established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either of introduced species (all planted stands), or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at planting, even age class, and regular spacing.

Fuelwood-removal

The wood removed for energy production purposes, regardless of whether for industrial, commercial, or domestic use. Fuel wood includes wood collected or removed directly from forest or other wooded land for energy purposes only. It excludes fuelwood which is produced as a by-product or residual matter from the industrial processing of round wood. It includes removal from fellings in an earlier period and from trees killed or damaged by natural causes. It also includes removal by local people or owners for their own use.

Growing Stock

Volume over bark of all living trees more than X cm in diameter at breast height. It includes the stem from ground level or stump height up to a top diameter of Y cm, and may also include branches to a minimum diameter of W cm. Countries indicate the three thresholds (X, Y, W in cm) and the parts of the tree that are not included in the volume. Countries also indicate whether the reported figures refer to volume above ground or above stump. The diameter is measured at 30cm above the end of the buttresses if these are higher than 1 meter. It includes windfallen living trees and excludes smaller branches, twigs, foliage, flowers, seeds, and roots.

Growing stock biomass

Oven-dry weight of the growing stock (s.a.).

Harvest loss

Difference between the assessed merchantable volume of growing stock and the actual volume of the harvested timber. Due to different measurement rules for standing and felled timber, losses are from bucking, breakage, defect.

Increment biomass

Oven-dry weight of (merchantable) net annual increment of a tree, stand, or forest. Intensive forest management

A regime of forest management, where silvicultural practices define the structure and composition of forest stands. A formal or informal forest management plan exists.

A forest is not under intensive management, if mainly natural ecological processes define the structure and composition of stands.

Introduced species

A species introduced outside of its normal past and current distribution. Litter

Includes all non-living biomass with a size greater than the limit for soil organic matter (suggested 2mm) and less than the minimum diameter chosen for dead wood (e.g., 10cm), lying dead, in various states of decomposition above or within the mineral or organic soil. This includes the litter layer as usually defined in soil

5 Forest management has particular meaning under the Marrakesh Accords, which may require subdivision of the managed forest as described in Chapter 4.

typologies. Live fine roots above the mineral or organic soil (of less than the minimum diameter limit chosen for below-ground biomass) are included in litter where they cannot be distinguished from it empirically.

Low activity clay (LAC) soils

Soils with low activity clay (LAC) minerals are highly weathered soils dominated by 1:1 clay mineral and amorphous iron and aluminium oxides (in FAO classification included: Acrisols, Nitosols, Ferrasols).

Managed forest

A managed forest is forest land subjected to conditions defined for managed land. Managed land

Managed land is land where human interventions and practices have been applied to perform production, ecological or social functions.

Merchantable volume

Mechantable volume is the volume overbark of all trees defined using the conditions described for growing stocks. Further, this can be applied to growing stocks as well as net annual increment and wood removals.

Moist (forest)

Moisture regimes for boreal and temperate zones are defined by the ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential evapotranspiration (PET): Dry (MAP/PET < 1) and Wet (MAP/PET > 1); and for tropical zones by precipitation alone: Dry (MAP < 1,000mm), Moist (MAP: 1,000-2,000mm) and Wet (MAP > 2,000mm).

Mortality

Trees dying naturally from competition in the stem-exclusion stage of a stand or forest. As used here, mortality does not include losses due to disturbances (s.a.).

Natural forest

A forest composed of indigenous trees and not classified as a forest plantation. Natural regeneration

Re-establishment of a forest stand by natural means i.e., by natural seeding or vegetative regeneration. It may be assisted by human intervention e.g., by scarification of the soil or fencing to protect against wildlife or domestic animal grazing.

Net annual increment

Average annual volume of gross increment over the given reference period minus mortality (s.a.), of all trees to a specified minimum diameter at breast height. As used here, it is not net of losses due to disturbances (s.a.).

Organic soils

Soils are organic if they satisfy the requirements 1 and 2, or 1 and 3 below (FAO, 1998):

1) Thickness of organic horizon greater than or equal to 10cm. A horizon of less than 20cm must have 12 percent or more organic carbon when mixed to a depth of 20cm.

2) Soils that are never saturated with water for more than a few days must contain more than 20 percent organic carbon by weight (i.e., about 35 percent organic matter).

3) Soils are subject to water saturation episodes and has either:

a. At least 12 percent organic carbon by weight (i.e., about 20 percent organic matter) if the soil has no clay; or b. At least 18 percent organic carbon by weight (i.e., about 30 percent organic matter) if the soil has 60% or more clay; or c. An intermediate, proportional amount of organic carbon for intermediate amounts of clay. Other disturbance

Disturbance caused by factors other than fire, insects, or diseases. May include areas affected by drought, flooding, windfalls, acid rain, etc.

Peat soil (also Histosol)

A typical wetland soil with a high water table and an organic layer of at least 40cm thickness (poorly drained organic soil).

Pool/carbon pool

A reservoir. A system which has the capacity to accumulate or release carbon. Examples of carbon pools are forest biomass, wood products, soils, and the atmosphere. The units are in mass.

Reforestation6

Direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, on land that was forested but that has been converted to non-forested land. For the first commitment period, reforestation activities will be limited to reforestation occurring on those lands that did not contain forest on 31 December 1989.

Removal biomass

Oven dry weight of wood removals. Revegetation7

A direct human-induced activity to increase carbon stocks on sites through the establishment of vegetation that covers a minimum area of 0.05 hectares and does not meet the definitions of afforestation and reforestation contained here.

Root-shoot ratio

Ratio of below-ground biomass to above-ground biomass; applies to above-ground biomass, above-ground biomass growth, biomass removals and may differ for these components.

Roundwood

All round wood felled or otherwise harvested and removed; it comprises all wood obtained from removals e.g., quatities removed from forests and from trees outside forests, including wood recovered from natural felling and logging losses during a period. In the production statistics, it represents the sum of fuelwood, including wood for charcoal, saw-and veneer logs, pulpwood and other industrial roundwood. In the trade statistics, it represents the sum of industrial roundwood, and fuelwood, including wood for charcoal. It is reported in cubic meters excluding bark.

Sandy soils

Includes all soils (regardless of taxonomic classification) having > 70% sand and < 8% clay (based on standard textural measurements (in FAO classification include: Arenosols, sandy Regosols)).

Savanna

Savannas are tropical and subtropical formations with continuous grass cover, occasionally interrupted by trees and shrubs. Savannas are found in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Australia.

Seasonal (forest)

Semi-deciduous forests with a distinct wet and dry season and rainfall between 1,200 and 2,000 mm per year. Stand-replacing disturbances

Major disturbances which kill or remove all the existing trees above the forest floor vegetation. Minor disturbances leave some of the pre-disturbance trees alive.

Shrub

Woody perennial plants, generally more than 0.5 meters and less than 5 meters in height at maturity and without definite crown. Height limits for trees and shrubs should be interpreted with flexibility, particularly the minimum tree and maximum shrub height, which may vary between 5 and 7 meters.

6 In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, as stipulated by the Marrakesh Accords, cf. paragraph 1 of the Annex to draft decision -/CMP.1 (Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry) contained in document FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1, p.58.

7 In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, as stipulated by the Marrakesh Accords, cf. paragraph 1 of the Annex to draft decision -/CMP.1 (Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry) contained in document FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.1, p.58.

Soil carbon

Organic carbon in mineral and organic soils (including peat) to a specified depth chosen by the country and applied consistently through the time series. Live fine roots of less than 2mm (or other value chosen by the country as diameter limit for below-ground biomass) are included with soil organic matter where they cannot be distinguished from it empirically.

Soil organic matter

Includes organic carbon in mineral soils to a specified depth chosen by the country and applied consistently through the time series. Live and dead fine roots and DOM within the soil, that are less than the minimum diameter limit (suggested 2mm) for roots and DOM, are included with soil organic matter where they cannot be distinguished from it empirically. The default for soil depth is 30cm and guidance on determining country-specific depths is given in Chapter 2.3.3.1.

Spodic soils

Soils exhibiting strong podzolization (in FAO classification includes many Podzolic groups).

Total biomass

Growing stock biomass of trees, stands or forests plus biomass of branches, twigs, foliage, seeds, stumps, and sometimes, non-commercial trees. Differentiated into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass (s.a.). If there is no misunderstanding, possible also just to use "biomass" with the same meaning.

Total biomass growth

Biomass of the net annual increment (s.a.) of trees, stands, or forests, plus the biomass of the growth of branches, twigs, foliage, seeds, stumps, and sometimes, non-commercial trees. Differentiated into above-ground biomass growth and below-ground biomass growth (s.a.). If there is no misunderstanding, possible also just to use "biomass growth" with the same meaning. The term "growth" is used here instead of "increment", since the latter term tends to be understood in terms of merchantable volume.

Tree

A woody perennial with a single main stem, or in the case of coppice with several stems, having a more or less definitive crown. Includes bamboos, palms, and other woody plants meeting the above criteria.

Volume overbark

Growing stock or merchantable wood measured outside, that is including the bark. Bark adds 5-25% of total volume, depending on tree diameter and bark thickness of species. The weighted average bark percentage calculated from the data of TBFRA 2000 is 11% of the volume outside bark.

Volume underbark

Growing stock or merchantable wood without the bark. See above. Wet (forest)

Moisture regimes for boreal and temperate zones are defined by the ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential evapotranspiration (PET): Dry (MAP/PET < 1) and Wet (MAP/PET > 1); and for tropical zones by precipitation alone: Dry (MAP < 1,000mm), Moist (MAP: 1,000-2,000mm) and Wet (MAP > 2,000mm).

Woody biomass

Biomass from trees, bushes and shrubs, for palms, bamboos not strictly correct in the botanical sense. Wood fuel

Also wood-based fuels, wood-derived biofuels. All types of biofuels originating directly or indirectly from woody biomass.

Wood-removal

The wood removed (volume of round wood over bark) for production of goods and services other than energy production (fuelwood). The term removal differs from fellings as it excludes felled trees left in the forest. It includes removal from fellings of an earlier period and from trees killed or damaged by natural causes. It also includes removal by local people or owners for their own use. As the term "removal" is used in the context of climate change to indicate sequestration of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, removal in the context of forest harvesting should always be used as "wood-removal or fuelwood-removal" to avoid misunderstandings.

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