Choice of activity data

Since emissions from domestic aviation are reported separately from international aviation, it is necessary to disaggregate activity data between domestic and international components. For this purpose, the following definitions should be applied irrespective of the nationality of the carrier (Table 3.6.6). For consistency, it is good practice to use similar definitions of domestic and international activities for aviation and water-borne navigation. In some cases, the national energy...

Gases included

The 2006 Guidelines can be applied for the following two groups of greenhouse gases1 Greenhouse gases with a GWP in the TAR and not covered by the Montreal Protocol In addition to the greenhouse gases included in the 1996 Guidelines, gases for which global warming potential (GWP) values are given in the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) are included in the 2006 Guidelines2 unless they are covered by the Montreal Protocol. hydroflurocarbons (HFCs e.g., HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3),...

Iron Steel And Metallurgical Coke Production

The production of iron and steel leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). This chapter provides guidance for estimating emissions of CO2 and CH4. The iron and steel industry broadly consists of Primary facilities that produce both iron and steel Secondary steelmaking facilities Iron production facilities and Offsite production of metallurgical coke. Figure 4.1 illustrates the main processes for iron and steel production metallurgical coke production,...

Annex 3A1 Examples of international land cover dataset

Table 3A.1.1 Examples of international land cover dataset Asian Association on Remote Sensing (AARS) Global 4-Minute Land Cover International Geosphere-Biosphere Program - Data & Information Services (IGBP-DIS) Global 1km Land Cover Data Set Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University United States Geological Survey (USGS), USA Land cover classes are identified through clustering National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

Reviewers

Ginzo Ernesto F. Viglizzo Government of Australia Mike Atkinson Ram C. Dalal Barbara Amon Michael Anderl Klaus Bernhardt Wojtek Galinski Doris Halper Agnes Kurzweil Tomas Mueller Barbara Muik Stephan Poupa Klaus Radunsky Manfred Ritter Stefan Unterberger Gerhard Zethner Kristien Aernouts Marc Aubinet Lorea Claude Jean Marie Demoulin Vasco de Oliveira Janeiro Arjen Sevenster Nobuhiko Takamatsu J.A.M. van Balken Bas van Wesemael Government of Brazil Marco Aur lio...

Choice of method

Three methodological tiers for estimating emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from aviation are presented. Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods use fuel consumption data. Tier 1 is purely fuel based, while Tier 2 method is based on the number of landing take-off cycles (LTOs) and fuel use. Tier 3 uses movement16 data for individual flights. All tiers distinguish between domestic and international flights. However, energy statistics used in Tier 1 often do not accurately distinguish between domestic and...

Introduction

This Annex presents worksheets to enable inventory compilers to readily implement the Tier 1 methods. Note that, in many cases, these worksheets are also applicable to Tier 2 methods, where the same equations and variables are applied together with country-specific information. Volume 1, Chapter 8 gives guidance on how to report the resulting emission and removal estimates. Tables A1.1, A1.2, and A1.3 below provide the summary of Tier 1 worksheets available in this Volume. These worksheets are...

Choice of emission factors and activity data

Tier 1 or 2 emission factors are not currently available for carbon dioxide storage sites, but may be developed in the future (see Section 5.7). However, as part of a Tier 3 emissions estimation process, the inventory compiler should collect activity data from the operator on annual and cumulative CO2 stored. These data can be easily monitored at the injection wellhead or in adjacent pipework. Monitoring in early projects may help obtain useful data that could be used to develop Tier 1 or 2...

Methodological Issues 4621 Choice of method

The IPCC Guidelines outline three methods for calculating CO2 emissions from lead production. The choice of a good practice method depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.15. The Tier 1 method calculates emissions from general emission factors applied to a country's total lead production and is the least accurate. This method is appropriate only when lead production is not a key category. The Tier 2 method uses country specific process material data for both...

A1 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines

The emission and removal categories covered together in Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines were previously separated in different chapters of the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) Chapter 4 (Agriculture) and Chapter 5 (Land-Use Change and Forestry, LUCF). The fundamental basis for the methodology in LUCF rested upon two linked themes i) that the flux of CO2 to and from the atmosphere can be equated to changes in terrestrial carbon stocks and product pools, and ii) changes in carbon stocks can...

Reporting and documentation

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national emissions inventory estimates as outlined in Volume 1, chapter 8 of the 2006IPCC Guidelines. The national inventory report should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be retraced. However, to ensure transparency, the following information should be supplied Emissions by underground,...

Choice of emission factors

Tier 1 applies a default emission factor, based on a 'typical' raw material mixture, to national glass production data. A 'typical' soda-lime batch might consist of sand (56.2 weight percent), feldspar (5.3 percent), dolomite (9.8 percent), limestone (8.6 percent) and soda ash (20.0 percent). Based on this composition, one metric tonne of raw materials yields approximately 0.84 tonnes of glass, losing about 16.7 percent of its weight as volatiles, in this case virtually entirely CO2. Equation...

Tier 3 Countryspecific methods

Countries may wish to develop more complex, detailed country-specific methods to estimate Variables 1A, 1B, 3, 4, and 5. Typically these will be more complex models and will be focused on a single approach (Flugsrud et al., 2001). Tier 3 models could also use decay functions other than first order decay - e.g., linear decay. It is more difficult to develop Tier 3 methods for Variables 2A and 2B which require data on the lifecycle of exported HWP for countries where most of its products are...

Calculation steps for Tier 1

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter using the default methods Step 1 Estimate area converted to Forest Land (during the period 20 years prior to the year of inventory) from other land-use categories such as Cropland, Grassland and Settlements. Refer to Chapter 3 for detailed approaches for estimating Land Converted to Forest Land. Step 2 The Tier 1 assumption is that dead organic matter (dead wood and litter) carbon stocks on non-forest...

Activity data uncertainties

Where activity data are obtained from plants, uncertainty estimates can be obtained from producers. These activity data are likely to be highly accurate (i.e., with uncertainty as low as 2 percent). This will include uncertainty estimates for fuel use, uncertainty estimates for ammonia production and CO2 recovered. Data that are obtained from national statistical agencies usually do not include uncertainty estimates. It is good practice to consult with national statistical agencies to obtain...

Choice of method for estimating CH4 emissions

CH4 emissions from incineration and open burning of waste are a result of incomplete combustion. Important factors affecting the emissions are temperature, residence time, and air ratio (i.e., air volume in relation to the waste amount). The CH4 emissions are particularly relevant for open burning, where a large fraction of carbon in the waste is not oxidised. The conditions can vary much, as waste is a very heterogeneous and a low quality fuel with variations in its calorific value. In large...

Future Methodological Development

Other types of managed wetlands may emit or sequester significant amounts of greenhouse gases, notably restored or constructed wetlands. Restored wetlands are wetlands which have been drained and perhaps converted to other uses in the past, but have recently been restored back to functioning wetland ecosystems by raising the water table to pre-drainage levels. In recent decades, public, non-profit and other programs in numerous countries have begun to restore former wetlands and construct...

SF6 emissions from university and research particle

SF6 is used in university and research operated particle accelerators as an insulating gas. Typically, high voltage equipment is contained and operated within a vessel filled with SF6 at a pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. Charges range from five kilograms to over ten thousand kilograms, with typical charges falling between 500 and 3 000 kg. When the equipment requires maintenance, the SF6 is transferred into storage tanks. SF6 losses occur primarily during gas recovery and transfer,...

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion

There are three Tiers presented in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for estimating emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In addition a Reference Approach is presented. It can be used as an independent check of the sectoral approach and to produce a first-order estimate of national greenhouse gas emissions if only very limited resources and data structures are available to the inventory compiler. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines estimate carbon emissions in terms of the species which are emitted. During the...

Choice of emissionremoval factors

Tier 1 methods require estimates of the biomass of the land use before conversion and after conversion. It is assumed that all biomass is cleared when preparing a site for settlements, thus, the default for biomass immediately after conversion is 0 tonnes ha-1. Table 8.4 provides default values for biomass before conversion Default biomass carbon stocks removed due to land conversion to settlements Carbon stock in biomass before conversion (BBefore) (tonnes C ha-1) See Chapter 4, Tables 4.7 to...

Chemical Industry Emissions

Sections 3.2 - 3.8 Charles Jubb (Australia) Alexander Nakhutin (Russia) and Virginia Carla Sena Cianci (Uruguay) Thomas Martinsen (Norway), Abdul Karim W. Mohammad (Iraq), and Maruo M. O. Santos (Brazil) Section 3.10 Archie McCulloch (UK) and Brian T. Mader (USA) Sections 3.2 - 3.8 Javier P rez-Ram rez (Spain) Maarten Neelis (Netherlands) and Martin Patel (Germany)

Data obtained by measurements

This section applies the guidance in Section 2.2.2 to assessing the quality of measurement data for determination of emissions, emission factors and abatement or destruction efficiencies. Volume 4 provides specific guidance on the use of samples and surveys in Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Sector. In this approach the emissions can be determined directly (i.e., using continuous emission monitoring systems) or calculated. Where emissions depend on variable combustion, process...

Approach 1 Total landuse area no data on conversions

Approach 1 represents land-use area totals within a defined spatial unit, which is often defined by political boundaries, such as a country, province or municipality. Another characteristic of Approach 1 data is that only the net changes in land-use area can be tracked through time. Consequently, the exact location or pattern of the land uses is not known within the spatial unit, and moreover the exact changes in land-use categories cannot be ascertained. Datasets are likely to have been...

Strengths and weaknesses of the massbalance approach

The mass-balance approach tracks the amount of new chemical introduced into the country, facility, or stock of equipment (at the application or sub-application level) each year. This approach then accounts for the share of this new chemical that is used to fill new equipment capacity or to replace destroyed gas. The consumption that cannot be accounted for is assumed either to replace emitted gas or to be emitted itself. The mass-balance approach has the important advantage of reflecting actual...

IPCC Emission Factor Database

The Emission Factor Database (EFDB) is a continuously revised web-based information exchange forum for emission factors and other parameters relevant for the estimation of emissions or removals of greenhouse gases at national level. The database can be queried over the internet via the home pages of the IPCC, IPCC-NGGIP or directly at The IPCC distributes a CD-ROM with a copy of the database and a query tool at regular intervals.6 It is designed as a platform for experts and researchers to...

Uncertainty assessment

Table 7.8, Estimates for Charge, Lifetime and Emission Factors for Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems, presents emission factor ranges that highlight the uncertainty associated with this sector. Generally, disaggregated methods (Tier 2) have less uncertainty than Tier 1 methods because of the heterogeneous nature of the sub-applications. Those Tier 2 methods that rely on emission factors (Tier 2a) have more uncertainty than mass balance methods that use chemical sales data (Tier 2b)....

Restricted data and confidentiality

Data providers might restrict access to information because it is confidential, unpublished, or not yet finalised. Typically, this is a mechanism to prevent inappropriate use of the data, unauthorised commercial exploitation, or sensitivity to possible imperfections in the data. Sometimes, however, the organisation simply does not have the resources required to compile and check the data. It is advisable, where possible, to cooperate with data providers to find solutions to overcome their...

Literature sources

Inventory compilers commonly rely on the available literature to find emission factors or other estimation parameters. Table 2.2 lists a variety of potential literature sources in order of descending likelihood of the data being representative and appropriate for national circumstances. It is good practice, for countries to use their own, peer-reviewed, published literature because this should provide the most accurate representation of their country's practices and activities. If there are no...

Quality Assurance Quality Control

In order to conduct a quality control for Tier 2 method, it is possible, but not necessary in order to satisfy the requirements of good practice, to compare the annual national HFC refrigerant market as declared by the chemical manufacturers or the refrigerant distributors with the annual HFC refrigerant needs as derived by the Tier 2 method. Refrigerant will be needed for either charging new equipment or servicing existing equipment. What is needed (i.e., purchased) to charge equipment...

Methodological Approaches To Identify Key Categories

It is good practice for each country to identify its national key categories in a systematic and objective manner, by performing a quantitative analysis of the relationships between the level and the trend of each category's emissions and removals and total national emissions and removals. Two Approaches for performing the key category analysis have been developed. Both Approaches identify key categories in terms of their contribution to the absolute level of national emissions and removals and...

Calculation steps for Tiers 1 and 2

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in biomass (ACB) using the default methods Worksheets have been provided for completing Tier 1 estimates of emissions and removals from this category (see Annex 1 AFOLU Worksheets). For this calculation, Equation 2.15 is simplified. The assumption for Tier 1 is that ACg and ACL equal zero. Thus, the only term that requires calculation is the ACconversion, which is calculated with Equation 2.16. For lands converted to...

Production Approach

Figure 12.A.3 System boundary of the Production Approach. Figure 12.A.3 System boundary of the Production Approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, Edom carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of domestically grown HWP in use and in SWDS, EIM carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of imported HWP in use and in SWDS, Eex dom carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of domestically grown but exported HWP in use and in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of...

Stock Change Approach

Figure 12.A.1 System boundary of the Stock-Change approach. Figure 12.A.1 System boundary of the Stock-Change approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, E carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in use, EW carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of harvested wood biomass transported from harvest sites, W carbon transfer in the form of wood waste into SWDS, Pex carbon transfer in the form of HWP exports, PIM carbon transfer in the form of HWP...

Methodological issues

There are two broad measurement approaches to estimating HFC-23 emissions from HCFC-22 plants. These are described in IPCC (2000), DEFRA (2002a and 2002b), EFCTC (2003) and UN (2004) and have been translated into Tier 2 and 3 methodologies described below. National emissions using either of these methodologies are the sum of those from the individual facilities. Tier 1 (default) methodology can be applied to individual plants or, if there is no abatement by destruction, to the total national...

Overview of carbon stock change estimation

The emissions and removals of CO2 for the AFOLU Sector, based on changes in ecosystem C stocks, are estimated for each land-use category (including both land remaining in a land-use category as well as land converted to another land use). Carbon stock changes are summarized by Equation 2.1. Annual carbon stock changes for the entire AFOLU Sector estimated as the sum OF CHANGES IN ALL LAND-USE CATEGORIES ACAFOLU & CFL + ACcl + ACgl + ACwl + ACSL + ACOL AC carbon stock change Indices denote...

Compiling An Inventory

Compiling a greenhouse gas inventory is a step-by-step process. This section provides guidance on these steps for the inventory compiler, i.e., the person, persons or institutions who put together or compose the inventory from materials gathered from several sources. Compilation includes the collection of data, estimation of emissions and removals, checking and verification, uncertainty assessment and reporting. Before undertaking estimates of emissions and removals from specific categories an...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QA QC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and to organise an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this application. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. In addition...

Domestic wastewater 6221 Choice of method

Policy Factors

A decision tree for domestic wastewater is included in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees. 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section...

Boxes

Box 4.1 Levels of Box 4.2 Biomass conversion and expansion factors for assessing biomass and carbon in Box 4.3 Examples of good practice approach in identification of lands converted to Forest This chapter provides methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and removals due to changes in biomass, dead organic matter and soil organic carbon on Forest Land and Land Converted to Forest Land. It builds on the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996IPCC...

Ferroalloy Production 431 Introduction

Ferroalloy is the term used to describe concentrated alloys of iron and one or more metals such as silicon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium and tungsten. Silicon metal production is usually included in the ferroalloy group because silicon metal production process is quite similar to the ferrosilicon process. These alloys are used for deoxidising and altering the material properties of steel. Ferroalloy facilities manufacture concentrated compounds that are delivered to steel...

Figures

Figure 3.1 Decision tree for preparation of land-use area Figure 3A.3.1 Principle of Figure 3A.3.2 Simple random layout of plots (left) and systematic layout Figure 3A.3.3 Use of different configurations of permanent and temporary sampling units for estimating Figure 3A.4.1 Overview of Approach 3 Direct and repeated assessments of land use from full spatial Figure 3A.5.1 Delineation of major climate zones, updated from the 1996IPCC Guidelines 3.38 Figure 3A.5.2 Classification scheme for default...

HFCs PFCs SF6 and other halogenated gases

CO2 equivalent conversion factors (1) Source of the factor _ _ Emissions in original mass unit (tonne) Emissions in CO2 equivalent unit (Gg-CO2) (1) Typically, global warming potential (100 year time horizon) identified in the IPCC Assessment Report can be used. The source of the factors must be specified in the bracket. (2) Insert additional columns if necessary. The other halogenated gases for which the CO2 equivalent conversion factor is not available should not be included in this table....

Dry matter content

An important distinction needs to be made between dry weight and wet weight of waste, because the water content of waste can be substantial. Therefore, the dry matter content of the waste or waste fraction is an important parameter to be determined. The weight of waste incinerated should be converted from wet weight to dry weight, if the related emission factors refer to dry weight. The dry matter content of waste can range from below 50 percent in countries with a higher percentage of food...

Methodological issues 6311 Choice of method

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can occur as direct emissions from treatment plants or from indirect emissions from wastewater after disposal of effluent into waterways, lakes or the sea. Direct emissions from nitrification and denitrification at wastewater treatment plants may be considered as a minor source and guidance is offered in Box 6.1 to estimate these emissions. Typically, these emissions are much smaller than those from effluent and may only be of interest to countries that...

Concepts

Inventories rely on a few key concepts for which there is a common understanding. This helps ensure that inventories are comparable between countries, do not contain double counting or omissions, and that the time series reflect actual changes in emissions. Anthropogenic emissions and removals Anthropogenic emissions and removals means that greenhouse gas emissions and removals included in national inventories are a result of human activities. The distinction between natural and anthropogenic...

Equations For Rice Cultivation

CH4 Rice annual methane emissions from rice cultivation, Gg CH4 yr-1 EF jk a daily emission factor for i, j, and k conditions, kg CH4 ha-1 day-1 tj cultivation period of rice for i, j, and k conditions, day Ajk annual harvested area of rice for i, j, and k conditions, ha yr-1 i, j, and k represent different ecosystems, water regimes, type and amount of organic amendments, and other conditions under which CH4 emissions from rice may vary Equation 5.2 Adjusted daily emission factor EFi EFc SFw...

Simple Decay Approach

This approach estimates and reports the net emissions or removals of carbon to from the atmosphere when, but not where they occur if wood products are traded. Removals of carbon from the atmosphere due to forest growth, and emissions resulting from oxidation of harvested wood products are reported by the producing country. This approach to estimate and report from HWP (simple decay) has been proposed by Ford-Robertson (2003). Just as the Production Approach differs from the Stock-Change...

Identification of key categories

The background discussion on the approach and methods for key category analysis are given in Volume 1 Chapter 4 (Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories). This chapter describes the approach to key category analysis for AFOLU. A key source sink category is defined in Volume 1 Chapter 4 as one that is prioritised within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country's total inventory of greenhouse gases in terms of the absolute...

Completeness Time series QAQC

Complete coverage of the direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed land requires estimation of emissions for all of the anthropogenic inputs and activities (FSN, FON, FCR, FPRP, FSOM and FOS), if they occur. Experience has shown that none of these sub-categories are likely to be missed in inventories, although countries may have difficulty obtaining accurate statistics for all sub-categories, particularly the amounts of crop residues (by crop type) that are typically returned to soils, and...

Notation keys and completeness information

In all tables used by countries to summarise their inventory data, it is good practice to fill in information for all entries. If actual emission and removal quantities have not been estimated or can not otherwise be reported in the tables, the inventory compiler should use qualitative notation keys in Table 8.1 and provide supporting documentation. Notation keys are appropriate if emission estimates or removal are incomplete, or representative of only a part of the total activity, or require...

Atmospheric Flow Approach

Figure 12.A.2 System boundary of the Atmospheric Flow Approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, E carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in use, EW carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of harvested wood biomass transported from harvest sites, W carbon transfer of wood waste into SWDS, PEX carbon transfer in the form of HWP exports, PIM carbon transfer in the form of HWP imports, O possible other cross-border carbon transfers from rest of...

Civil Aviation

Emissions from aviation come from the combustion of jet fuel (jet kerosene and jet gasoline) and aviation gasoline14. Aircraft engine emissions are roughly composed of about 70 percent CO2, a little less than 30 percent H2O, and less than 1 percent each of NOx, CO, SOx, NMVOC, particulates, and other trace components including hazardous air pollutants. Little or no N2O emissions occur from modern gas turbines (IPCC, 1999). Methane (CH4) may be emitted by gas turbines during idle and by older...

Mineral soil C emissionsremovals for Grassland

Default soil C stock change factors are provided in Table 6.2 that were computed from a global dataset of experimental studies for three general types of grassland condition degraded, nominally managed, and improved grassland. An additional input factor was included for application to improved grassland. The management improvements considered here were limited to fertilization (organic or inorganic), sowing legumes or more grass species, and irrigation. Overgrazed grassland and poorly managed...

Annex 10A2 Data underlying methane default emission factors for Manure Management

This annex presents the data used to develop the default emission factors for methane emissions from Manure Management. The Tier 2 method was implemented with these data to estimate the default emission factors for each livestock category. Manure Management Methane Emission Factor Derivation for Dairy Cows Liquid Solid Range Daily Burned Slurry1 Storage Drylot Paddock Spread Digester for Fuel 27 29 32 35 39 42 46 50 55 60 65 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 North America Western...

Choice of emission factors and parameters

Degradable organic carbon (DOC) is the organic carbon in waste that is accessible to biochemical decomposition, and should be expressed as Gg C per Gg waste. The DOC in bulk waste is estimated based on the composition of waste and can be calculated from a weighted average of the degradable carbon content of various components (waste types material) of the waste stream. The following equation estimates DOC using default carbon content values Estimates DOC using default carbon content values DOC...

Approach 1 details of the equations for trend uncertainty

The following steps show how to calculate trend uncertainty using Types A and B sensitivities (see also Section 3.2.3.1). 1) The method for assessing level uncertainty in year Y assumes that categories and gases are uncorrelated, or are aggregated until the aggregated categories can be treated as uncorrelated. 2) The uncertainty in the trend in total emissions from the country (the quantity at the foot of Column M) is estimated as where UT is the uncertainty in the trend in total emissions from...

Mobile versus stationary combustion

For most sources the distinction between mobile and stationary combustion is quite clear. In energy statistics, this however is not always the case. In some industries it might occur that fuels are in part used for stationary equipment and in part for mobile equipment. This could for example occur in agriculture, forestry, construction industry etc. When this occurs and a split between mobile and stationary is not feasible, the emissions could be reported in the source category that is expected...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC Reporting and Documentation

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national emissions inventory estimates as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6. It is not practical to include all documentation in the national inventory report. However, the inventory should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be retraced. For transparency, providing information on the specific...

Glyoxal and glyoxylic acid production

Glyoxal (ethanedial) (C2H2O2) is produced from oxidation of acetaldehyde (ethanal) (C2H4O) with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3). Glyoxal can also be produced from catalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol (ethanediol) (CH2OHCH2OH). Glyoxal is used as a crosslinking agent for vinyl acetate acrylic resins, disinfectant, gelatine hardening agent, textile finishing agent (permanent-press cotton, rayon fabrics), wet-resistance additive (paper coatings) (Ashford, 1994 p.454). Glyoxylic acid is produced...

Dead organic matter

Methods for estimating carbon stock changes associated with dead organic matter pools are presented in this section for Cropland Remaining Cropland (CC). Methods are provided for two types of dead organic matter pools 1) dead wood and 2) litter. Chapter 1of this report provides detailed definitions of these pools. Dead wood is a diverse pool with many practical problems for measuring in the field and associated uncertainties about rates of transfer to litter, soil, or emissions to the...

Choice of method for estimating N2O emissions

Nitrous oxide is emitted in combustion processes at relatively low combustion temperatures between 500 and 950 C. Other important factors affecting the emissions are the type of air pollution control device, type and nitrogen content of the waste and the fraction of excess air (BREF, 2005 Korhonen et al, 2001 Loffer et al, 2002 Kilpinen, 2002 Tsupari et al., 2005). N2O emissions from the combustion of fossil liquid waste can be considered negligible, unless country-specific data indicate...

Classification And Definition Of Categories

Table 8.2 introduces the classification and definition of categories and subcategories6 of emissions and removals (consistent with the sectoral, sectoral background and cross-sectoral tables provided in Annex 8A.2). The correspondence with the reporting categories of the 1996 Guidelines is also provided in the third column of Table 8.2. A fourth column identifies gases that may be relevant to each category. Additional guidance on gases is provided in Volumes 2-5 and in Table 7.1 of Chapter 7 of...

Heat transfer fluids

There are two methods for estimating emissions from the use of heat transfer fluids. The choice of methods will depend on the availability of activity data on the use of heat transfer fluids, and is outlined in the decision tree (see Figure 6.2, Decision Tree for Estimation of FC Emissions from Heat Transfer Fluids, and see Section 1.5 of Chapter 1, Choosing between the Mass-Balance and Emission-Factor Approach). Tier 1 is appropriate when company-specific data are not available on heat...

Sf6 and pfc emissions from other military applications

There is wide range of military applications using PFCs or SF6.5 Military electronics are believed to be an important and growing application of PFC heat transfer fluids, which are valued for their stability and dielectric properties. The fluids are used in ground and airborne radar (klystrons), avionics, missile guidance systems, ECM (Electronic Counter Measures), sonar, amphibious assault vehicles, other surveillance aircraft, lasers, SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), and stealth aircraft....

Annex 39A Feedstockproduct flow diagrams

Methanol Production Process Flow Diagram

Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.12 Ethylene dichloride production feedstock-product flow diagram Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process Figure 3.13 Ethylene oxide production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.15 Carbon black production feedstock-product...

Choice of method for PFCs

Policy Factors

During electrolysis, alumina (Al2O3) is dissolved in a fluoride melt comprising about 80 weight percent cryolite (Na3AlF6). Perfluorocarbons (CF4 and C2F6 collectively referred to as PFCs) are formed from the reaction of the carbon anode with the cryolite melt during a process upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. An anode effect occurs when the concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is too low to support the standard anode reaction. An anode effect is a process upset condition where...

Landfill gas

Municipal solid waste contains significant portions of organic materials that produce a variety of gaseous products when deposited, compacted, and covered in landfills. Anaerobic bacteria thrive in the oxygen-free environment, resulting in the decomposition of the organic materials and the production of primarily carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide is likely to leach out of the landfill because it is soluble in water. Methane, on the other hand, which is less soluble in water and lighter...

Emission factor uncertainties

Uncertainties for the default values shown in Table 3.1 are estimates based on data from EFMA (2000a p.21) and de Beer, Phylipsen and Bates (2001 p.21). In general, default emission factors for gaseous inputs and outputs have higher uncertainties than for solid or liquid inputs and outputs. Mass values for gaseous substances are influenced by temperature and pressure variations and gases are more easily lost through process leaks. It is good practice to obtain uncertainty estimates at the plant...

Sf6 emissions from manufacturing of electrical components

Some electrical equipment components may contain 1 percent or less by weight of SF6 in the insulating medium of the product. These components include but are not limited to medium voltage cast resin instrument transformers and high voltage bushings. In medium voltage (up to 52 kV) cast resin instrument transformers, SF6 is used to fill up micro-cavities in the resin insulation to improve the dielectric quality and durability of the product. In High Voltage (above 52 kV) bushings, SF6 is used as...

Choice of method metallurgical coke production

The IPCC Guidelines outline three tiers for calculating CO2 emissions and two tiers for calculating CH4 emissions from coke production. The choice of a good practice method for estimation of CO2 emissions depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.6 Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production. For CH4 emissions, use the decision tree in Figure 4.8. Metallurgical coke is produced either at the iron and steel facility ('onsite') or at separate...

Modelbased Tier 3 inventories

Policy Factors

Model-based inventories are developed using empirical, process-based or other types of advanced models. It is good practice to have independent measurements to confirm that the model is capable of estimating emissions and removals in the source categories of interest (Prisley and Mortimer, 2004). In general, seven steps are used to implement a Tier 3 model-based inventory (Figure 2.7). Step 1. Select develop a model for calculating the stock changes and or greenhouse gas emissions. A model...

Inventory Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Chapter 6 of Volume 1 (Quality Assurance Quality Control and Verification), Tier 1 General Inventory Level QC Procedures. It is good practice to conduct expert review of the emission estimates when using Tier 2 or 3 methods. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Tier 2 procedures in the same chapter and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine...

TIER 1 method

In Tier 1, inventory compilers may use default values for either of the following variables (1) the types of lime produced and or (2) the proportion of hydrated lime produced. Table 2.4, provides data on stoichiometric ratios, the ranges of CaO and CaO-MgO contents and the resulting default emission factors, for the main lime types produced. Where there are no disaggregated data for the breakdown of lime types, it is good practice to assume that 85 percent is high-calcium lime and 15 percent...

Science background

Land use and management influence a variety of ecosystem processes that affect greenhouse gas fluxes (Figure 1.1), such as photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, nitrification denitrification, enteric fermentation, and combustion. These processes involve transformations of carbon and nitrogen that are driven by the biological (activity of microorganisms, plants, and animals) and physical processes (combustion, leaching, and run-off). historical fire suppression and past forest harvest...

Excluded Carbon

The next step is to exclude from the total carbon the amount of carbon which does not lead to fuel combustion emissions, because the aim is to provide an estimate of fuel combustion emissions (Source category 1A). 2 The difference between the net and the gross calorific value for each fuel is the latent heat of vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. For the purposes of the IPCC Guidelines, the default carbon emission factors have been given on a net calorific value...

Uncertainty assessment Tier 1

Under Tier 1, the sources of uncertainty are the use of global or national averages for biomass carbon stocks in Forest Land or Other Land uses before conversion, and coarse estimates of areas converted to Other Land. Areas should be estimated using the methods outlined in Chapter 3. Carbon stocks will have the uncertainties associated with their estimation in the relevant section of the Guidelines. In the absence of other estimates, a default uncertainty level of +75 of the estimated mean CO2...

N2O emission factors

Nitrous oxide emissions from waste incineration are determined by a function of the type of technology and combustion conditions, the technology applied for NOx reduction as well as the contents of the waste stream. As a result, emission factors can vary from site to site. Several countries have reported N2O emissions from waste incineration in their national inventory reports. Table 5.4 shows examples of emission factors that have been used for incineration of MSW. The differences in the...

Tier 3 approach

The Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of estimating emissions described in the previous sections necessitate using an average emission factor for a source category and fuel combination throughout the source category. In reality, emissions depend on the age of the equipment used to burn the fuel. In a Tier 3 approach this is taken into account by splitting the fuel combustion statistics over the different possibilities and using emission factors that are dependent upon these differences. In Equation...

Rice cultivation

Cai, Z.C., Tsuruta, H. and Minami, K. (2000). Methane emission from rice fields in China measurements and influencing factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D13) 17231-17242. Cai, Z.C., Tsuruta, H., Gao, M., Xu, H. and Wei, C.F. (2003a). Options for mitigating methane emission from a permanently flooded rice field. Global Change Biology 9 37-45. Cai, Z.C., Sawamoto, T., Li, C.S., Kang, G.D., Boonjawat, J., Mosier, A. and Wassmann, R. (2003b). Field validation of the DNDC model for...

Definition of industrial process and fuel combustion emissions

Allocating emissions from the use of fossil fuel between the Energy and IPPU Sectors can be complex. The feedstock and reductant uses of fuels frequently produce gases that may be combusted to provide energy for the process. Equally part of the feedstock may be combusted directly for heat. This can lead to uncertainty and ambiguity in reporting. To help to overcome this problem, these Guidelines introduce practical guidance on when to allocate CO2 emissions released from combustion of fuel to...

Estimation Methods

As with the 1996 Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice Guidance the most common simple methodological approach is to combine information on the extent to which a human activity takes place (called activity data or AD) with coefficients which quantify the emissions or removals per unit activity. These are called emission factors (EF). The basic equation is therefore For example, in the energy sector fuel consumption would constitute activity data, and mass of carbon dioxide emitted per unit of fuel...

Developing a consistent time series

It is good practice to determine fuel use using the same method for all years. If this is not possible, data collection should overlap sufficiently in order to check for consistency in the methods employed. Emissions of CH4 and N2O will depend on engine type and technology. Unless technology-specific emission factors have been developed, it is good practice to use the same fuel-specific set of emission factors for all years. Mitigation activities resulting in changes in overall fuel consumption...

Methane emissions from enteric fermentation

Methane is produced in herbivores as a by-product of enteric fermentation, a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by micro-organisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream. The amount of methane that is released depends on the type of digestive tract, age, and weight of the animal, and the quality and quantity of the feed consumed. Ruminant livestock (e.g., cattle, sheep) are major sources of methane with moderate amounts produced from non-ruminant...

Methodological issues 3921 Choice of method

The emissions from petrochemical and carbon black production vary both with the process used and the feedstock used. The choice of method should thus be repeated for each product, process and feedstock used. Three methodological tiers are provided depending on the availability of data. The choice of method depends on national circumstances and is given by the decision trees in Figure 3.8 and Figure 3.9. Figure 3.8 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from petrochemical industry Figure...

Choice of stock change and emission factor

Default reference C stocks are found in Table 2.3 of Chapter 2, and stock change factors for previous land uses can be found in the relevant Chapters (for Forest Land in Section 4.2.3.2, Cropland in 5.2.3.2, Grassland in 6.2.3.2, and Other Land in 9.3.3.2). Default stock change factors for land use after conversion (Settlements) are not needed for the Tier 1 method for Settlements Remaining Settlements because the default assumption is that inputs equal outputs and therefore no net change in...

Foreword

Recognizing the problem of potential global climate change, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) co-established in 1988 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). One of the IPCC's activities is to support the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through its work on methodologies for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This report is the culmination of three years of work by the IPCC National Greenhouse Gas...

Flooded land surface area

National statistical information on the flooded area retained behind large dams (> 100km2) should be available and will probably be accurate to within 10 . Where national database on dams are not available, and other information is used, the flooded land areas retained behind dams will probably have an uncertainty of more than 50 , especially for countries with large flooded land areas. Detailed information on the location, type and function of smaller dams may be also difficult to obtain,...

CH4 Emissions from Flooded Land Basis for Future Methodological Development

This Appendix provides a basis for future methodological development rather than complete guidance. Flooded Land may emit CH4 in significant quantities, depending on a variety of characteristic such as age and depth of reservoirs, land-use prior to flooding, climate, and management practices. In contrast with CO2 emissions, CH4 emissions are highly variable spatially and temporally. Current measurements of CH4 fluxes from Flooded Land are not sufficiently comprehensive to support the...

A2 Land Converted to Flooded Land

With the actual knowledge, for Land Converted to Flooded Land, it is suggested to use measured emissions in Table 3a.2. Inventory compilers should use Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 methods described in Section 3a. 1 to estimate CH4 emissions from Land Converted to Flooded Land. Abril, G., Gu rin, F., Richard, S., Delmas, R., Galy-Lacaux, C., Gosse, P., Tremblay, A., Varfalvy, L., dos Santos, M.A. and Matvienko, B. (2005). Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and the carbon budget of a 10-years old...

Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds NMVOCs

A class of emissions which includes a wide range of specific organic chemical substances. Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) play a major role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere (lower atmosphere). Ozone in the troposphere is a greenhouse gas. It is also a major local and regional air pollutant, causing significant health and environmental damage. Because they contribute to ozone formation, NMVOCs are considered precursor greenhouse gases. NMVOCs, once oxidized in the...

Intermediate storage facilities on CO2 transport routes

If there is a temporal mismatch between supply and transport or storage capacity, a CO2 buffer (above ground or underground) might be needed to temporarily store the CO2. If the buffer is a tank, fugitive emissions should be measured and treated as part of the transport system and reported under category 1C1 c (other). If the intermediate storage facility (or buffer) is a geological storage reservoir, fugitive emissions from it can be treated in the same way as for any other geological storage...

Annex 2A1 Waste Generation and Management Data by country and regional averages

Table 2A.1 in this Annex shows MSW generation and management data for some countries whose data are available. Regional defaults for waste generation and treatment that are provided in Table 2.1 in Chapter 2 are derived based on the information from this table. The data are applicable as default data for the year 2000. For comparison, data on waste generation and disposal to SWDS from the Revised 1996IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996 IPCC Guidelines) are also given...

Time series consistency

Many countries have long time series of energy statistics that can be used to derive time series of energy sector greenhouse gas emissions. However, in many cases statistical practices (including definitions of fuels, of fuel use by sectors) will have changed over time and recalculations of the energy data in the latest set of definitions is not always feasible. In compiling time series of emissions from fuel combustion, these changes might give rise to time series inconsistencies, which should...

SF6 emissions from industrial and medical particle

SF6 is used as an insulating gas in two types of industrial particle accelerators (low and high voltage) and also in medical (cancer therapy) particle accelerators, as is the case for university and research particle accelerators. However, the emission and charge factors for industrial and medical particle accelerators are different from those of university and research accelerators, as discussed below. Global banked capacity for industrial particle accelerators is roughly estimated to be 500...

Coverage Of The Guidelines

Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC Guidelines. Estimation methods are provided for the gases shown in Tables 2 and 3, and cover the categories shown in Figure 1. Reporting is described in Chapter 8 of Volume 1. Coverage is complete for all greenhouse gases not covered by the Montreal Protocol, for which the IPCC, at the time of writing, provided a global warming potential (GWP)7. Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC...

Tiers

The Tier 1 method is fuel-based, since emissions from all sources of combustion can be estimated on the basis of the quantities of fuel combusted (usually from national energy statistics) and average emission factors. Tier 1 emission factors are available for all relevant direct greenhouse gases. The quality of these emission factors differs between gases. For CO2, emission factors mainly depend upon the carbon content of the fuel. Combustion conditions (combustion efficiency, carbon retained...

Use of worksheets

Use the worksheets for Livestock N2O contained in Annex 1 (AFOLU Worksheets) to calculate and report inventory information for default methodologies described in Section 10.5 N2O emission from manure management. The following is a summary of the step-by-step instructions to follow when completing the worksheets. Note that columns are referred to using the symbols of the variables that both appear in the equations, as well as in column headings of the worksheets. Step 1 Calculation of N...

Choice of emission factors for PFCs

Tier 1 Technology based default emission factors Default emission factors for Tier 1 method are provided in Table 4.15. Default emission factors and uncertainty ranges for the calculation of PFC emissions from ALUMINIUM PRODUCTION BY CELL TECHNOLOGY TYPE (TIER 1 METHOD) a Default CF4 values calculated from median anode effect performance from 1990 IAI survey data (IAI, 2001). b Uncertainty based on the range of calculated CF4 specific emissions by technology from 1990 IAI anode effect survey...

Equations For Harvested Wood Products

Estimation of carbon stock and its annual change in HWP pools of the reporting Starting with i 1900 and continuing to present year, compute Inflow(i) with C(1900) 0.0 Note For an explanation of technique used in Equations 12.1A to estimate first-order decay see Pingoud and Wagner (2006). C(i) the carbon stock of the HWP pool in the beginning of year i, Gg C k decay constant of first-order decay given in units, yr-1 ( k ln(2) HL, where HL is half-life of the HWP pool in years. A half-life is the...

Amount of waste openburned

The amount of waste open-burned is the most important activity data required for estimating emissions from open burning of waste. In most countries statistics may not be available. Where the data on waste amount are not available, alternative methods such as data from period surveys, research project or expert judgement can be used to estimate total amount of waste burned together with appropriate explanation and documentation. Extrapolation and interpolation can be used to obtain estimates for...