Annex 11A1 References for crop residue data in Table 112

I. Dry matter fraction of harvested product

Lander, C.H., Moffitt, D., and Alt, K. (1998). Nutrients available from livestock manure relative to crop growth requirements. Resource Assessment and Strategic Planning Working paper 98-1. USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service. http://www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov/land/pubs/.

II. Above-ground residue dry matter

1. Maize

Ames, J.W., and Simon, R.H. (1924). Soil potassium as affected by fertilizer treatment and cropping. Bulletin 379. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio.

Anonymous (1924). Forty-third annual report for 1923-24. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 382. Wooster, OH.

Anonymous (1926). Forty-fourth annual report for 1924-25. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 392. Wooster, OH.

Bustillo, J. J. and Gallaher, R.N. (1989). Dry matter Partitioning in No-tillage Tropical Corn in Florida. p.40-42. In I. D. Teare, E. Brown, and C.A. Trimble (ed.) 1989 Southern Conservation Tillage Conference. SB 891. Tallahassee, FL. 12-13 July, 1989. Univ. of Fla., North Fla. Res. and Educ. Ctr., Quincy, FL 32351.

Buyanovsky, G.A. and Wagner, G.H. (1986). Post-harvest residue input to cropland. Plant and Soil 93:57-65.

Donald, C.M. and Hamblin, J. (1976). The biological yield and harvest index of cereals as agronomic and plant breeding criteria. Adv. Agron., 28: 361-405.

Fisher, K.S. and Palmer, A.F.E. (1983). Maize. In: Symposium on Potential Productivity of Field Crops Under Different Environments. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines.

Graybill, J.S., Cox, W.J. and Otis, D.J. (1991). Yield and quality of forage maize as influenced by hybrid, planting date, and plant density. Agronomy Journal, 83: 559-564.

Hutcheson, T.B., Hodgson, E.R., and Wolfe, T.K. (1917). Corn culture. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 214. Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA.

Jones, J.N. Jr., Moody, J.E., and Lillard, J.H. (1969). Effects of tillage, no tillage, and mulch on soil water and plant growth. Agron. J. 61:719-721.

Jones Jr., J.N., Moody, J.E., Shear, G.M., Moschler, W.W. and Lillard, J.H. (1968). The no-tillage system for corn (Zea mays L.). Agron. J. 60:17-20.

Noll, C.F., Gardner, F.D. and Irvin, C.J (1930). A field test of different sources of phosphorous. School of Agriculture and Experiment Station Bull. 252. Pennsylvania State College

Noll, C.F., Gardner, F.D. and Irvin, C.J. (1931). Fiftieth anniversary of the General Fertilizer Tests 1881-1931.

School of Agriculture and Experiment Station Bull. 264. Pennsylvania State College.

Ockerby, S.E. and Fukai, S. (2001). The management of rice grown on raised beds with continuous furrow irrigation. Field Crops Res. 69:215-226.

Peters, S.E., Wander, M.M., Saparito, L.S., Harris, G.H. and Friedman, D.B. (1997). Management impacts on SOM and related soil properties in a long-term farming systems trial in Pennsylvania: 1981-1991. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Peterson, G.A. and Westfall, D.G. (1997). Management of dryland agroecosystems in the Central Great Plains of Colorado. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G. and Wood, W. (1989). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB89-3. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Poss, D., Larson, K. and Thompson, D.L. (1997). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB97-3. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1992). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB92-2. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1991). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB91-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1994). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB94-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1993). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB93-4. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Poss, D. (1996). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB96-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Poss, D. (1995). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB95-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Wood, W. and Ross, S. (1988). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin LTB88-6. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., McGee, E., Westfall, D.G., Wood, C.W. and Sherrod, L. (1990). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB90-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Pierce, F.J. and Fortin, M.C. (1997). Long-term tillage and periodic plowing of a no-tilled soil in Michigan: Impacts, yield, and soil organic matter. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Russell, W.A. (1991). Genetic improvement of maize yields. Advances in Agronomy 46:245-298.

Sewell, M.C. and Call, L.E. (1925). Tillage investigations relating to wheat production. Tech. Bull. 18. Agricultural Experiment Station. Kansas State Agricultural College.

Shear, G.M. and Moschler, W.W. (1969). Continuous corn by the no-tillage and conventional tillage methods: A six-year comparison. Agron. J. 61:524-526.

Tapper, D.C. (1983). Changes in physiological traits associated with grain yield improvement in single-cross maize hybrids from 1930 to 1970. Ph.D. Dissertation. Agronomy Department, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Thorne, C.E. (1924). The maintenance of soil fertility. Bulletin 381. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.

Throckmorton, R.I. and Duley, F.L. (1935). Twenty years of soil fertility investigations. Kansas. Agricultural Experiment Station Tech. Bull. 40. Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. Manhattan, KS.

Vanotti, M.B., Bundy, L.G. and Peterson, A.E. (1997). Nitrogen fertilizer and legume-cereal rotation effects on soil productivity and organic matter dynamics in Wisconsin. In Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Wianco, A.T. and Jones, S.C. (1918). The value of manure on Indiana soils. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. No. 222. Lafayette, IN.

Wianco, A.T., Conner, S.D. and Jones, S.C. (1919). The value of legumes on Indiana soils. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. No. 226. Lafayette, IN.

2. Winter wheat

Austin, R.B., Bingham, J., Blackwell, R.D., Evans, L.T., Ford, M.A., Morgan, C.L. and Taylor, M. (1980). Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 94:675-689.

Barraclough, P.B. and Leigh, R.A. (1984). The growth and activity of winter wheat roots in the field: the effect of sowing date and soil type on root growth of high yielding crops. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 103:59-74.

Black, A.L. and Tanaka, D.L. (1997). A conservation tillage-cropping systems study in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul, K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Bolinder, M.A., Angers, D.A. and Dubuc, J.P. (1997). Estimating shoot to root ratios and annual carbon inputs in soils for cereal crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 63:61-67.

Bruce, R.R. and Langdale, G.W. (1997). Soil carbon level dependence upon crop culture variables in a thermic-udic region. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Bruckner, P.L. and Morey, D.D. (1988). Nitrogen effects on soft red winter wheat yield, agronomic characteristics, and quality. Crop Sci. 28:152-157.

Buyanovsky, G.A. and Wagner, G.H. (1986). Post-harvest residue input to cropland. Plant and Soil 93:57-65.

Cox, T.S., Shroyer, J.P., Liu, B.-H., Sears, R.G. and Martin, T.J. (1988). Genetic improvements in agronomic traits of hard red winter wheat cultivars from 1919 to 1987. Crop Science 28:756-760.

Donald, C.M. and Hamblin, J. (1976). The biological yield and harvest index of cereals as agronomic and plant breeding criteria. Adv. Agron., 28: 361-405.

Eck, H.V. (1986). Profile modification and irrigation effects on yield and water use of wheat. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:724-729.

Entz, M.H. and Fowler, D.B. (1991). Agronomic performance of winter versus spring wheat. Agron. J. 83:527532.

Gent, M.P.N. and Kiyomoto, R.K. (1989). Assimilation and distribution of photosynthate in winter wheat cultivars differing in harvest index. Crop Sci. 29:120-125.

Halvorson, A.D., Vigil, M.F., Peterson, G.A. and Elliott, E.T. (1997). Long-term tillage and crop residue management study at Akron, Colorado. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Ishaq, M., Ibrahim, M. and Lal, R. (2001). Tillage effect on nutrient uptake by wheat and cotton as influenced by fertilizer rate. Soil and Tillage Res. 62:41-53.

Jensen, M.E. and Sletten, W.H. (1965). Evapotranspiration and soil moisture-fertilizer interrelations with irrigated winter wheat in the Southern High Plains. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Conservation Research Report No. 4.

Jones, O.R., Stewart, B.A. and Unger, P.W. (1997). Management of dry-farmed Southern Great Plains soils for sustained productivity. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Lafever, H.N. (1976). Ohio performance trials of soft red winter wheats including 1976 results. Agronomy Dept. Series 203. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. Wooster, OH.

Lyon, D.J., Monz, C.A., Brown, R.E. and Metherell, A.K. (1997). Soil organic matter changes over two decades of winter wheat - fallow cropping in western Nebraska. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Miller, C.M. (1939). A physiological study of the winter wheat plant at different stages of its development. Tech. Bull. 47. Agricultural Experiment Station. Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science.

Musick, J.T. and Dusek, D.A. (1980). Planting date and water deficit effects on development and yield of irrigated winter wheat. Agron. J. 72: 45-52.

Noll, C.F., Gardner, F.D. and Irvin, C.J. (1931). Fiftieth anniversary of the General Fertilizer Tests 1881-1931. Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture and Experiment Station Bull. 264.

Noll, C.F., Gardner, F.D. and Irvin, C.J (1930). A field test of different sources of phosphorous. Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture and Experiment Station Bull. 252.

Peterson, G.A. and Westfall, D.G. (1997). Management of dryland agroecosystems in the Central Great Plains of Colorado. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul, K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G. and Wood, W. (1989). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB89-3. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Poss, D., Larson, K. and Thompson, D.L. (1997). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB97-3. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1992). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB92-2. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1991). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB91-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1994). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB94-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1993). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB93-4. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Poss, D. (1996). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB96-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Poss, D. (1995). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB95-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Wood, W. and Ross, S. (1988). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin LTB88-6. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., McGee, E., Westfall, D.G., Wood, C.W. and Sherrod, L. (1990). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB90-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Rao, S.C., Coleman, S.W. and Volesky, J.D. (2000). Yield and quality of wheat, triticale, and elytricum forage in the Southern Plains. Crop Sci. 40:1308-1312.

Rasmussen, P.E. and Parton, W.J. (1994). Long-term effects of residue management in wheat-fallow: I. Inputs, yield, and soil organic matter. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58:523-530.

Rasmussen, P.E., Smiley, R.W. and Albrecht, S.L. (1996). Long-term residue management experiment: Pendleton, Oregon, USA. IN: Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models Using Existing Long-term Datasets. D. S. Powlson, P. Smith, and J. U. Smith (eds.). Springer-Verlag, Germany.

Sewell, M.C. and Call, L.E. (1925). Tillage investigations relating to wheat production. Tech. Bull. 18.

Sharma, R.C. and Smith, E.L. (1986). Selection for high and low harvest index in three winter wheat populations. Crop Sci. 26:1147-1150.

Siddique, K.H.M., Belford, R.K., Perry, M.W. and Tennant, D. (1989). Growth, development and light interception of old and modern wheat cultivars in a Mediterranean-type environment. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 40:473-487.

Singh, I.D. and Stoskopf, N.C. (1971). Harvest index in cereals. Agron. J. 63:224-226.

Skidmore, E.L. and Siddoway, F.H. (1978). Crop residue requirements to control wind erosion. Chapter 2 in Crop Residue Management Systems. Am. Soc. Agron. Spec. Pub. No. 31.

Ten Eyck, A. M. and Shoesmith, V. M. (1907). Small grain crops. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 144. Kansas State Agricultural College. Manhattan, KS.

Thorne, C.E. (1924). The maintenance of soil fertility. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 381.

Throckmorton, R.I. and Duley, F.L. (1935). Twenty years of soil fertility investigations. Kansas. Agricultural Experiment Station Tech. Bull. 40. Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. Manhattan, KS.

Unger, P.W. (1977). Tillage effects on winter wheat production where the irrigated and dryland crops are alternated. Agronomy Journal, 69: 944 - 950.

Weir, A.H. and Barraclough, P.B. (1986). The effect of drought on the root growth of winter wheat and on its uptake from deep loam. Soil Use And Management 2:91-96.

Wianco, A.T. and Jones, S.C. (1918). The value of manure on Indiana soils. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. No. 222. Lafayette, IN.

Wianco, A.T., Conner, S.D. and Jones, S.C. (1919). The value of legumes on Indiana soils. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. No. 226. Lafayette, IN.

3. Spring wheat

Bauer, A. and Zubriski, J.C. (1978). Hard red spring wheat straw yields in relation to grain yields. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42:777-781.

Black, A.L. and Tanaka, D.L. (1997). A conservation tillage-cropping systems study in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Campbell, C.A. and Zentner, R.P. (1993). Soil organic matter as influenced by crop rotations and fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 57:1034-1040.

Campbell, C.A., Davidson, H.R. and Warder, F.G. (1977). Effects of fertilizer N and soil moisture on yield, yield components, protein content and N accumulation in the above-ground parts of spring wheat. Can. J. Soil Sci. 57:311-327.

Cassman, K.G., Bryant, D.C., Fulton, A.E. and Jackson, L.F. (1992). Crop ecology, production and management. Crop Sci. 32:1251-1258.

Hucl, P. and Baker, R.J. (1987). A study of ancestral and modern Canadian spring wheats. Can. J. Plant Sci. 67:87-97.

Juma, N.G., Izaurralde, R.C., Robertson, J.A. and McGill, W.B. (1997). Crop yield and soil organic matter trends over 60 years in a typic cryoboralf at Breton, Alberta. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Loffler, C.M., Rauch, T.L. and Busch, R.H. (1985). Grain and plant protein relationships in hard red spring wheat. Crop Sci. 25:521-524.

Perry, M.W. and D'Antuono, M.F. (1989). Yield improvement and associated characteristics of some Australian spring wheat cultivars introduced between 1860 and 1982. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 40:457-472.

Skidmore, E.L. and Siddoway, F.H. (1978). Crop residue requirements to control wind erosion. In: Crop Residue Management Systems. Am. Soc. Agron. Spec. Pub. No. 31.

van Delden, A. (2001). Yield and growth components of potato and wheat under organic nitrogen management. Agron. J. 93:1370-1385.

4. Rice

Bainton, S.J., Plumb, V.E., Juliano, B.O., Perez, C.M., Roxas, D.B., Kush, G.S., de Jesus, J.C. and Gomez, K.A. (1991). Variation in the nutritional value of rice straw. Animal Feed Science and Technology 34, 261-277.

Cho, Y.S., Choe, Z.R. and Ockerby, S.E. (2001). Managing tillage, sowing rate and nitrogen top-dressing level to sustain rice yield in a low-input, direct-sown, rice-vetch cropping system. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 41:61-69.

Donald, C.M. and Hamblin, J. (1976). The biological yield and harvest index of cereals as agronomic and plant breeding criteria. Adv. Agron, 28: 361-405.

George, T., Magbanua, R., Roder, W., Van Keer, K., Trebuil, G. and Reoma, V. (2001). Upland rice response to phosphorous fertilization in Asia. Agron. J. 93:1362-1370.

Kinery, J.R., McCauley, G., Xie, Y. and Arnold, J.G. (2001). Rice parameters describing crop performance of four U. S. cultivars. Agron. J. 93:1354-1361.

Ockerby, S.E. and Fukai, S. (2001). The management of rice grown on raised beds with continuous furrow irrigation. Field Crops Research. 69:215-226.

San-oh, Y., Mano, Y., Ookawa, T. and Hirasawa, T. (2004). Comparison of dry matter production and associated characteristics between direct-sown and transplanted rice plants in a submerged paddy field and relationships to planting patterns. Field Crops Res. 87:43-58.

Turner, F.T. and McCauley, G.N. (1983). Rice. In: Crop - Water Relations. I.D.Teare and M.M. Peet (eds.). John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 308-350.

Yang, J., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Zhu, Q. and Wang, W. (2001). Remobilization of carbon reserves in response to water deficit during grain filling of rice. Field Crops Res. 71:47-55.

5. Barley

Alston, A.M. (1980). Response of wheat to deep placement of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers on a soil high in phosphorous in the surface layer. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 31:13-24.

Boukerrou, L. and Rasmussen, D.D. (1990). Breeding for high biomass yield in spring barley. Crop Sci. 30:3135.

Chery, J., Lefevre, B., Robin, P. and Salsac, L. (1981). Barley breeding for high protein content. Relationship with nitrate reductase and proteolytic activities. In: Barley Genetics IV. Proceedings of the Fourth International Barley Genetics Symposium. Edinburgh Univ. Press.

Donald, C.M. and Hamblin, J. (1976). The biological yield and harvest index of cereals as agronomic and plant breeding criteria. Adv. Agron., 28: 361-405.

Juma, N.G., Izaurralde, R.C., Robertson, J.A. and McGill, W.B. (1997). Crop yield and soil organic matter trends over 60 years in a typic cryoboralf at Breton, Alberta. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Kirby, E.J.M. (1967). The effect of plant density upon the growth and yield of barley. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 68:317-324.

Lekes, J. (1981). Results, main directions in using world collections and genetic resources of spring barley in European breeding. In: Barley Genetics IV. Proceedings of the Fourth International Barley Genetics Symposium. Edinburgh Univ. Press.

Mahli, S.S., Grant, C.A., Johnston, A.M. and Gill, K.S. (2001). Nitrogen fertilization management for no-till cereal production in the Canadian Great Plains: a review. Soil and Tillage Res. 60:101-122.

Riggs, T.J., Hanson, P.R., Start, N.D., Miles, D.M., Morgan, C.L. and Ford, M.A. (1981). Comparison of spring barley varieties grown in England and Wales between 1880 and 1980. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 97:599-610.

Siddique, K.H.M., Belford, R.K. and Tennant, D. (1990). Root:shoot ratios of old and modern, tall and semi-dwarf wheats in a mediterranean environment. Plant and Soil 121:89-98.

Siddique, K.H.M., Belford, R.K., Perry, M.W. and Tennant, D. (1989). Growth, development and light interception of old and modern wheat cultivars in a Mediterranean-type environment. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 40:473-487.

Skidmore, E.L. and Siddoway, F.H. (1978). Crop residue requirements to control wind erosion. In: Crop Residue Management Systems. Am. Soc. Agron. Spec. Pub. No. 31.

Ten Eyck, A.M., and Shoesmith, V.M. (1907). Small grain crops. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 144. Kansas State Agricultural College. Manhattan, KS.

Watson, D.J., Thorne, G.N., and French, S.A.W. (1958). Physiological causes of differences in grain yield between varieties of barley. Annals of Botany 87:321-352.

Wych, R.D. and Rasmussen, D.C. (1983). Genetic improvement in malting barley cultivars since 1920. Crop Sci. 23:1037-1040.

6. Oats

Anonymous (1923). Forty-second annual report for 1922-23. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 373. Wooster, OH.

Anonymous (1926). Forty-fourth annual report for 1924-25. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 392. Wooster, OH.

Bolinder, M.A., Angers, D.A. and Dubuc, J.P. (1997). Estimating shoot to root ratios and annual carbon inputs in soils for cereal crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 63:61-67.

Brinkman, M.A. and Rho, Y.D. (1984). Response of three oat cultivars to N fertilizer. Crop Science 24:973-977.

Donald, C.M. and Hamblin, J. (1976). The biological yield and harvest index of cereals as agronomic and plant breeding criteria. Adv. Agron. 28:361-405.

Georgeson, C.C., Burtis, F.C. and Otis, D.H. (1893). Experiments with oats. Experiment Station Bull. No. 42. Kansas State Agricultural College.

Georgeson, C.C., Burtis, F.C. and Otis, D.H. (1896). Experiments with oats. Experiment Station Bull. No. 63. Kansas State Agricultural College.

Georgeson, C.C., Burtis, F.C. and Otis, D.H. (1897). Experiments with oats. Experiment Station Bull. No. 74. Kansas State Agricultural College.

Georgeson, C.C., Cottrell, H.M. and Shelton, W. (1890). Experiments with oats. Experiment Station Bull. No. 13. Kansas State Agricultural College.

Juma, N.G., Izaurralde, R.C., Robertson, J.A. and McGill, W.B. (1997). Crop yield and soil organic matter trends over 60 years in a typic cryoboralf at Breton, Alberta. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Lawes, D.A. (1977). Yield improvement in spring oats. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 89:751-757.

Meyers, K.B., Simmons, S.R. and Stuthman, D.D. (1985). Agronomic comparison of dwarf and conventional height oat genotypes. Crop Sci. 25:964-966.

Noll, C.F., Gardner, F.D. and Irvin, C.J. (1930). A field test of different sources of phosphorous. Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture and Experiment Station Bull. 252.

Noll, C.F., Gardner, F.D. and Irvin, C.J. (1931). Fiftieth anniversary of the General Fertilizer Tests 1881-1931. Pennsylvania State College School of Agriculture and Experiment Station Bull. 264.

Rattunde, H.F. and Frey, K.J. (1986). Nitrogen harvest index in oats: Its repeatability and association with adaptation. Crop Sci. 26:606-610.

Sewell, M.C. and Call, L.E. (1925). Tillage investigations relating to wheat production. Tech. Bull. 18. Agricultural Experiment Station. Kansas State Agricultural College.

Ten Eyck, A.M. and Shoesmith, V.M. (1907). Small grain crops. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 144. Kansas State Agricultural College. Manhattan, KS.

Thorne, C.E. (1924). The maintenance of soil fertility. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 381.

Wianco, A.T. and Jones, S.C. (1918). The value of manure on Indiana soils. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. No. 222. Lafayette, IN.

Wianco, A.T., Conner, S.D. and Jones, S.C. (1919). The value of legumes on Indiana soils. Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. No. 226. Lafayette, IN.

7. Millet

Peterson, G.A. and Westfall, D.G. (1997). Management of dryland agroecosystems in the Central Great Plains of Colorado. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G. and Wood, W. (1989). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB89-3. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1992). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB92-2. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1991). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB91-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1994). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB94-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1993). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB93-4. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Wood, W. and Ross, S. (1988). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin LTB88-6. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., McGee, E., Westfall, D.G., Wood, C.W. and Sherrod, L. (1990). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB90-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

8. Sorghum

Anonymous (1930). A report of the Tribune Branch Agricultural Experiment Station. Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 250. Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, KS.

Arnon, I. and Blum, A. (1962). Factors responsible for yield superiority of hybrid sorghum. Israel J. Agric. Res. 12: 95-105.

Arnon, I. and Blum, A. (1964). Response of hybrid and self-pollinated sorghum varieties to moisture regime and intra-row competition. Israel J. Agric. Res. 14: 45-53.

Bond, J.J., Army, T.J. and Lehman, O.R. (1964). Row spacing, plant populations and moisture supply as factors in dryland grain sorghum production. Agron. J. 56:3-6.

Bruce, R.R. and Langdale, G.W. (1997). Soil carbon level dependence upon crop culture variables in a thermic-udic region. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Craufurd, P.Q. and Peacock, J.M. (1993). Effect of heat and drought stress on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). II.

Grain yield. Expl. Agric. 29:77-86.

Donald, C.M. and Hamblin, J. (1976). The biological yield and harvest index of cereals as agronomic and plant breeding criteria. Adv. Agron., 28: 361-405.

Eastin, J.D. (1983). Sorghum. In Symposium on Potential Productivity of Field Crops Under Different Environments. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines.

Eck, H.V. and Musick, J.T. (1979). Plant water stress effects on irrigated grain sorghum. I. Effects on yield. Crop Sci. 19:589-592.

Jones, O.R., Stewart, B.A. and Unger, P.W. (1997). Management of dry-farmed Southern Great Plains soils for sustained productivity. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Laryea, K.B. and Unger, P.W. (1995). Grassland converted to cropland: Soil conditions and sorghum yield. Soil & Tillage res. 33:29-45.

Peterson, G.A. and Westfall, D.G. (1997). Management of dryland agroecosystems in the Central Great Plains of Colorado. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G. and Wood, W. (1989). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB89-3. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Poss, D., Larson, K. and Thompson, D.L. (1997). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB97-3. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1992). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB92-2. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., McGee, E. and Kolberg, R. (1991). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB91-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1994). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB94-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Rouppet, B. (1993). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB93-4. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Sherrod, L., Kolberg, R. and Poss, D. (1995). Sustainable dryland agroecosystem management. Technical Bulletin TB95-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., Westfall, D.G., Wood, W. and Ross, S. (1988). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin LTB88-6. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Peterson, G.A., McGee, E., Westfall, D.G., Wood, C.W. and Sherrod, L. (1990). Crop and soil management in dryland agroecosystems. Technical Bulletin TB90-1. Dept. of Agronomy, Colorado State University.

Prihar, S.S. and Stewart, B.A. (1991). Sorghum harvest index in relation to plant size, environment, and cultivar. Agron. J. 83:603-608.

Shinano, T., Osaka, M., Yamada, S. and Tadano, T. (1994). Comparison of root growth and nitrogen absorbing ability between Gramineae and Leguminosae during the vegetative stage. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 40:485-495.

Steiner, J.L. (1986). Dryland grain sorghum water use, light interception, and growth responses to plant geometry. Agron. J. 78:720-726.

Unger, P.W. and Jones, O.R. (1981). Effect of soil water content and a growing season straw mulch on grain sorghum. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45:129-134.

Unger, P.W. and Wiese, A.F. (1979). Managing irrigated winter wheat residues for water storage and subsequent dryland grain sorghum production. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43:582-588.

von Trebra, R.L. and Wagner, F.A. (1932). Tillage practices for south-western Kansas. Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 262. Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. Manhattan, KS.

No data on rye available at this time.

10. Soyabean

Anderson, L.R., and Vasilas, B.L. (1985). Effects of planting date on two soybean cultivars: Seasonal dry matter accumulation and seed yield. Crop Sci. 25:999-1004.

Bruce, R.R. and Langdale, G.W. (1997). Soil carbon level dependence upon crop culture variables in a thermic-udic region. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Buyanovsky, G.A. and Wagner, G.H. (1986). Post-harvest residue input to cropland. Plant and Soil 93:57-65.

Buzzell, R.I. and Buttery, B.R. (1977). Soybean harvest index in hill-plots. Crop Sci. 17:968-970.

Frederick, J.R., Woolley, J.T., Hesketh, J.D. and Peters, D.B. (1991). Seed yield and agronomic traits of old and modern soybean cultivars under irrigation and soil water-deficit. Field Crops research, 27: 71-82.

Hanway, J.J. and Weber, C.R. (1971). Dry matter accumulation in eight soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) varieties. Agron. J. 63:227-230.

Hodgson, A.S., Holland, J.F. and Rayner, P. (1989). Effects of field slope and duration of furrow irrigation on growth and yield of six grain-legumes on a waterlogging-prone vertisol. Field Crops research, 22: 165180.

Kumudini, S., Hume, D.J., and Chu, G. (2001). Genetic improvement in short season soybeans: I. Dry matter accumulation, partitioning, and leaf area duration. Crop Sci. 41:391-398.

Laing, D.R., Kretchmer, P.J., Zuluaga, S. and Jones, P.G. (1983). Field Bean. In Symposium on Potential Productivity of Field Crops Under Different Environments. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines.

Liu, X., Jin, J., Herbert, S.J., Zhang, Q. and Wang, G. (2005). Yield components, dry matter, LAI and LAD of soybeans in Northeast China. Field Crops Research, 93: 85-93.

Peters, S.E., Edwards, W.M. and McCoy, E.L. (1997). Continuous application of no-tillage to Ohio soils: Changes in crop yields and organic matter-related soil properties. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Sammons, D.J., Peters, D.B. and Hymowitz, T. (1981). Screening soybeans for tolerance to moisture stress: A field procedure. Field Crops Research, 3: 321-335.

Sinclair, T.R., Muchow, R.C., Ludlow, M.M., Leach, G.J., Lawn, R.J. and Foale, M.A. (1987). Field and model analysis of the effect of water deficits on carbon and nitrogen accumulation by soybean, cowpea, and black gram. Field Crops Research, 17: 121-140.

Sivakumar, M.V.K., Taylor, H.M. and Shaw, R.H. (1977). Top and root relations of field-grown soybeans. Agron. J. 69:470-473.

Thatcher, L.E. (1925). The soybean in Ohio. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. 384.

Walker, A.K. and Fioritto, R.J. (1984). Effect of cultivar and planting pattern on yield and apparent harvest index in soybean. Crop Sci. 24:154-155.

11. Dry bean

Ortega, P.F. (1988). Morphological characterization of six dry bean genotypes grown under non-irrigated conditions in Colorado. M.S. Thesis. Department of Agronomy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

12. Potato

Heard, J. (2004). Nutrient accumulation and partitioning by potatoes in Manitoba. Proc. of 47th Annual Manitoba Society of Soil Science Meeting. Online at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/msss/ 2004/mss600.pdf.

van Delden, A. (2001). Yield and growth components of potato and wheat under organic nitrogen management. Agron. J. 93:1370-1385.

Zvomuya, F., Rosen, C.J., Russelle, M.P. and Gupta, S.C. (2003). Nitrate leaching and nitrogen recovery following application of polyolefin-coated urea to potato. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32: 480-489.

13. Peanut

Bell, M.J., Muchow, R.C. and Wilson, G.L. (1987). The effect of plant population on peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in a monsoonal tropical environment. Field Crops Research, 17: 91-107.

Ghosh, P.K. (2004). Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India. Field Crops Research, 88: 227-237.

ICRISAT (2004). Increasing the effectiveness of research on agricultural resource management in the semi-arid tropics of southern India by combining cropping systems modeling with farming systems research: A

rewarding experience for Tamil Nadu farmers. International Crops research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Online at: http://www.icrisat.org/.

Singh, P., Boote, K.J., Rao, A.Y., Iruthayaraj, M.R., Sheikh, A.M., Hundal, S.S., Narang, R.S. and Singh, P. (1994). Evaluation of the groundnut model PNUTGRO for crop response to water availability, sowing dates, and seasons. Field Crops research, 39: 147-162.

Witzenberger, A., Williams, J.H. and Lenz, F. (1985). Yield, components of yield and quality responses of groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) as influenced by photoperiod and a growth regulator. Field Crops research, 12: 347-361.

14. Alfalfa

Paustian, K., Andren, O., Clarholm, M., Hansson, A.C., Johansson, G., Lagerlof, J., Lindberg, T., Pettersson, R., and Sohlenius, B. (1990). Carbon and nitrogen budgets of four agro-ecosystems with annual and perennial crops, with and without fertilization. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:60-84.

Walley, F.L., Tomm, G.O., Matus, A., Slinkard, A.E. and van Kessel, C. (1996). Allocation and cycling of nitrogen in an alfalfa-bromegrass sward. Agronomy Journal, 88: 834-843.

15. Non-legume hay

Paustian, K., Andren, O., Clarholm, M., Hansson, A.C., Johansson, G., Lagerlof, J., Lindberg, T., Pettersson, R., and Sohlenius, B. (1990). Carbon and nitrogen budgets of four agro-ecosystems with annual and perennial crops, with and without fertilization. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:60-84.

III. N content of above-ground residues

1. Maize

Burgess, M.S., Mehuys, G.R. and Madramootoo, C.A. (2002). Nitrogen dynamics of decomposing corn residue components under three tillage systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:1350-1358.

Eghball, B. and Maranville, J.W. (1993). Root development and nitrogen influx of corn genotypes grown under combined drought and nitrogen stresses. Agron. J. 85:147-152.

Heard, J. (2004). Nutrient accumulation and partitioning by grain corn in Manitoba. Proc. of 47th Annual Manitoba Society of Soil Science Meeting. Online at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/msss/ 2004/mss601.pdf.

Janzen, H.H., Beauchemin, K.A., Bruinsma, Y., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., Ellert, B.H. and Smith, E.G. (2003). The fate of nitrogen in agroecosystems: An illustration using Canadian estimates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 67: 85-102.

Mgheni, D.M., Ndemanisho, E.E., Hvelplund, T. and Weisbjerg, M.R. (2001). Evaluation of the feeding value of two tropical cereal straws, maize stover, rice straw and their botanical fractions by nylon and mobile bag technique. African Journal of Science and Technology, 2:65-71.

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

Reisinger, K., Haslinger, C., Herger, M., Hofbauer, H. (1996). BIOBIB- a Database for Biofuels, THERMIE-Conference: Renewable Energy Databases, Harwell, United Kingdom. Online at: http ://www.vt.tuwien.ac.at/biobib/oxford.html.

Subedi, K.D. and Ma, B.L. (2005). Nitrogen uptake and partitioning in stay-green and leafy-maize hybrids. Crop Sci. 45:740-747.

2. Wheat

Austin, R.B., Ford, M.A. and Morgan, C.L. (1989). Genetic improvement in the yield of winter wheat: a further evaluation. J. Agric. Sci, Camb. 112:295-301.

Campbell, C.A., Davidson, H.R. and Warder, F.G. (1977). Effects of fertilizer N and soil moisture on yield, yield components, protein content and N accumulation in the above-ground parts of spring wheat. Can. J. Soil Sci. 57:311-327.

Campbell, C.A. and Zentner, R.P. (1993). Soil organic matter as influenced by crop rotations and fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 57:1034-1040.

Cassman, K.G., Bryant, D.C., Fulton, A.E. and Jackson, L.F. (1992). Crop ecology, production and management. Crop Sci. 32:1251-1258.

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

Reisinger, K., Haslinger, C., Herger, M. and Hofbauer, H. (1996). BIOBIB- a Database for Biofuels, THERMIE-Conference: Renewable Energy Databases, Harwell, United Kingdom. Online at: http ://www.vt.tuwien.ac.at/biobib/oxford.html.

3. Rice

Mgheni, D.M., Ndemanisho, E.E., Hvelplund, T. and Weisbjerg, M.R. (2001). Evaluation of the feeding value of two tropical cereal straws, maize stover, rice straw and their botanical fractions by nylon and mobile bag technique. African Journal of Science and Technology, 2:65-71.

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

Ockerby, S.E. and Fukai, S. (2001). The management of rice grown on raised beds with continuous furrow irrigation. Field Crops Research. 69:215-226.

Reisinger, K., Haslinger, C., Herger, M. and Hofbauer, H. (1996). BIOBIB- a Database for Biofuels, THERMIE-Conference: Renewable Energy Databases, Harwell, United Kingdom. Online at: http ://www.vt.tuwien.ac.at/biobib/oxford.html.

4. Barley

Bulman, P. and Smith, D.L. (1993). Accumulation and redistribution of dry matter and nitrogen by spring barley. Agron. J. 85:1114-1121.

Janzen, H.H., Beauchemin, K.A., Bruinsma, Y., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., Ellert, B.H. and Smith, E.G. (2003). The fate of nitrogen in agroecosystems: An illustration using Canadian estimates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 67: 85-102.

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

Reisinger, K., Haslinger, C., Herger, M. and Hofbauer, H. (1996). BIOBIB- a Database for Biofuels, THERMIE-Conference: Renewable Energy Databases, Harwell, United Kingdom. Online at: http ://www.vt.tuwien.ac.at/biobib/oxford.html.

5. Oats

Janzen, H.H., Beauchemin, K.A., Bruinsma, Y., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., Ellert, B.H. and Smith, E.G. (2003). The fate of nitrogen in agroecosystems: An illustration using Canadian estimates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 67: 85-102.

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

Reisinger, K., Haslinger, C., Herger, M., Hofbauer, H. (1996). BIOBIB- a Database for Biofuels, THERMIE-Conference: Renewable Energy Databases, Harwell, United Kingdom. Online at: http ://www.vt.tuwien.ac.at/biobib/oxford.html.

Wych, R.D. and Stuthman, D.D. (1983). Genetic improvement in Minnesota-adapted oat cultivars released since 1923. Crop Sci. 23:879-881.

6. Millet

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

7. Sorghum

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

Janzen, H.H., Beauchemin, K.A., Bruinsma, Y., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., Ellert, B.H. and Smith, E.G. (2003). The fate of nitrogen in agroecosystems: An illustration using Canadian estimates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 67: 85-102.

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

9. Soyabean

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

10. Dry bean

Janzen, H.H., Beauchemin, K.A., Bruinsma, Y., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., Ellert, B.H. and Smith, E.G. (2003). The fate of nitrogen in agroecosystems: An illustration using Canadian estimates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 67: 85-102.

11. Potato

Heard, J. (2004). Nutrient accumulation and partitioning by potatoes in Manitoba. Proc. of 47th Annual Manitoba Society of Soil Science Meeting. Online at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/msss/ 2004/mss600.pdf.

Janzen, H.H., Beauchemin, K.A., Bruinsma, Y., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., Ellert, B.H. and Smith, E.G. (2003). The fate of nitrogen in agroecosystems: An illustration using Canadian estimates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 67: 85-102.

Thatcher, L.E. and Willard, C.J. (1962). Crop rotation and soil productivity. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Res. Bull. 907. Ohio State University.

Zvomuya, F., Rosen, C.J., Russelle, M.P. and Gupta, S.C. (2003). Nitrate leaching and nitrogen recovery following application of polyolefin-coated urea to potato. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32: 480-489.

12. Peanut

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

13. Alfalfa

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

Schmidt, W.H., Myers, D.K. and Van Keuren, R.W. (2001).Values of legumes for plowdown nitrogen. Extension Fact Sheet AGF-111-01. Ohio State University Extension. Online at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0111.html.

Walley, F.L., Tomm, G.O., Matus, A., Slinkard, A.E. and van Kessel, C. (1996). Allocation and cycling of nitrogen in an alfalfa-bromegrass sward. Agronomy Journal, 88: 834-843.

14. Non-legume hay

NRCS (2006). Plant nutrient content database. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb1.html.

IV. Ratio of below-ground residues to above-ground biomass

1. Maize

Bray, J.R. (1963). Root production and the estimation of net productivity. Can. J. Bot. 41:65-72.

Bolinder, M.A., Angers, D.A., Giroux, M. and Laverdiere, M.R. (1999). Estimating C inputs retained as soil organic matter from corn (Zea Mays L.). Plant and Soil 215:85-91.

Buyanovsky, G.A. and Wagner, G.H. (1986). Post-harvest residue input to cropland. Plant and Soil 93:57-65.

Eghball, B. and Maranville, J.W. (1993). Root development and nitrogen influx of corn genotypes grown under combined drought and nitrogen stresses. Agron. J. 85:147-152.

Follett, R.F., Allmaras, R.R. and Reichman, G.A. (1974). Distribution of corn roots in sandy soil with a declining water table. Agron. J. 66:288-292.

Huggins, D.R., and Fuchs, D.J. (1997). Long-term N management effects on corn yield and soil C of an aquic haplustoll in Minnesota. In Soil Organic Matter In Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul, K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Liang, B.C., Wang, X.L. and Ma, B.L. (2002). Maize root-induced change to soil organic pool. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:845-847.

Qian, J.H., Doran, J.W. and Walters, D.T. (1997). Maize plant contributions to root zone available carbon and microbial transformations of nitrogen. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29:1451-1462.

Shank, D.B. (1943). Top-root ratios of inbred and hybred maize. J. Am. Soc. Agron, pp. 976-986.

Tran, T.S. and Giroux, M. (1998). Fate of 15N-labelled fertilizer applied to corn grown on different soil types.

Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 78: 597-605.

Triplett, G.B. Jr. and Mannering, J.V. (1978). Crop residue management in crop rotation and multiple cropping systems. Chapter 11 in Crop Residue Management Systems. Am. Soc. Agron. Spec. Pub. No. 31.

Yiridoe, E.K., Voroney, R.P. and Weersink, A. (1997). Impact of alternative farm management practices on nitrogen pollution of groundwater: Evaluation and application of CENTURY Model. J. Environ. Qual. 26:1255-1263.

2. Wheat

Barraclough, P.B. (1984). The growth and activity of winter wheat roots in the field: root growth of high yielding crops in relation to shoot growth. J. Agric. Sci, Camb. 103:439-442.

Barraclough, P.B. and Leigh, R.A. (1984). The growth and activity of winter wheat roots in the field: the effect of sowing date and soil type on root growth of high yielding crops. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 103:59-74.

Bolinder, M.A., Angers, D.A. and Dubuc, J.P. (1997). Estimating shoot to root ratios and annual carbon inputs in soils for cereal crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 63:61-67.

Bray, J.R. (1963). Root production and the estimation of net productivity. Can. J. Bot. 41:65-72.

Buyanovsky, G.A. and Wagner, G.H. (1986). Post-harvest residue input to cropland. Plant and Soil 93:57-65.

Campbell, C.A. and de Jong, R. (2001). Root-to-straw ratios - influence of moisture and rate of N fertilizer. Can. J. Soil Sci, 81: 39-43.

Campbell, C.A. and Zentner, R.P. (1997). Crop production and soil orgaqnic matter in long-term crop rotations in the semi-arid Northern Great Plains of Canada. In: Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agroecosystems. E.A. Paul. K. Paustian, E.T. Elliott, and C.V. Cole (eds.). CRC Press, Inc.

Gregory, P.J., McGowan, M., Biscoe, P.V. and Hunter, B. (1978). Water relations of winter wheat. 1.Growth of the root system. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 91:91-102.

Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002). Nutrient uptake in plant parts of sixteen forages fertilized with poultry litter: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, copper, and zinc. Agron. J. 94:895-904.

Siddique, K.H.M., Belford, R.K. and Tennant, D. (1990). Root:shoot ratios of old and modern, tall and semi-dwarf wheats in a mediterranean environment. Plant and Soil 121:89-98.

Slobodian, N., Van Rees, K. and Pennock, D. (2002). Cultivation-induced effects on below-ground biomass and organic carbon. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:924-930.

Triplett Jr., G.B. and Mannering, J.V. (1978). Crop residue management in crop rotation and multiple cropping systems. Chapter 11 in Crop Residue Management Systems. Am. Soc. Agron. Spec. Pub. No. 31.

Weir, A.H. and Barraclough, P.B. (1986). The effect of drought on the root growth of winter wheat and on its uptake from deep loam. Soil Use And Management 2:91-96.

3. Rice

Cassman, K. G. (personal communication 2002) Agron. Dept, U. NE.

Khokhar, M.F.K. and Pandey, H.N. (1976). Biomass, productivity and growth analysis of two varieties of paddy. Trop. Ecol. 17:125-131.

Shinano, T., Osaka, M., Yamada, S. and Tadano, T. (1994). Comparison of root growth and nitrogen absorbing ability between Gramineae and Leguminosae during the vegetative stage. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 40:485-495.

Turner, F.T. and McCauley, G.N. (1983). Rice. In: Crop - Water Relations. I.D.Teare and M.M. Peet (eds.). John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 308-350.

4. Barley

Bolinder, M.A., Angers, D.A. and Dubuc, J.P. (1997). Estimating shoot to root ratios and annual carbon inputs in soils for cereal crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 63:61-67.

Bray, J.R. (1963). Root production and the estimation of net productivity. Can. J. Bot. 41:65-72.

Gregory, P.J. and Atwell, B.J. (1991). The fate of carbon in pulse-labeled crops of barley and wheat. Plant and Soil 136:205-213.

Gregory, P.J., Palta, J.A. and Batts, G.R. (1997). Root systems and root:mass ratio - carbon allocation under current and projected atmospheric conditions in arable crops.

Hansson, A., Andren, O., Bostrom, U., Clarholm, M., Lagerlof, J., Lindberg, T., Paustian, K., Pettersson, R. and Sohlenius, B. (1989). Chapter 4. Structure of the agroecosystem. In: Andren O., Lindberg T., Paustian K., and Rosswall T. (eds.). Ecology of arable land - organisms, carbon and nitrogen cycling. Ecol. Bull. (Copenhagen) 40:41-83.

Heen, A. (1981). Root growth, transpiration and leaf-firing during water stress in barley: Breeding implications for drought resistance. In: Barley Genetics IV. Proceedings of the Fourth International Barley Genetics Symposium. Edinburgh Univ. Press.

Shank, D.B. (1943). Top-root ratios of inbred and hybred maize. J. Am. Soc. Agron, pp. 976-986.

Siddique, K.H.M., Belford, R.K. and Tennant, D. (1990). Root:shoot ratios of old and modern, tall and semi-dwarf wheats in a mediterranean environment. Plant and Soil 121:89-98.

Watson, D.J., Thorne, G.N. and French, S.A.W. (1958). Physiological causes of differences in grain yield between varieties of barley. Annals of Botany 87:321-352.

Xu, J.G. and Juma, N.G. (1992). Above- and below-ground net primary production of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars in western Canada. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72:1131-1140.

5. Oats

Bolinder, M.A., Angers, D.A. and Dubuc, J.P. (1997). Estimating shoot to root ratios and annual carbon inputs in soils for cereal crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 63:61-67.

Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002). Nutrient uptake in plant parts of sixteen forages fertilized with poultry litter: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, copper, and zinc. Agron. J. 94:895-904.

6. Millet

No data on millet available at this time.

7. Sorghum

No data on sorghum available at this time.

No data on rye available at this time.

9. Soyabean

Allmaras, R.R., Nelson, W.W. and Voorhees, W.B. (1975). Soybean and corn rooting in Southwestern Minnesota: II. Root distributions and related water flow. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 39:771-777.

Buyanovsky, G.A. and Wagner, G.H. (1986). Post-harvest residue input to cropland. Plant and Soil 93:57-65.

Heatherly, L.G. (1980). Effect of upper-profile soil water potential on soybean root and shoot relationships.

Field Crops Research, 3:165-171.

Mayaki, W.C., Teare, I.D. and Stone, L.R. (1976). Top and root growth of irrigated and nonirrigated soybeans. Crop Sci. 16:92-94.

Shinano, T., Osaki, M., Yamada, S. and Tadano, T. (1994). Comparison of root growth and nitrogen absorbing ability between Gramineae and Leguminosae during the vegetative stage. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 40:485-495.

Taylor, H.M., Mason, W.K., Bennie, A.T.P. and House, H.R. (1982). Responses of soybeans to two row spacings and two soil water levels. I. An analysis of biomass accumulation, canopy development, solar radiation interception and components of seed yield. Field Crops Research, 5: 1-14.

10. Dry bean

No data on dry beans available at this time.

11. Potato

Vangessel, M.J. and Renner, K.A. (1990). Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) interference in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Science 38:338-343.

12. Peanut

No data on peanuts available at this time.

13. Alfalfa

Paustian, K., Andren, O., Clarholm, M., Hansson, A.C., Johansson, G., Lagerlof, J., Lindberg, T., Pettersson, R. and Sohlenius, B. (1990). Carbon and nitrogen budgets of four agro-ecosystems with annual and perennial crops, with and without fertilization. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:60-84.

14. Non-legume hay

Paustian, K., Andren, O., Clarholm, M., Hansson, A.C., Johansson, G., Lagerlof, J., Lindberg, T., Pettersson, R. and Sohlenius, B. (1990). Carbon and nitrogen budgets of four agro-ecosystems with annual and perennial crops, with and without fertilization. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:60-84.

V. N content of below-ground residues

1. Maize

Sanchez, J.E., Paul, E.A., Willson, T.C., Smeenk, J. and Harwood, R.R. (2002). Corn root effects on the nitrogen-supplying capacity of a conditioned soil. Agron. J. 94:391-396.

Subedi, K.D. and Ma, B.L. (2005). Nitrogen uptake and partitioning in stay-green and leafy-maize hybrids. Crop Sci. 45:740-747.

Tran, T.S. and Giroux, M. (1998). Fate of 15N-labelled fertilizer applied to corn grown on different soil types.

Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 78: 597-605.

2. Wheat

Campbell, C.A., Cameron, D.R., Nicholaichuk, W. and Davidson, H.R. (1977). Effects of fertilizer N and soil moisture on growth, N content, and moisture use by spring wheat. Can. J. Soil Sci. 57:289-310.

Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002). Nutrient uptake in plant parts of sixteen forages fertilized with poultry litter: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, copper, and zinc. Agron. J. 94:895-904.

3. Rice

No data on rice available at this time.

4. Barley

Dev, G. and Rennie, D.A. (1979). Isotope studies on the comparative efficiency of nitrogenous sources. Aust. J. Soil Res. 17: 155-162.

Haugen-Kozyra, K., Juma, N.G. and Nyborg, M. (1993). Nitrogen partitioning and cycling in barley-soil systems under conventional and zero tillage in central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73: 183-196.

5. Oats

Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002). Nutrient uptake in plant parts of sixteen forages fertilized with poultry litter: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, copper, and zinc. Agron. J. 94:895-904.

6. Millet

No data on millet available at this time.

7. Sorghum

Cueto-Wong, J.A., Guldan, S.J., Lindemann, W.C. and Remmenga, M.D. (2001). Nitrogen recovery from 15N-labeled green manures: I. Recovery by forage sorghum and soil one season after green manure incorporation. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 17:27-42.

Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002). Nutrient uptake in plant parts of sixteen forages fertilized with poultry litter: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, copper, and zinc. Agron. J. 94:895-904.

9. Soyabean

Thatcher, L.E. (1925). The soybean in Ohio. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. Bull. 384.

10. Dry bean

Janzen, H.H., Beauchemin, K.A., Bruinsma, Y., Campbell, C.A., Desjardins, R.L., Ellert, B.H. and Smith, E.G. (2003). The fate of nitrogen in agroecosystems: An illustration using Canadian estimates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 67: 85-102.

11. Potato

Lander, C.H., Moffitt, D. and Alt, K. (1998). Nutrients available from livestock manure relative to crop growth requirements. Resource Assessment and Strategic Planning Working paper 98-1. USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service. http://www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov/land/pubs/nlweb.html

Zvomuya, F., Rosen, C.J., Russelle, M.P. and Gupta, S.C. (2003). Nitrate leaching and nitrogen recovery following application of polyolefin-coated urea to potato. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32: 480-489.

12. Peanut

No data on peanuts available at this time.

13. Alfalfa

Baron, V., Young, D.Y. and Ullmann, C. (2001). Can pasture slow down global warming? Western Forage/Beef Group, 5: 3-6. Online at: http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/Sdepartment/newslett.nsf/all/wfbg38.

Bowren, K.E., Cooke, D.A. and Downey, R.K. (1969). Yield of dry matter and nitrogen from tops and roots of sweetclover, alfalfa, and red clover at five stages of growth. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 49: 6169.

Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002). Nutrient uptake in plant parts of sixteen forages fertilized with poultry litter: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, copper, and zinc. Agron. J. 94:895-904.

Schmidt, W.H., Myers, D.K. and Van Keuren, R.W. (2001).Values of legumes for plowdown nitrogen. Extension Fact Sheet AGF-111-01. Ohio State University Extension. Online at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0111.html.

Walley, F.L., Tomm, G.O., Matus, A., Slinkard, A.E. and van Kessel, C. (1996). Allocation and cycling of nitrogen in an alfalfa-bromegrass sward. Agronomy Journal, 88: 834-843.

14. Non-legume hay

Campbell, C.A., Biederbeck, V.O., Zentner, R.P. and Lafond, G.P. (1991). Effect of crop rotations and cultural practices on soil organic matter, microbial biomass and respiration in a thin Black Chernozemic soil.

Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 71: 363-376.

Christian, J.M. and Wilson, S.D. (1999). Long-term ecosystem impacts of an introduced grass in the Northern

Great Plains. Ecology, 80: 2397-2407.

Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. and Fairbrother, T.E. (2002). Nutrient uptake in plant parts of sixteen forages fertilized with poultry litter: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, copper, and zinc. Agron. J. 94:895-904.

Schmidt, W.H., Myers, D.K. and Van Keuren, R.W. (2001).Values of legumes for plowdown nitrogen. Extension Fact Sheet AGF-111-01. Ohio State University Extension.

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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