Reporting Tables And Worksheets

To report the HWP Contribution an approach should be selected. It is good practice to report the following in the AFOLU sectoral background Table 3.10 (see Table 12.7 and Table A12.1) The approach used to estimate the HWP Contribution. If the HWP Contribution is assumed to be zero (Section 12.2.1) then the reason for this should be stated instead of the approach chosen, The amounts harvested, imported and exported should be given in Table 12.7 even if the HWP Contribution is assumed to be zero....

Introduction

Coke Oven Process

Metallurgical coke is primarily used in the blast furnace to make iron. Coke is also used in other metallurgical processes, such as the manufacture of cast iron, ferroalloys, lead, and zinc, and in kilns to make lime and magnesium. Metallurgical coke is the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal, principally coking coal, at high temperature. It is low in moisture content and volatile matter. Coking coal refers to bituminous coal with a quality that allows the production of a coke...

Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories GPG2000

GPG2000 (IPCC, 2000) provided supplementary information to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines to improve inventory transparency, documentation, consistency over time, completeness, and comparability. GPG2000 also provided methods for addressing uncertainties and implementing quality control and quality assurance. In the Agriculture Sector, guidance was provided for all of the emission sources included in the 1996IPCC Guidelines (see above). GPG2000 introduced a method for identifying key sources that...

Choice of activity data

Activity data consist of the waste generation for bulk waste or by waste component and the fraction of waste disposed to SWDS. Waste generation is the product of the per capita waste generation rate (tonnes capita yr) for each component and population (capita). Chapter 2 gives guidance on the collection of data on waste generation and waste composition as well as waste management practices. Regional default values for MSW can be found in Table 2.1 for the generation rate and the fraction...

Matching Land Areas With Factors For Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Removals

This section provides brief guidance on matching the land-use area data with carbon stocks, emissions factors and other relevant data (e.g., forest biomass stocks, average annual net increment) to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and removals. An initial step in preparing national inventory estimates is to assemble the required activity data (i.e., land-use areas) and match them with appropriate carbon stock, emissions and removal factors and other relevant data. This Volume provides default...

Unbiased estimator

An unbiased estimator is a statistic whose expected value equals the value of the parameter being estimated. Note that this term has a specific statistical meaning and that an estimate of a quantity calculated from an unbiased estimator may lack bias in the statistical sense, but may be biased in the more general sense of the word if the sample has been affected by unknown systematic error. Thus, in statistical usage, a biased estimator can be understood as a deficiency in the statistical...

Reporting And Documentation

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national greenhouse gas inventory as outlined in Section 6.11 of Chapter 6, QA QC and Verification, in Volume 1 of these Guidelines. A few examples of specific documentation and reporting relevant to this category are outlined in the following paragraphs. The sources of activity data should be described and referenced. The information on the collection frequency and coverage (e.g., whether composting at...

Calculation steps for Tiers 1 and 2

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in biomass (ACB ) using the default methods Using the worksheet provided for Land Converted to Cropland (see Annex 1, AFOLU Worksheets), calculate the change in biomass carbon stocks in Land Converted to Cropland as follows Step 1 Enter the subcategories of croplands for the reporting year. The subcategories of croplands used in Section 5.2 may also be used to fill out the appropriate column in the worksheet. Step 2 For each...

Reporting and Documentation tier

For Tier 1, data should be documented and reported to indicate the total quantity of glass produced, and the emission factor applied to estimate emissions (including whether a default or country-specific cullet ratio is used). The process for collecting activity data should be documented (i.e., plant level or national estimates) as should any calculations made to convert glass production to a common unit (e.g., kg). Tier 2 documentation should include the quantity of glass melted in each...

Dead organic matter

Most of the changes in carbon stocks associated with dead organic matter (DOM) will be associated with changes in tree cover in settlements. Methods are provided for two types of DOM pools 1) dead wood and 2) litter. Chapter 1of this volume provides detailed definitions of these pools. Dead wood is a diverse pool with many practical problems for measuring in the field and associated uncertainties about rates of transfer to litter, soil, or emissions to the atmosphere. Amounts of dead wood...

General Rules For Identification Of Key Categories

The results of the key category identification will be most useful if the analysis is done at the appropriate disaggregation level of categories. Table 4.1, Suggested aggregation level of analysis for Approach 1, lists the source and sink categories that are recommended and identifies special considerations related to the disaggregation of the analysis, where relevant. For example, the combustion of fossil fuels is a large emission source category that can be broken down into subcategories of...

Completeness

Duplication of off-road and road transport activity data should be avoided. Validation of fuel consumption should follow the principles outlined in Section 3.2.1.3. Lubricants should be accounted for based on their use in off-road vehicles. Lubricants that are mixed with motor gasoline and combusted should be included with fuel consumption data. Other uses of lubricants are covered in the Volume 3 IPPU Chapter 5). Amounts of carbon from biomass, eg. biodiesel, oxygenates and some other blending...

Choice of emission factors

CO2 EMISSIONS FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION Tier 1 - default emission factors As previously mentioned, the Tier 1 method calculates emissions from default emission factors applied to a country's total primary magnesium production. The default emission factors (Table 4.19) take into account the type of material used and basic stoichiometric ratios which have been adjusted by empirical data for generic manufacturing process losses. The resulting emission of CO2 per tonne magnesium produced is...

Developing A Consistent Time Series

As the methodological guidance for estimating and reporting of emissions from biological treatment was not included in the previous IPCC Guidelines, it is recommended that the whole time series is estimated using the same methodology. The activity data for earlier years may not be available in all countries. Also current data on biological treatment may not be collected on an annual basis. The methods for obtaining missing data are described in Volume 1, Chapter 5, Time Series Consistency. The...

Choice of emissionremoval factors

Few allometric biomass equations exist specifically for trees or shrubs in urban settings (Nowak, 1996 Jo, 2002) so investigators have tended to apply equations derived for forest trees, adjusting the resulting biomass with a coefficient (such as 0.80 Nowak, 1994 Nowak and Crane, 2002 ) intended to take account of the allometry of open-grown trees in cities where above-ground biomass for a given diameter is typically lower than that of forest-grown trees (Nowak, 1996). Allometric equations for...

Annex 6A1 QC checklists

FORMS AND CHECKLISTS FOR QUALITY CONTROL FOR SPECIFIC SOURCE CATEGORIES This annex contains a number of example forms that provide means to record both general and category-specific QC activities. These forms are only examples, and inventory compilers may find other means to effectively record their QA QC activities (to be defined in the QA QC plan). Refer to the IPCC Guidelines chapters on QA QC and Verification, Data Collection, and for each category as described in Volume 2-5 for more...

Overview of ODS substitute issues

Each application discussed above can be divided into sub-applications. When selecting a method for estimating emissions, it is good practice to consider the number and relevance of sub-applications, the data availability, and the emission patterns. Applications with a high number of sub-applications (refrigeration has six major subapplications foam has even more) will generally benefit from a higher level of disaggregation in their data sets, owing to the differences between the...

Methodological issues

Waxes are used in a number of different applications. Paraffin waxes are used in applications such as candles, corrugated boxes, paper coating, board sizing, food production, wax polishes, surfactants (as used in detergents) and many others. Emissions from the use of waxes derive primarily when the waxes or derivatives of paraffins are combusted during use (e.g., candles), and when they are incinerated with or without heat recovery or in wastewater treatment (for surfactants). In the cases of...

Step 2 Select values for variables from the probability distributions

Select random value of Emission Factor from distribution Select random value of Activity Data from distribution Select random value of Emission Factor from distribution Select random value of Activity Data from distribution Select random value of Emission Factor from distribution Select random value of Activity Data from distribution Step 3 - Calculate Emissions in the conventional way Select random value of Emission Factor from distribution Select random value of Activity Data from...

Comparisons of national estimates

There are a number of practical verification techniques that do not require specialised modelling expertise or extended analyses. Most of these can be considered as method-based comparisons that consider the differences in national estimates based on using alternative estimation methodologies for the same category or set of categories. These comparisons look for major calculation errors and exclusion of major source categories or subsource categories. Method-based comparisons can be designed...

Uncertainty assessment

There are large uncertainties associated with the default emission factors for Tier 1 (see Tables 10.14 to 10.16). The uncertainty range for the default factors is estimated to be +30 . Improvements achieved by Tier 2 methodologies are estimated to reduce uncertainty ranges in the emission factors to +20 . Accurate and well-designed emission measurements from well characterised types of manure and manure management systems can help reduce these uncertainties further. These measurements must...

Settlements Remaining Settlements

This category refers to all classes of urban formations that have been in use as settlements (e.g., areas that are functionally or administratively associated with public or private land in cities, villages, or other settlement types), since the last time data were collected. Emissions and removals of CO2 in this category are estimated by the subcategories of changes in carbon stocks in biomass (both woody and perennial non-woody components), in DOM, and in soils, as summarized in Equation 2.3...

Trend of a single category estimated as emission factor times an activity rate

Factor x Activity Emission Base Year Emis. Factor x Activity Emission Year t Emis. Factor x Activity Emission Year t Emis. Factor x Activity Trend (Emission Year t -Emission in Base Year) Emission in Base Year Trend (Emission Year t -Emission in Base Year) Emission in Base Year Emission Base Year Emis. Factor x Activity Emission Base Year Emis. Factor x Activity Emission Year t Emis. Factor x Activity Emission Year t Emis. Factor x Activity Trend (Emission Year t...

Settlements 81 Introduction

This Chapter provides methods for estimating carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with changes in biomass, dead organic matter (DOM), and soil carbon on lands classified as settlements. Settlements are defined in Chapter 3 as including all developed land -- i.e., residential, transportation, commercial, and production (commercial, manufacturing) infrastructure of any size, unless it is already included under other land-use categories. The land-use category...

Other uses of soda ash

Soda ash is used in a variety of applications, including, glass production, soaps and detergents, flue gas desulphurisation, chemicals, pulp and paper and other common consumer products. Soda ash production and consumption (including sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) results in the release of CO2. Emissions from soda ash production are reported in the Chemical Industry, while emissions from use are reported in the respective end use sectors where soda ash is used. Emissions from soda ash used in glass...

Inventory Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

Quality assurance and quality control checks as outlined in Chapter 6 of Volume 1 should be used when estimating emissions from incineration and open burning of waste. Furthermore, transparency can be improved by the provision of clear documentation and explanations of work undertaken in the following areas. Inventories compilers should review data collection methods, check data and compare them with other data sources. Data should also be checked with previous year to ensure consistency over...

Ceramics

Ceramics include the production of bricks and roof tiles, vitrified clay pipes, refractory products, expanded clay products, wall and floor tiles, table and ornamental ware (household ceramics), sanitary ware, technical ceramics, and inorganic bonded abrasives. Process-related emissions from ceramics result from the calcination of carbonates in the clay, as well as the addition of additives. Similar to the cement and lime production processes, carbonates are heated to high temperatures in a...

TIER 2 method

Emission factors for the Tier 2 method are generally developed on the basis of data collected from representative manufacturers and utilities that track emissions by life cycle stage, essentially using the Tier 3, pure massbalance method at their facilities for at least one year. (The disposal emission factor should also account for emissions that occur downstream of the utility site, as discussed below.) These emissions by life cycle stage are then divided by the corresponding SF6 consumption...

Representing Landuse Areas

This section describes three Approaches that may be used to represent areas of land use using the categories defined in the previous section. They are presented below in order of increasing information content. Approach 1 identifies the total change in area for each individual land-use category within a country, but does not provide information on the nature and area of conversions between land uses. Approach 2 introduces tracking of land-use conversions between categories (but is not spatially...

Lime Production 231 Methodological issues

Calcium oxide (CaO or quicklime) is formed by heating limestone to decompose the carbonates. This is usually done in shaft or rotary kilns at high temperatures and the process releases CO2. Depending on the product requirements (e.g., metallurgy, pulp and paper, construction materials, effluent treatment, water softening, pH control, and soil stabilisation), primarily high calcium limestone (calcite) is utilized in accordance with the following reaction CaCO3 (high-purity limestone) + heat CaO...

Quality Assurance Quality Control

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this application. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. One of the main concerns will be to...

Tier 2 approach

Applying a Tier 2 approach requires Data on the amount of fuel combusted in the source category A country-specific emission factor for the source category and fuel for each gas. Under Tier 2, the Tier 1 default emission factors in Equation 2.1 are replaced by country-specific emission factors. Country-specific emission factors can be developed by taking into account country-specific data, for example carbon contents of the fuels used, carbon oxidation factors, fuel quality and (for non-CO2...

Use Of Measurement In The Estimation Of Ch4 Emissions From Swds

The FOD model and other methods for estimating CH4 generation at SWDS are constructed using scientific knowledge as well as assumptions on microbial metabolism under anaerobic conditions in the SWDS. As with all models, validation that includes some form of direct measurements to compare model predictions to actual measurements increases the user's confidence in the model and can be used to refine and improve the model predictions. These measurements can also be used to validate a model by...

Nature Of Nonenergy Uses Of Fossil Fuels

As explained in Section 1.1 some CO2 emissions from fossil fuels arise from uses that are not primarily for energy purposes and, in this section, the principles are described which have guided their estimation and reporting. The methods used to estimate emissions are described in the specific IPPU source category chapters (Chapters 3, 4 and 5). This section provides important and additional background information for the use of data relating to non-energy use and the links between these data...

Industrial waste

The average composition of industrial waste is very different from the average composition of MSW, and varies by type of industry, although many of the waste types can be included in both of industrial waste and MSW. DOC and fossil carbon in industrial waste is mainly found in the same waste types as in MSW. DOC is found in paper and cardboard, textiles, food and wood. Synthetic leather, rubber, and plastics are major sources of fossil carbon. Waste oils and solvents are also important sources...

Grassland Remaining Grassland

Grassland Remaining Grassland includes managed pastures which have always been under grassland vegetation and pasture use or other land categories converted to grassland more than 20 years ago. Constructing a greenhouse gas inventory for the land-use category Grassland Remaining Grassland (GG) involves estimation of changes in carbon stock from five carbon pools (i.e., above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, dead wood, litter, and soil organic matter), as well as emissions of non-CO2 gases....

Contents

8.2 Settlements Remaining 8.2.1.1 Choice of 8.2.1.2 Choice of emission removal 8.2.1.3 Choice of activity 8.2.1.4 Uncertainty 8.2.2 Dead organic 8.2.2.1 Choice of 8.2.2.2 Choice of emission removal 8.2.2.3 Choice of activity 8.2.2.4 Uncertainty 8.2.3 Soil 8.2.3.1 Choice of 8.2.3.2 Choice of stock change and emission 8.2.3.3 Choice of activity 8.2.3.4 Uncertainty 8.3 Land Converted to 8.3.1.1 Choice of 8.3.1.2 Choice of emission removal 8.3.1.3 Choice of activity 8.3.1.4 Uncertainty 8.3.2 Dead...

Completeness Time series Quality assurance Quality control and Reporting

A complete inventory should estimate CH4 emissions from all systems of manure management for all livestock species categories identified in Section 10.2. Countries are encouraged to use manure management system definitions that are consistent with those presented in Table 10.18 to ensure that all types of systems are being accounted for. Population data should be cross-checked between main reporting mechanisms (such as FAO and national agricultural statistics databases) to ensure that...

Approach 2 Uncertainties In Trends

The Approach 2 Monte Carlo method can be used to estimate uncertainties in the trend as well as in the absolute emission value in a given year. The procedure is a simple extension of that described in the previous section. The trend is defined here as the percentage difference13 between the base year and the year of interest (year t). Therefore, the Monte Carlo analysis needs to be set up to estimate both years simultaneously. The following steps show the procedure. Step 1 Specify source sink...

Choice of method

The general method for biomass carbon stock change in Settlements Remaining Settlements follows the approach in Equation 2.7 in Chapter 2. This method estimates changes in biomass carbon stocks, accounting for gains in carbon stocks in biomass as a result of growth minus losses in carbon stocks as a result of pruning and mortality. Depending on the relative magnitudes of the increment and loss terms, the average annual changes in biomass carbon stocks in settlements may be positive or negative....

Flooded Land

Flooded Lands are defined as water bodies where human activities have caused changes in the amount of surface area covered by water, typically through water level regulation. Examples of Flooded Land include reservoirs for the production of hydroelectricity, irrigation, and navigation. Regulated lakes and rivers that do not have substantial changes in water area in comparison with the pre-flooded ecosystem are not considered as Flooded Lands. Some rice paddies are cultivated through flooding of...

Soda Ash Production 381 Introduction

Soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) is a white crystalline solid that is used as a raw material in a large number of industries including glass manufacture, soap and detergents, pulp and paper production and water treatment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted from the use of soda ash and these emissions are accounted for as a source under the relevant using industry as discussed in Volume 3, Chapter 2. CO2 is also emitted during production with the quantity emitted dependent on the industrial...

Emission factors for surface mining

Although measurements of methane emissions from surface mining are increasingly available, they are difficult to make and at present no routine widely applicable methods exist. Data on in situ gas contents before overburden removal are also scarce for many surface mining operations. The Tier 1 emission factors are shown together with the estimation method in Equation 4.1.7. Equation 4.1.7 Tier 1 global average method - surface mines Methane emissions CH4 Emission Factor Surface Coal Production...

Quality Control

Quality Control (QC) is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality of the inventory as it is being developed. The QC system is designed to (i) Provide routine and consistent checks to ensure data integrity, correctness, and completeness (ii) Identify and address errors and omissions (iii) Document and archive inventory material and record all QC activities. QC activities include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations and...

Steps to define categories and subcategories of livestock

Good practice is to identify the appropriate method for estimating emissions for each source category, and then base the characterisation on the most detailed requirements identified for each livestock species. The livestock characterisation used by a country will probably undergo iterations as the needs of each source category are assessed during the emissions estimation process (see Figure 10.1, Decision Tree for Livestock Population Characterisation). The steps are Identify livestock species...

Annex 5A1 Estimation of default stock change factors for mineral soil C emissionsremovals for cropland

Default stock change factors are provided in Table 5.5 that were computed using a global dataset of experimental results for tillage, input, set-aside, and land use. The land-use factor represents the loss of carbon that occurs after 20 years of continuous cultivation. Tillage and input factors represent the effect on C stocks after 20 years following the management change. Set-aside factors represent the effect of temporary removal of cultivated cropland from production and placing it into...

Methane Emissions From Rice Cultivation

Anaerobic decomposition of organic material in flooded rice fields produces methane (CH4), which escapes to the atmosphere primarily by transport through the rice plants (Takai, 1970 Cicerone and Shetter, 1981 Conrad, 1989 Nouchi et al, 1990). The annual amount of CH4 emitted from a given area of rice is a function of the number and duration of crops grown, water regimes before and during cultivation period, and organic and inorganic soil amendments (Neue and Sass, 1994 Minami, 1995). Soil...

Waste Generation And Management Data

Guidance on how to collect data on waste generation and management practices is given separately for municipal solid waste (MSW), sludge, industrial and other waste. Default definitions for these categories are given below. These default definitions are used in the subsequent methodological guidance. The definitions are transparent to allow for country-specific modifications, as waste categorisation varies much from country to country, and can encompass different waste components.2 If the...

Change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter

Acdom Figure

Dead organic matter (DOM) comprises dead wood and litter (See Table 1.1). Estimating the carbon dynamics of dead organic matter pools allows for increased accuracy in the reporting of where and when carbon emissions and removals occur. For example, only some of the carbon contained in biomass killed during a biomass burning is emitted into the atmosphere in the year of the fire. Most of the biomass is added to dead wood, litter and soil pools (dead fine roots are included in the soil) from...

Choice of emission factors for underground mines

Tier 1 Emission Factors for underground mining are shown below. The emission factors are the same as those described in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (BCTSRE, 1992 Bibler et al, 1991 Lama, 1992 Pilcher et al, 1991 USEPA, 1993a,b and Zimmermeyer, 1989). Tier 1 global Average method - underground mining - before adjustment for any Ch4 emissions CH4 Emission Factor Underground Coal Production Conversion Factor Methane Emissions (Gg year-1) CH4 Emission...

Annex 4A1 Glossary for Forest Land

Terminology for stocks and changes in forests as defined in this volume Total above-ground and below-ground biomass (in any of the compartments above, e.g., carbon in growing stock or biomass removals), or in litter, dead wood and soil organic matter All biomass of living vegetation, both woody and herbaceous, above the soil including stems, stumps, branches, bark, seeds, and foliage. Note In cases where forest understory is a relatively small component of the above-ground biomass carbon pool,...

Municipal Solid Waste MSW

Municipal waste is generally defined as waste collected by municipalities or other local authorities. However, this definition varies by country. Typically, MSW includes Garden (yard) and park waste and Commercial institutional waste. The regional default composition data for MSW is given in Section 2.3.1. Default data Region-specific default data on per capita MSW generation and management practices are provided in Table 2.1. These data are estimated based on country-specific data from a...

Types of probability density functions

There are many PDFs outlined in the statistical literature that often represent particular real situations. The choice of a particular type of PDF depends, at least in part, on the domain of the function (e.g., can it have both positive or negative values, or only non-negative values), the range of the function (e.g., is the range narrow or does it cover orders-of-magnitude), the shape (e.g., symmetry), and processes that generated the data (e.g., additive, multiplicative). These considerations...

Issues To Consider When Developing The Probability Density Function

The following describes how inventory compilers can satisfy the principles of comparability, consistency and transparency in emissions inventories when selecting a PDF Where empirical data are available, the first consideration should be whether a normal distribution would be appropriate as a representation of uncertainty. If the variable must be non-negative, then the standard deviation of the normal distribution should not exceed 30 percent of the mean value to avoid an unacceptably high...

Waterborne Navigation

This source category covers all water-borne transport from recreational craft to large ocean-going cargo ships that are driven primarily by large, slow and medium speed diesel engines and occasionally by steam or gas turbines. It includes hovercraft and hydrofoils. Water-borne navigation causes emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM)...

Equations

Equation 2.1 Greenhouse gas emissions from stationary Equation 2.2 Total emissions by greenhouse Equation 2.3 Greenhouse gas emissions by Equation 2.4 Fuel consumption estimates based on technology Equation 2.5 Technology-based emission Equation 2.6 CO2 capture Equation 2.7 Treatment of CO2 Figure 2.1 Generalised decision tree for estimating emissions from stationary combustion 2.15 Figure 2.2 Power and heat plants use fuels to produce electric power and or useful heat 2.30 Figure 2.3 A...

Asphalt Production And Use 541 Introduction

This source category comprises the non-combustion emissions from the production of asphalt in asphalt plants other than refineries and its application (such as paving and roofing operations as well as subsequent releases from the surfaces). It includes asphalt blowing for roofing. The production and use of asphalt results mainly in emissions of NMVOC, CO, SO2 and particulate matter, while the fate of the remaining hydrocarbons are stored in the product (much less than one per cent of the carbon...

Calculation steps for Tier 1

The steps for estimating SOC0 and SOC(0-T) and net soil C stock change per ha for Cropland Remaining Cropland on mineral soils are as follows step 1 Organize data into inventory time periods based on the years in which activity data were collected (e.g., 1990 to 1995, 1995 to 2000, etc.) step 2 Determine the amount Cropland Remaining Cropland by mineral soil types and climate regions in the country at the beginning of the first inventory time period. The first year of the inventory time period...

Choice of stock change and emission factors

Table 5.5 provides Tier 1 approach default stock change factors for land use (FLU), input (FI) and management (Fmg). The method and studies that were used to derive the default stock change factors are provided in Annex 5A.1 and References. The default time period for stock changes (D) is 20 years and management practice is assumed to influence stocks to a depth of 30 cm, which is also the depth for the reference soil C stocks in Table 2.3 (Chapter 2). A Tier 2 approach entails the estimation...

Developing a consistent time series and recalculation

Using a consistent method to estimate emissions is the main mechanism for ensuring time series consistency. However, the variability in fuel quality over time is also important to consider within the limits of the national fuel characterisation or the fuel types listed in Tables 2.2 to 2.5. This includes variation in carbon content, typically reflected in variation in the calorific values used to convert the fuels from mass or volume units to the energy units used in the estimation. It is good...

Choice of activity data tier 1 method

The Tier 1 method requires only the amount of steel produced in the country by process type, the total amount of pig iron produced that is not processed into steel, and the total amount of coke, direct reduced iron, pellets, and sinter produced in this case the total amount of coke produced is assume to be produced in integrated coke production facilities. These data may be available from governmental agencies responsible for manufacturing statistics, business or industry trade associations, or...

Land Converted To Cropland

Globally, about 50 of the total land surface has been transformed by direct human action, 20 of land ecosystems have been converted to permanent croplands, and 25 of the world's forests have been cleared for various uses such as crop cultivation and pastures (Moore, 2002). Area under cropland has been increasing in some parts of the world to meet growing food and fibre demands. Most of the expansion of cropland in the last two decades has occurred in Southeast Asia, parts of South Asia, the...

Estimating Potential Emissions According To The Former Tier 1b

Ghfc_xxx G(Unit i) n(Unit i) Fhfc_xxx (Unit i) +-----+ G(Unit m) n(Unit m) Fhfc_xxx (Unit m) Ghfc-xxx total import (export) of HFC-xxx in pre-charged refrigeration units1 G(Unit i) refrigerant charge in a refrigeration unit of type i (i i m) n(Unit i) number of refrigeration units of type i imported (exported) FHFC-xxx(Unit i) fraction of component HFC-xxx2 in the refrigerant (mixture) of a unit of type i FOAM PRODUCTS3 GHFC_xxx V(Foam *) JHFC_xxx (Foam i)+ L + V(Foam m) JHFC_xxx (Foam m)...

Reporting

It is good practice to report a summary of implemented QA QC activities and key findings as a supplement to each country's national inventory, which itself is described in Volumes 2-5 and by the tables in this volume. However, it is not practical or necessary to report all the internal documentation that is retained by the inventory compiler. In this summary, the inventory compiler should focus on the following activities. Reference to a QA QC plan, its implementation schedule, and the...

Figures

Figure 1.1 Industrial Processes and Product Use Figure 1.2 General material balance of industrial processes where products are made using hydrocarbon feedstock (size of flows arbitrarily chosen). (Adapted from Neelis et al, Figure 1.3 Flowchart for verification of completeness of accounting for non-energy uses of fuels 1.23 Figure 1.4 Apparent versus Actual Leaks No growth in annual sales of equipment (10-yr service, 30-yr Figure 1.5 Apparent versus Actual Leaks 5 growth in annual sales of...

Carbon Stored In Swds

Some carbon will be stored over long time periods in SWDS. Wood and paper decay very slowly and accumulate in the SWDS (long-term storage). Carbon fractions in other waste types decay over varying time periods (see Half-life under Section 3.2.3.) The amount of carbon stored in the SWDS can be estimated using the FOD model (see Annex 3A.1). The long-term storage of carbon in paper and cardboard, wood, garden and park waste is of special interest as the changes in carbon stock in waste...

Land Converted To Forest Land

This section provides methodological guidance on annual estimation of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases, which occur on lands converted to Forest Land from different land-uses, including Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements, and Other land, through afforestation and reforestation, either by natural or artificial regeneration (including plantations). The emissions and removals on abandoned lands, which are regenerating to forest due to human activities, should be also estimated...

Choice of emissions factors

The mass of fuel available for combustion (MB of Equation 2.27) is critical for estimating the non-CO2 emissions. Default data to support estimation of emissions under a Tier 1 approach are given in Tables 2.4 to 2.6 in Chapter 2. Countries need to judge how their vegetation types correspond with the broad vegetation categories described in the default tables. Guidance for this is provided in Chapter 3 (Consistent Representation of Lands). Countries using Tier 2 are likely to have national data...

NonCO2 greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning

Both uncontrolled (wildfires) and managed (prescribed) fires can have a major impact on the non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions from forests. In Forest Land Remaining Forest Land, emissions of CO2 from biomass burning also need to be accounted for because they are generally not synchronous with rates of CO2 uptake. This is especially important after stand replacing wildfire, and during cycles of shifting cultivation in tropical regions. Where the type of forest changes (e.g., conversion of natural...

Soil carbon

This section elaborates on estimation procedures and good practices for estimating change in forest soil C stocks. It does not include forest litter, which is a dead organic matter pool. Separate guidance is provided for two types of forest soils 1) mineral forest soils, and 2) organic forest soils. The organic C content of mineral forest soils (to 1 m depth) typically varies between 20 to over 300 tonnes C ha-1 depending on the forest type and climatic conditions (Jobbagy and Jackson, 2000)....

Data from waste stream analyses

MSW treatment techniques are often applied in a chain or in parallel. A more accurate but data intensive approach to data collection is to follow the streams of waste from one treatment to another taking into account the changes in composition and other parameters that affect emissions. Waste stream analyses should be combined with high quality country-specific data on waste generation and management. The approach is often complemented with modelling. When using this approach, it is good...

Zinc Production 471 Introduction

There are three different types of primary zinc production. The first method is a metallurgical process called electro-thermic distillation. The process is used to combine roasted concentrate and secondary zinc products into a sinter feed that is burned to remove zinc, halides, cadmium, and other impurities. The resulting zinc oxide-rich sinter is combined with metallurgical coke in an electric retort furnace that reduces the zinc oxides and produces vaporized zinc which is captured in a vacuum...

Table B Short Summary Table 2 of

Other halogenated gases with CO2 equivalent conversion factors (3) Other halogenated gases without CO2 equivalent conversion factors (4) 4C Incineration and Open Burning of Waste 4D Wastewater Treatment and Discharge Indirect N2O emissions from the 5A Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen in NOx and NH3 International Aviation (International Bunkers) International Water-borne Transport (International Bunkers) (1 ) CO2 net emissions (emissions minus removals) (2) Total amount of CO2 captured for...

Tier

It is expected that the refrigeration and air conditioning will be a key category for many countries. The implication of this conclusion from Table 7.2 and the decision tree in Figure 7.6 is that either country-specific or globally or regionally derived activity data will be required at the sub-application (disaggregated) level in order to complete the reporting task. However, in the rare instances that the refrigeration and air conditioning application is much less significant, there should be...

Annex 11A1 References for crop residue data in Table 112

Dry matter fraction of harvested product Lander, C.H., Moffitt, D., and Alt, K. (1998). Nutrients available from livestock manure relative to crop growth requirements. Resource Assessment and Strategic Planning Working paper 98-1. USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service. II. Above-ground residue dry matter Ames, J.W., and Simon, R.H. (1924). Soil potassium as affected by fertilizer treatment and cropping. Bulletin 379. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio. Anonymous (1924)....

Choice of method methodology FOR CO2

The IPCC Guidelines outline several approaches for calculating CO2 emissions from ferroalloy production. For practical purposes, this section adopts a mass balance approach where all CO emitted is reported as emitted CO2. The choice of a good practice method depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.9. The Tier 1 method calculates emissions from general emission factors applied to a country's total ferroalloy production. The Tier 1 method is very simple, and it...

Source Categories

exploration and exploitation of primary energy sources, conversion of primary energy sources into more useable energy forms in refineries and power plants transmission and distribution of fuels use of fuels in stationary and mobile applications. Emissions arise from these activities by combustion and as fugitive emissions, or escape without combustion. For inventory purposes, fuel combustion may be defined as the intentional oxidation of materials within an apparatus that is designed to...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice at all primary aluminium production facilities to maintain records of all of the necessary activity data to support calculations of emissions factors as suggested in these guidelines. These records will include production of aluminium, anode effect performance and consumption of carbon materials used in either Prebake or Soderberg cells. In addition, the International Aluminium Institute maintains global summaries of aggregated activity data for these same parameters and...

NT NeXt Mst S [[T MSt s N

NMMS_Avb amount of managed manure nitrogen available for application to managed soils or for feed, fuel, or construction purposes, kg N yr-1 N(T) number of head of livestock species category T in the country NeX(T) annual average N excretion per animal of species category T in the country, kg N animal-1 yr-1 MS(t,s) fraction of total annual nitrogen excretion for each livestock species category T that is managed in manure management system S in the country, dimensionless FracLossMS amount of...

Key concepts and terminology

Definitions associated with conducting an uncertainty analysis include uncertainty, accuracy, precision and variability. These terms are sometimes used loosely and may be misunderstood. They have in fact clear statistical definitions that should be used in order to be clear about what is being quantified and reported. Several definitions are given here, in alphabetical order Accuracy Agreement between the true value and the average of repeated measured observations or estimates of a variable....

IGES

A report prepared by the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (TFI) of the IPCC and accepted by the Panel but not approved in detail Whilst the information in this IPCC Report is believed to be true and accurate at the date of going to press, neither the authors nor the publishers can accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions. Neither the authors nor the publishers have any responsibility for the persistence of any URLs referred to in this report and...

Emission factor uncertainties

Similar to cement and lime, where emissions from glass production are estimated based on the carbonate input (Tier 3), the emission factor uncertainty (1-3 percent) is relatively low because the emission factor is based on a stoichiometric ratio. There may be some uncertainty associated with assuming that there is 100 percent calcination of the carbonate input (1 percent). Because emissions are estimated based on quantity of melted glass in each manufacturing process and default emission...

Gases included

The 2006 Guidelines can be applied for the following two groups of greenhouse gases1 Greenhouse gases with a GWP in the TAR and not covered by the Montreal Protocol In addition to the greenhouse gases included in the 1996 Guidelines, gases for which global warming potential (GWP) values are given in the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) are included in the 2006 Guidelines2 unless they are covered by the Montreal Protocol. hydroflurocarbons (HFCs e.g., HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3),...

Iron Steel And Metallurgical Coke Production

The production of iron and steel leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). This chapter provides guidance for estimating emissions of CO2 and CH4. The iron and steel industry broadly consists of Primary facilities that produce both iron and steel Secondary steelmaking facilities Iron production facilities and Offsite production of metallurgical coke. Figure 4.1 illustrates the main processes for iron and steel production metallurgical coke production,...

Annex 3A1 Examples of international land cover dataset

Table 3A.1.1 Examples of international land cover dataset Asian Association on Remote Sensing (AARS) Global 4-Minute Land Cover International Geosphere-Biosphere Program - Data & Information Services (IGBP-DIS) Global 1km Land Cover Data Set Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University United States Geological Survey (USGS), USA Land cover classes are identified through clustering National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

Reviewers

Ginzo Ernesto F. Viglizzo Government of Australia Mike Atkinson Ram C. Dalal Barbara Amon Michael Anderl Klaus Bernhardt Wojtek Galinski Doris Halper Agnes Kurzweil Tomas Mueller Barbara Muik Stephan Poupa Klaus Radunsky Manfred Ritter Stefan Unterberger Gerhard Zethner Kristien Aernouts Marc Aubinet Lorea Claude Jean Marie Demoulin Vasco de Oliveira Janeiro Arjen Sevenster Nobuhiko Takamatsu J.A.M. van Balken Bas van Wesemael Government of Brazil Marco Aur lio...

Methodological Issues 4621 Choice of method

Virtualization Flowchart

The IPCC Guidelines outline three methods for calculating CO2 emissions from lead production. The choice of a good practice method depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.15. The Tier 1 method calculates emissions from general emission factors applied to a country's total lead production and is the least accurate. This method is appropriate only when lead production is not a key category. The Tier 2 method uses country specific process material data for both...

A1 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines

The emission and removal categories covered together in Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines were previously separated in different chapters of the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) Chapter 4 (Agriculture) and Chapter 5 (Land-Use Change and Forestry, LUCF). The fundamental basis for the methodology in LUCF rested upon two linked themes i) that the flux of CO2 to and from the atmosphere can be equated to changes in terrestrial carbon stocks and product pools, and ii) changes in carbon stocks can...

Tier 3 Countryspecific methods

Countries may wish to develop more complex, detailed country-specific methods to estimate Variables 1A, 1B, 3, 4, and 5. Typically these will be more complex models and will be focused on a single approach (Flugsrud et al., 2001). Tier 3 models could also use decay functions other than first order decay - e.g., linear decay. It is more difficult to develop Tier 3 methods for Variables 2A and 2B which require data on the lifecycle of exported HWP for countries where most of its products are...

Activity data uncertainties

Where activity data are obtained from plants, uncertainty estimates can be obtained from producers. These activity data are likely to be highly accurate (i.e., with uncertainty as low as 2 percent). This will include uncertainty estimates for fuel use, uncertainty estimates for ammonia production and CO2 recovered. Data that are obtained from national statistical agencies usually do not include uncertainty estimates. It is good practice to consult with national statistical agencies to obtain...

Choice of method for estimating CH4 emissions

CH4 emissions from incineration and open burning of waste are a result of incomplete combustion. Important factors affecting the emissions are temperature, residence time, and air ratio (i.e., air volume in relation to the waste amount). The CH4 emissions are particularly relevant for open burning, where a large fraction of carbon in the waste is not oxidised. The conditions can vary much, as waste is a very heterogeneous and a low quality fuel with variations in its calorific value. In large...

Future Methodological Development

Other types of managed wetlands may emit or sequester significant amounts of greenhouse gases, notably restored or constructed wetlands. Restored wetlands are wetlands which have been drained and perhaps converted to other uses in the past, but have recently been restored back to functioning wetland ecosystems by raising the water table to pre-drainage levels. In recent decades, public, non-profit and other programs in numerous countries have begun to restore former wetlands and construct...

SF6 emissions from university and research particle

Sacral Dimple Evaluation

SF6 is used in university and research operated particle accelerators as an insulating gas. Typically, high voltage equipment is contained and operated within a vessel filled with SF6 at a pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. Charges range from five kilograms to over ten thousand kilograms, with typical charges falling between 500 and 3 000 kg. When the equipment requires maintenance, the SF6 is transferred into storage tanks. SF6 losses occur primarily during gas recovery and transfer,...

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion

There are three Tiers presented in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for estimating emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In addition a Reference Approach is presented. It can be used as an independent check of the sectoral approach and to produce a first-order estimate of national greenhouse gas emissions if only very limited resources and data structures are available to the inventory compiler. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines estimate carbon emissions in terms of the species which are emitted. During the...

Chemical Industry Emissions

Sections 3.2 - 3.8 Charles Jubb (Australia) Alexander Nakhutin (Russia) and Virginia Carla Sena Cianci (Uruguay) Thomas Martinsen (Norway), Abdul Karim W. Mohammad (Iraq), and Maruo M. O. Santos (Brazil) Section 3.10 Archie McCulloch (UK) and Brian T. Mader (USA) Sections 3.2 - 3.8 Javier P rez-Ram rez (Spain) Maarten Neelis (Netherlands) and Martin Patel (Germany)

Data obtained by measurements

This section applies the guidance in Section 2.2.2 to assessing the quality of measurement data for determination of emissions, emission factors and abatement or destruction efficiencies. Volume 4 provides specific guidance on the use of samples and surveys in Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Sector. In this approach the emissions can be determined directly (i.e., using continuous emission monitoring systems) or calculated. Where emissions depend on variable combustion, process...

Approach 1 Total landuse area no data on conversions

Approach 1 represents land-use area totals within a defined spatial unit, which is often defined by political boundaries, such as a country, province or municipality. Another characteristic of Approach 1 data is that only the net changes in land-use area can be tracked through time. Consequently, the exact location or pattern of the land uses is not known within the spatial unit, and moreover the exact changes in land-use categories cannot be ascertained. Datasets are likely to have been...

Strengths and weaknesses of the massbalance approach

The mass-balance approach tracks the amount of new chemical introduced into the country, facility, or stock of equipment (at the application or sub-application level) each year. This approach then accounts for the share of this new chemical that is used to fill new equipment capacity or to replace destroyed gas. The consumption that cannot be accounted for is assumed either to replace emitted gas or to be emitted itself. The mass-balance approach has the important advantage of reflecting actual...

IPCC Emission Factor Database

The Emission Factor Database (EFDB) is a continuously revised web-based information exchange forum for emission factors and other parameters relevant for the estimation of emissions or removals of greenhouse gases at national level. The database can be queried over the internet via the home pages of the IPCC, IPCC-NGGIP or directly at The IPCC distributes a CD-ROM with a copy of the database and a query tool at regular intervals.6 It is designed as a platform for experts and researchers to...

Restricted data and confidentiality

Data providers might restrict access to information because it is confidential, unpublished, or not yet finalised. Typically, this is a mechanism to prevent inappropriate use of the data, unauthorised commercial exploitation, or sensitivity to possible imperfections in the data. Sometimes, however, the organisation simply does not have the resources required to compile and check the data. It is advisable, where possible, to cooperate with data providers to find solutions to overcome their...