Choice of activity data tier 1 method

The Tier 1 method requires only the amount of steel produced in the country by process type, the total amount of pig iron produced that is not processed into steel, and the total amount of coke, direct reduced iron, pellets, and sinter produced in this case the total amount of coke produced is assume to be produced in integrated coke production facilities. These data may be available from governmental agencies responsible for manufacturing statistics, business or industry trade associations, or...

Reporting and Documentation

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national emissions inventory estimates as outlined in Volume 1, Section 6.11. It is not practical to include all documentation in the national inventory report. However, the inventory should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be retraced. Besides reporting of estimated emissions, it is good...

Land Converted To Cropland

Globally, about 50 of the total land surface has been transformed by direct human action, 20 of land ecosystems have been converted to permanent croplands, and 25 of the world's forests have been cleared for various uses such as crop cultivation and pastures (Moore, 2002). Area under cropland has been increasing in some parts of the world to meet growing food and fibre demands. Most of the expansion of cropland in the last two decades has occurred in Southeast Asia, parts of South Asia, the...

Estimating Potential Emissions According To The Former Tier 1b

Ghfc_xxx G(Unit i) n(Unit i) Fhfc_xxx (Unit i) +-----+ G(Unit m) n(Unit m) Fhfc_xxx (Unit m) Ghfc-xxx total import (export) of HFC-xxx in pre-charged refrigeration units1 G(Unit i) refrigerant charge in a refrigeration unit of type i (i i m) n(Unit i) number of refrigeration units of type i imported (exported) FHFC-xxx(Unit i) fraction of component HFC-xxx2 in the refrigerant (mixture) of a unit of type i FOAM PRODUCTS3 GHFC_xxx V(Foam *) JHFC_xxx (Foam i)+ L + V(Foam m) JHFC_xxx (Foam m)...

Reporting

It is good practice to report a summary of implemented QA QC activities and key findings as a supplement to each country's national inventory, which itself is described in Volumes 2-5 and by the tables in this volume. However, it is not practical or necessary to report all the internal documentation that is retained by the inventory compiler. In this summary, the inventory compiler should focus on the following activities. Reference to a QA QC plan, its implementation schedule, and the...

Figures

Figure 1.1 Industrial Processes and Product Use Figure 1.2 General material balance of industrial processes where products are made using hydrocarbon feedstock (size of flows arbitrarily chosen). (Adapted from Neelis et al, Figure 1.3 Flowchart for verification of completeness of accounting for non-energy uses of fuels 1.23 Figure 1.4 Apparent versus Actual Leaks No growth in annual sales of equipment (10-yr service, 30-yr Figure 1.5 Apparent versus Actual Leaks 5 growth in annual sales of...

Carbon Stored In Swds

Some carbon will be stored over long time periods in SWDS. Wood and paper decay very slowly and accumulate in the SWDS (long-term storage). Carbon fractions in other waste types decay over varying time periods (see Half-life under Section 3.2.3.) The amount of carbon stored in the SWDS can be estimated using the FOD model (see Annex 3A.1). The long-term storage of carbon in paper and cardboard, wood, garden and park waste is of special interest as the changes in carbon stock in waste...

Choice of method

This section presents methodological guidance for calculation of emissions and removals of CO2 by changes in above-ground and below-ground biomass on Land Converted to Forest Land. Based on key category analysis, activity data and resources available, three tier methods are suggested to estimate changes in biomass stocks. The decision tree in Figure 1.3 in Chapter 1 illustrates good practice approach for choosing the method to calculate CO2 emissions and removals in biomass on Land Converted to...

Land Converted To Forest Land

This section provides methodological guidance on annual estimation of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases, which occur on lands converted to Forest Land from different land-uses, including Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements, and Other land, through afforestation and reforestation, either by natural or artificial regeneration (including plantations). The emissions and removals on abandoned lands, which are regenerating to forest due to human activities, should be also estimated...

Choice of emissions factors

The mass of fuel available for combustion (MB of Equation 2.27) is critical for estimating the non-CO2 emissions. Default data to support estimation of emissions under a Tier 1 approach are given in Tables 2.4 to 2.6 in Chapter 2. Countries need to judge how their vegetation types correspond with the broad vegetation categories described in the default tables. Guidance for this is provided in Chapter 3 (Consistent Representation of Lands). Countries using Tier 2 are likely to have national data...

NonCO2 greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning

Both uncontrolled (wildfires) and managed (prescribed) fires can have a major impact on the non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions from forests. In Forest Land Remaining Forest Land, emissions of CO2 from biomass burning also need to be accounted for because they are generally not synchronous with rates of CO2 uptake. This is especially important after stand replacing wildfire, and during cycles of shifting cultivation in tropical regions. Where the type of forest changes (e.g., conversion of natural...

Uncertainty assessment

Three broad sources of uncertainty exists in soil C inventories 1) uncertainties in land-use and management activity and environmental data 2) uncertainties in reference soil C stocks if using Tier 1 or 2 approaches (mineral soils only) and 3) uncertainties in the stock change emission factors for Tier 1 or 2 approaches, model structure parameter error for Tier 3 model-based approaches, or measurement error sampling variability associated with Tier 3 measurement-based inventories. In general,...

Calculation steps for Tier 1

Since Tier 1 assumes no change in mineral soil C stocks for Forest Land Remaining Forest Land, guidance on calculations steps are not provided. Step 1 Estimate the area of drained organic soils under managed forest in each climatic region of the country for each year or for the last year in each time period of the inventory (e.g., emissions over an inventory time period between 1990 and 2000 would be based on the land-use in 2000, assuming land-use and management are only known for these two...

Choice of activity data

For the Tier 1 approach, it is assumed that forest soil C stocks do not change with management, and therefore it is not necessary to classify forest into various types, management classes or natural disturbance regimes. However, if using Approach 1 activity data (see Chapter 3), environmental data will be needed to classify the country into climate regions and soil types in order to apply the appropriate reference C stocks to Forest Land. A detailed description of the default climate...

Choice of stock change and emission factors

It is not necessary to compute the stock estimates for Forest Land Remaining Forest Land with Approach 2 or 3 activity data (see Chapter 3). If using Approach 1 activity data, stock change factors, including input, management and disturbance regime, are equal to 1 using the Tier 1 approach. Consequently, only reference C stocks are needed to apply the method, and those are provided in Table 2.3 of Chapter 2. In a Tier 2 approach, stock change factors are derived based on a country-specific...

Soil carbon

This section elaborates on estimation procedures and good practices for estimating change in forest soil C stocks. It does not include forest litter, which is a dead organic matter pool. Separate guidance is provided for two types of forest soils 1) mineral forest soils, and 2) organic forest soils. The organic C content of mineral forest soils (to 1 m depth) typically varies between 20 to over 300 tonnes C ha-1 depending on the forest type and climatic conditions (Jobbagy and Jackson, 2000)....

Choice of emissionremoval factors

By default, it is assumed that the carbon stocks in the DOM pools in Forest Land Remaining Forest Land are stable. Carbon-dioxide emissions originating from dead wood and litter pools during wildfire are assumed to be zero, and accumulation of carbon in dead wood and litter pools during regrowth is also not counted. Non- CO2 emissions from wildfire, including CH4 and CO are estimated in Tier 1. The parameter fBLol is the fraction of total biomass left to decay on the ground, see Chapter 2,...

Dead organic matter

The general description of methods for estimating changes in carbon stocks in dead organic matter (DOM) pools (litter and dead wood) has been provided in Chapter 2. This section focuses on methods for estimating carbon stock changes in dead organic matter pools for Forest Land Remaining Forest Land. Tier 1 methods assume that the net carbon stock changes in DOM pools are zero because the simple input and output equations used in Tier 1 methods are not suitable to capture the DOM pool dynamics....

Choice of emission factors

The Gain-Loss Method requires the above-ground biomass growth, biomass conversion and expansion factor (BCEF), BEF, and or basic wood densities according to each forest type and climatic zone in the country, plus emission factors related to biomass loss, including losses due to wood removals, fuelwood removals and disturbances. Mean above-ground biomass growth (increment), GW Tier 1 Default values of the above-ground biomass growth (GW) which are provided in Tables 4.9, 4.10 and 4.12 can be...

Data from waste stream analyses

MSW treatment techniques are often applied in a chain or in parallel. A more accurate but data intensive approach to data collection is to follow the streams of waste from one treatment to another taking into account the changes in composition and other parameters that affect emissions. Waste stream analyses should be combined with high quality country-specific data on waste generation and management. The approach is often complemented with modelling. When using this approach, it is good...

Zinc Production 471 Introduction

There are three different types of primary zinc production. The first method is a metallurgical process called electro-thermic distillation. The process is used to combine roasted concentrate and secondary zinc products into a sinter feed that is burned to remove zinc, halides, cadmium, and other impurities. The resulting zinc oxide-rich sinter is combined with metallurgical coke in an electric retort furnace that reduces the zinc oxides and produces vaporized zinc which is captured in a vacuum...

Table B Short Summary Table 2 of

Other halogenated gases with CO2 equivalent conversion factors (3) Other halogenated gases without CO2 equivalent conversion factors (4) 4C Incineration and Open Burning of Waste 4D Wastewater Treatment and Discharge Indirect N2O emissions from the 5A Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen in NOx and NH3 International Aviation (International Bunkers) International Water-borne Transport (International Bunkers) (1 ) CO2 net emissions (emissions minus removals) (2) Total amount of CO2 captured for...

Tier

It is expected that the refrigeration and air conditioning will be a key category for many countries. The implication of this conclusion from Table 7.2 and the decision tree in Figure 7.6 is that either country-specific or globally or regionally derived activity data will be required at the sub-application (disaggregated) level in order to complete the reporting task. However, in the rare instances that the refrigeration and air conditioning application is much less significant, there should be...

Annex 11A1 References for crop residue data in Table 112

Dry matter fraction of harvested product Lander, C.H., Moffitt, D., and Alt, K. (1998). Nutrients available from livestock manure relative to crop growth requirements. Resource Assessment and Strategic Planning Working paper 98-1. USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service. II. Above-ground residue dry matter Ames, J.W., and Simon, R.H. (1924). Soil potassium as affected by fertilizer treatment and cropping. Bulletin 379. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio. Anonymous (1924)....

Choice of method methodology FOR CO2

The IPCC Guidelines outline several approaches for calculating CO2 emissions from ferroalloy production. For practical purposes, this section adopts a mass balance approach where all CO emitted is reported as emitted CO2. The choice of a good practice method depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.9. The Tier 1 method calculates emissions from general emission factors applied to a country's total ferroalloy production. The Tier 1 method is very simple, and it...

Source Categories

exploration and exploitation of primary energy sources, conversion of primary energy sources into more useable energy forms in refineries and power plants transmission and distribution of fuels use of fuels in stationary and mobile applications. Emissions arise from these activities by combustion and as fugitive emissions, or escape without combustion. For inventory purposes, fuel combustion may be defined as the intentional oxidation of materials within an apparatus that is designed to...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice at all primary aluminium production facilities to maintain records of all of the necessary activity data to support calculations of emissions factors as suggested in these guidelines. These records will include production of aluminium, anode effect performance and consumption of carbon materials used in either Prebake or Soderberg cells. In addition, the International Aluminium Institute maintains global summaries of aggregated activity data for these same parameters and...

NT NeXt Mst S [[T MSt s N

NMMS_Avb amount of managed manure nitrogen available for application to managed soils or for feed, fuel, or construction purposes, kg N yr-1 N(T) number of head of livestock species category T in the country NeX(T) annual average N excretion per animal of species category T in the country, kg N animal-1 yr-1 MS(t,s) fraction of total annual nitrogen excretion for each livestock species category T that is managed in manure management system S in the country, dimensionless FracLossMS amount of...

Methodological issues

This source category includes emissions from all civil commercial use of airplanes, including civil and general aviation (e.g. agricultural airplanes, private jets or helicopters). Methods discussed in this section can also be used to estimate emissions from military aviation, but emissions should be reported under category 1A 5 'Other' or the Memo Item Multilateral Operations. For the purpose of the emissions inventory, a distinction is made between domestic and international aviation, and it...

Key concepts and terminology

Definitions associated with conducting an uncertainty analysis include uncertainty, accuracy, precision and variability. These terms are sometimes used loosely and may be misunderstood. They have in fact clear statistical definitions that should be used in order to be clear about what is being quantified and reported. Several definitions are given here, in alphabetical order Accuracy Agreement between the true value and the average of repeated measured observations or estimates of a variable....

IGES

A report prepared by the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (TFI) of the IPCC and accepted by the Panel but not approved in detail Whilst the information in this IPCC Report is believed to be true and accurate at the date of going to press, neither the authors nor the publishers can accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions. Neither the authors nor the publishers have any responsibility for the persistence of any URLs referred to in this report and...

Equations

Equation 3.1 CO2 emissions from ammonia production - Tier Equation 3.2 Total fuel requirement for ammonia production - Tier Equation 3.3 CO2 emissions from ammonia production - Tier 2 and Equation 3.4 Total fuel requirement for ammonia production - Tier Equation 3.5 N2O emissions from nitric acid production - Tier Equation 3.6 N2O emissions from nitric acid production - Tier Equation 3.7 N2O emissions from adipic acid production - Tier Equation 3.8 N2O emissions from adipic acid production -...

Emission factor uncertainties

Similar to cement and lime, where emissions from glass production are estimated based on the carbonate input (Tier 3), the emission factor uncertainty (1-3 percent) is relatively low because the emission factor is based on a stoichiometric ratio. There may be some uncertainty associated with assuming that there is 100 percent calcination of the carbonate input (1 percent). Because emissions are estimated based on quantity of melted glass in each manufacturing process and default emission...

Developing a consistent time series

It is good practice to calculate emissions from lime production using the same method for every year in the time series. These Guidelines introduce a new Tier 3 approach based on carbonate input to lime production. These data may or may not be available historically. If the inventory compiler chooses to implement this Tier for current and future inventories they are encouraged to collect this data for historical years to ensure time series consistency. Where these data are not available, the...

Gases included

The 2006 Guidelines can be applied for the following two groups of greenhouse gases1 Greenhouse gases with a GWP in the TAR and not covered by the Montreal Protocol In addition to the greenhouse gases included in the 1996 Guidelines, gases for which global warming potential (GWP) values are given in the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) are included in the 2006 Guidelines2 unless they are covered by the Montreal Protocol. hydroflurocarbons (HFCs e.g., HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3),...

Iron Steel And Metallurgical Coke Production

The production of iron and steel leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). This chapter provides guidance for estimating emissions of CO2 and CH4. The iron and steel industry broadly consists of Primary facilities that produce both iron and steel Secondary steelmaking facilities Iron production facilities and Offsite production of metallurgical coke. Figure 4.1 illustrates the main processes for iron and steel production metallurgical coke production,...

Annex 3A1 Examples of international land cover dataset

Table 3A.1.1 Examples of international land cover dataset Asian Association on Remote Sensing (AARS) Global 4-Minute Land Cover International Geosphere-Biosphere Program - Data & Information Services (IGBP-DIS) Global 1km Land Cover Data Set Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University United States Geological Survey (USGS), USA Land cover classes are identified through clustering National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

Reviewers

Ginzo Ernesto F. Viglizzo Government of Australia Mike Atkinson Ram C. Dalal Barbara Amon Michael Anderl Klaus Bernhardt Wojtek Galinski Doris Halper Agnes Kurzweil Tomas Mueller Barbara Muik Stephan Poupa Klaus Radunsky Manfred Ritter Stefan Unterberger Gerhard Zethner Kristien Aernouts Marc Aubinet Lorea Claude Jean Marie Demoulin Vasco de Oliveira Janeiro Arjen Sevenster Nobuhiko Takamatsu J.A.M. van Balken Bas van Wesemael Government of Brazil Marco Aur lio...

Introduction

This Annex presents worksheets to enable inventory compilers to readily implement the Tier 1 methods. Note that, in many cases, these worksheets are also applicable to Tier 2 methods, where the same equations and variables are applied together with country-specific information. Volume 1, Chapter 8 gives guidance on how to report the resulting emission and removal estimates. Tables A1.1, A1.2, and A1.3 below provide the summary of Tier 1 worksheets available in this Volume. These worksheets are...

Methodological Issues 4621 Choice of method

The IPCC Guidelines outline three methods for calculating CO2 emissions from lead production. The choice of a good practice method depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.15. The Tier 1 method calculates emissions from general emission factors applied to a country's total lead production and is the least accurate. This method is appropriate only when lead production is not a key category. The Tier 2 method uses country specific process material data for both...

A1 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines

The emission and removal categories covered together in Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines were previously separated in different chapters of the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) Chapter 4 (Agriculture) and Chapter 5 (Land-Use Change and Forestry, LUCF). The fundamental basis for the methodology in LUCF rested upon two linked themes i) that the flux of CO2 to and from the atmosphere can be equated to changes in terrestrial carbon stocks and product pools, and ii) changes in carbon stocks can...

Tier 3 Countryspecific methods

Countries may wish to develop more complex, detailed country-specific methods to estimate Variables 1A, 1B, 3, 4, and 5. Typically these will be more complex models and will be focused on a single approach (Flugsrud et al., 2001). Tier 3 models could also use decay functions other than first order decay - e.g., linear decay. It is more difficult to develop Tier 3 methods for Variables 2A and 2B which require data on the lifecycle of exported HWP for countries where most of its products are...

Activity data uncertainties

Where activity data are obtained from plants, uncertainty estimates can be obtained from producers. These activity data are likely to be highly accurate (i.e., with uncertainty as low as 2 percent). This will include uncertainty estimates for fuel use, uncertainty estimates for ammonia production and CO2 recovered. Data that are obtained from national statistical agencies usually do not include uncertainty estimates. It is good practice to consult with national statistical agencies to obtain...

Choice of method for estimating CH4 emissions

CH4 emissions from incineration and open burning of waste are a result of incomplete combustion. Important factors affecting the emissions are temperature, residence time, and air ratio (i.e., air volume in relation to the waste amount). The CH4 emissions are particularly relevant for open burning, where a large fraction of carbon in the waste is not oxidised. The conditions can vary much, as waste is a very heterogeneous and a low quality fuel with variations in its calorific value. In large...

Future Methodological Development

Other types of managed wetlands may emit or sequester significant amounts of greenhouse gases, notably restored or constructed wetlands. Restored wetlands are wetlands which have been drained and perhaps converted to other uses in the past, but have recently been restored back to functioning wetland ecosystems by raising the water table to pre-drainage levels. In recent decades, public, non-profit and other programs in numerous countries have begun to restore former wetlands and construct...

SF6 emissions from university and research particle

SF6 is used in university and research operated particle accelerators as an insulating gas. Typically, high voltage equipment is contained and operated within a vessel filled with SF6 at a pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. Charges range from five kilograms to over ten thousand kilograms, with typical charges falling between 500 and 3 000 kg. When the equipment requires maintenance, the SF6 is transferred into storage tanks. SF6 losses occur primarily during gas recovery and transfer,...

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion

There are three Tiers presented in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for estimating emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In addition a Reference Approach is presented. It can be used as an independent check of the sectoral approach and to produce a first-order estimate of national greenhouse gas emissions if only very limited resources and data structures are available to the inventory compiler. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines estimate carbon emissions in terms of the species which are emitted. During the...

Chemical Industry Emissions

Sections 3.2 - 3.8 Charles Jubb (Australia) Alexander Nakhutin (Russia) and Virginia Carla Sena Cianci (Uruguay) Thomas Martinsen (Norway), Abdul Karim W. Mohammad (Iraq), and Maruo M. O. Santos (Brazil) Section 3.10 Archie McCulloch (UK) and Brian T. Mader (USA) Sections 3.2 - 3.8 Javier P rez-Ram rez (Spain) Maarten Neelis (Netherlands) and Martin Patel (Germany)

Data obtained by measurements

This section applies the guidance in Section 2.2.2 to assessing the quality of measurement data for determination of emissions, emission factors and abatement or destruction efficiencies. Volume 4 provides specific guidance on the use of samples and surveys in Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Sector. In this approach the emissions can be determined directly (i.e., using continuous emission monitoring systems) or calculated. Where emissions depend on variable combustion, process...

Approach 1 Total landuse area no data on conversions

Approach 1 represents land-use area totals within a defined spatial unit, which is often defined by political boundaries, such as a country, province or municipality. Another characteristic of Approach 1 data is that only the net changes in land-use area can be tracked through time. Consequently, the exact location or pattern of the land uses is not known within the spatial unit, and moreover the exact changes in land-use categories cannot be ascertained. Datasets are likely to have been...

Strengths and weaknesses of the massbalance approach

The mass-balance approach tracks the amount of new chemical introduced into the country, facility, or stock of equipment (at the application or sub-application level) each year. This approach then accounts for the share of this new chemical that is used to fill new equipment capacity or to replace destroyed gas. The consumption that cannot be accounted for is assumed either to replace emitted gas or to be emitted itself. The mass-balance approach has the important advantage of reflecting actual...

IPCC Emission Factor Database

The Emission Factor Database (EFDB) is a continuously revised web-based information exchange forum for emission factors and other parameters relevant for the estimation of emissions or removals of greenhouse gases at national level. The database can be queried over the internet via the home pages of the IPCC, IPCC-NGGIP or directly at The IPCC distributes a CD-ROM with a copy of the database and a query tool at regular intervals.6 It is designed as a platform for experts and researchers to...

Restricted data and confidentiality

Data providers might restrict access to information because it is confidential, unpublished, or not yet finalised. Typically, this is a mechanism to prevent inappropriate use of the data, unauthorised commercial exploitation, or sensitivity to possible imperfections in the data. Sometimes, however, the organisation simply does not have the resources required to compile and check the data. It is advisable, where possible, to cooperate with data providers to find solutions to overcome their...

Literature sources

Inventory compilers commonly rely on the available literature to find emission factors or other estimation parameters. Table 2.2 lists a variety of potential literature sources in order of descending likelihood of the data being representative and appropriate for national circumstances. It is good practice, for countries to use their own, peer-reviewed, published literature because this should provide the most accurate representation of their country's practices and activities. If there are no...

Quality Assurance Quality Control

In order to conduct a quality control for Tier 2 method, it is possible, but not necessary in order to satisfy the requirements of good practice, to compare the annual national HFC refrigerant market as declared by the chemical manufacturers or the refrigerant distributors with the annual HFC refrigerant needs as derived by the Tier 2 method. Refrigerant will be needed for either charging new equipment or servicing existing equipment. What is needed (i.e., purchased) to charge equipment...

Methodological Approaches To Identify Key Categories

It is good practice for each country to identify its national key categories in a systematic and objective manner, by performing a quantitative analysis of the relationships between the level and the trend of each category's emissions and removals and total national emissions and removals. Two Approaches for performing the key category analysis have been developed. Both Approaches identify key categories in terms of their contribution to the absolute level of national emissions and removals and...

Calculation steps for Tiers 1 and 2

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in biomass (ACB) using the default methods Worksheets have been provided for completing Tier 1 estimates of emissions and removals from this category (see Annex 1 AFOLU Worksheets). For this calculation, Equation 2.15 is simplified. The assumption for Tier 1 is that ACg and ACL equal zero. Thus, the only term that requires calculation is the ACconversion, which is calculated with Equation 2.16. For lands converted to...

Production Approach

Figure 12.A.3 System boundary of the Production Approach. Figure 12.A.3 System boundary of the Production Approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, Edom carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of domestically grown HWP in use and in SWDS, EIM carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of imported HWP in use and in SWDS, Eex dom carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of domestically grown but exported HWP in use and in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of...

Stock Change Approach

Figure 12.A.1 System boundary of the Stock-Change approach. Figure 12.A.1 System boundary of the Stock-Change approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, E carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in use, EW carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of harvested wood biomass transported from harvest sites, W carbon transfer in the form of wood waste into SWDS, Pex carbon transfer in the form of HWP exports, PIM carbon transfer in the form of HWP...

Overview of carbon stock change estimation

The emissions and removals of CO2 for the AFOLU Sector, based on changes in ecosystem C stocks, are estimated for each land-use category (including both land remaining in a land-use category as well as land converted to another land use). Carbon stock changes are summarized by Equation 2.1. Annual carbon stock changes for the entire AFOLU Sector estimated as the sum OF CHANGES IN ALL LAND-USE CATEGORIES ACAFOLU & CFL + ACcl + ACgl + ACwl + ACSL + ACOL AC carbon stock change Indices denote...

Compiling An Inventory

Compiling a greenhouse gas inventory is a step-by-step process. This section provides guidance on these steps for the inventory compiler, i.e., the person, persons or institutions who put together or compose the inventory from materials gathered from several sources. Compilation includes the collection of data, estimation of emissions and removals, checking and verification, uncertainty assessment and reporting. Before undertaking estimates of emissions and removals from specific categories an...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QA QC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and to organise an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this application. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. In addition...

Domestic wastewater 6221 Choice of method

Policy Factors

A decision tree for domestic wastewater is included in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees. 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section...

Boxes

Box 4.1 Levels of Box 4.2 Biomass conversion and expansion factors for assessing biomass and carbon in Box 4.3 Examples of good practice approach in identification of lands converted to Forest This chapter provides methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and removals due to changes in biomass, dead organic matter and soil organic carbon on Forest Land and Land Converted to Forest Land. It builds on the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996IPCC...

Ferroalloy Production 431 Introduction

Ferroalloy is the term used to describe concentrated alloys of iron and one or more metals such as silicon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium and tungsten. Silicon metal production is usually included in the ferroalloy group because silicon metal production process is quite similar to the ferrosilicon process. These alloys are used for deoxidising and altering the material properties of steel. Ferroalloy facilities manufacture concentrated compounds that are delivered to steel...

HFCs PFCs SF6 and other halogenated gases

CO2 equivalent conversion factors (1) Source of the factor _ _ Emissions in original mass unit (tonne) Emissions in CO2 equivalent unit (Gg-CO2) (1) Typically, global warming potential (100 year time horizon) identified in the IPCC Assessment Report can be used. The source of the factors must be specified in the bracket. (2) Insert additional columns if necessary. The other halogenated gases for which the CO2 equivalent conversion factor is not available should not be included in this table....

Dry matter content

An important distinction needs to be made between dry weight and wet weight of waste, because the water content of waste can be substantial. Therefore, the dry matter content of the waste or waste fraction is an important parameter to be determined. The weight of waste incinerated should be converted from wet weight to dry weight, if the related emission factors refer to dry weight. The dry matter content of waste can range from below 50 percent in countries with a higher percentage of food...

Methodological issues 6311 Choice of method

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can occur as direct emissions from treatment plants or from indirect emissions from wastewater after disposal of effluent into waterways, lakes or the sea. Direct emissions from nitrification and denitrification at wastewater treatment plants may be considered as a minor source and guidance is offered in Box 6.1 to estimate these emissions. Typically, these emissions are much smaller than those from effluent and may only be of interest to countries that...

Concepts

Inventories rely on a few key concepts for which there is a common understanding. This helps ensure that inventories are comparable between countries, do not contain double counting or omissions, and that the time series reflect actual changes in emissions. Anthropogenic emissions and removals Anthropogenic emissions and removals means that greenhouse gas emissions and removals included in national inventories are a result of human activities. The distinction between natural and anthropogenic...

Equations For Rice Cultivation

CH4 Rice annual methane emissions from rice cultivation, Gg CH4 yr-1 EF jk a daily emission factor for i, j, and k conditions, kg CH4 ha-1 day-1 tj cultivation period of rice for i, j, and k conditions, day Ajk annual harvested area of rice for i, j, and k conditions, ha yr-1 i, j, and k represent different ecosystems, water regimes, type and amount of organic amendments, and other conditions under which CH4 emissions from rice may vary Equation 5.2 Adjusted daily emission factor EFi EFc SFw...

Simple Decay Approach

This approach estimates and reports the net emissions or removals of carbon to from the atmosphere when, but not where they occur if wood products are traded. Removals of carbon from the atmosphere due to forest growth, and emissions resulting from oxidation of harvested wood products are reported by the producing country. This approach to estimate and report from HWP (simple decay) has been proposed by Ford-Robertson (2003). Just as the Production Approach differs from the Stock-Change...

Identification of key categories

The background discussion on the approach and methods for key category analysis are given in Volume 1 Chapter 4 (Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories). This chapter describes the approach to key category analysis for AFOLU. A key source sink category is defined in Volume 1 Chapter 4 as one that is prioritised within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country's total inventory of greenhouse gases in terms of the absolute...

Completeness Time series QAQC

Complete coverage of the direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed land requires estimation of emissions for all of the anthropogenic inputs and activities (FSN, FON, FCR, FPRP, FSOM and FOS), if they occur. Experience has shown that none of these sub-categories are likely to be missed in inventories, although countries may have difficulty obtaining accurate statistics for all sub-categories, particularly the amounts of crop residues (by crop type) that are typically returned to soils, and...

Notation keys and completeness information

In all tables used by countries to summarise their inventory data, it is good practice to fill in information for all entries. If actual emission and removal quantities have not been estimated or can not otherwise be reported in the tables, the inventory compiler should use qualitative notation keys in Table 8.1 and provide supporting documentation. Notation keys are appropriate if emission estimates or removal are incomplete, or representative of only a part of the total activity, or require...

Atmospheric Flow Approach

Figure 12.A.2 System boundary of the Atmospheric Flow Approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, E carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in use, EW carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of harvested wood biomass transported from harvest sites, W carbon transfer of wood waste into SWDS, PEX carbon transfer in the form of HWP exports, PIM carbon transfer in the form of HWP imports, O possible other cross-border carbon transfers from rest of...

Civil Aviation

Emissions from aviation come from the combustion of jet fuel (jet kerosene and jet gasoline) and aviation gasoline14. Aircraft engine emissions are roughly composed of about 70 percent CO2, a little less than 30 percent H2O, and less than 1 percent each of NOx, CO, SOx, NMVOC, particulates, and other trace components including hazardous air pollutants. Little or no N2O emissions occur from modern gas turbines (IPCC, 1999). Methane (CH4) may be emitted by gas turbines during idle and by older...

Mineral soil C emissionsremovals for Grassland

Default soil C stock change factors are provided in Table 6.2 that were computed from a global dataset of experimental studies for three general types of grassland condition degraded, nominally managed, and improved grassland. An additional input factor was included for application to improved grassland. The management improvements considered here were limited to fertilization (organic or inorganic), sowing legumes or more grass species, and irrigation. Overgrazed grassland and poorly managed...

Annex 10A2 Data underlying methane default emission factors for Manure Management

This annex presents the data used to develop the default emission factors for methane emissions from Manure Management. The Tier 2 method was implemented with these data to estimate the default emission factors for each livestock category. Manure Management Methane Emission Factor Derivation for Dairy Cows Liquid Solid Range Daily Burned Slurry1 Storage Drylot Paddock Spread Digester for Fuel 27 29 32 35 39 42 46 50 55 60 65 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 North America Western...

Choice of emission factors and parameters

Degradable organic carbon (DOC) is the organic carbon in waste that is accessible to biochemical decomposition, and should be expressed as Gg C per Gg waste. The DOC in bulk waste is estimated based on the composition of waste and can be calculated from a weighted average of the degradable carbon content of various components (waste types material) of the waste stream. The following equation estimates DOC using default carbon content values Estimates DOC using default carbon content values DOC...

Approach 1 details of the equations for trend uncertainty

The following steps show how to calculate trend uncertainty using Types A and B sensitivities (see also Section 3.2.3.1). 1) The method for assessing level uncertainty in year Y assumes that categories and gases are uncorrelated, or are aggregated until the aggregated categories can be treated as uncorrelated. 2) The uncertainty in the trend in total emissions from the country (the quantity at the foot of Column M) is estimated as where UT is the uncertainty in the trend in total emissions from...

Mobile versus stationary combustion

For most sources the distinction between mobile and stationary combustion is quite clear. In energy statistics, this however is not always the case. In some industries it might occur that fuels are in part used for stationary equipment and in part for mobile equipment. This could for example occur in agriculture, forestry, construction industry etc. When this occurs and a split between mobile and stationary is not feasible, the emissions could be reported in the source category that is expected...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC Reporting and Documentation

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national emissions inventory estimates as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6. It is not practical to include all documentation in the national inventory report. However, the inventory should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be retraced. For transparency, providing information on the specific...

Glyoxal and glyoxylic acid production

Glyoxal (ethanedial) (C2H2O2) is produced from oxidation of acetaldehyde (ethanal) (C2H4O) with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3). Glyoxal can also be produced from catalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol (ethanediol) (CH2OHCH2OH). Glyoxal is used as a crosslinking agent for vinyl acetate acrylic resins, disinfectant, gelatine hardening agent, textile finishing agent (permanent-press cotton, rayon fabrics), wet-resistance additive (paper coatings) (Ashford, 1994 p.454). Glyoxylic acid is produced...

Choice of method for estimating N2O emissions

Nitrous oxide is emitted in combustion processes at relatively low combustion temperatures between 500 and 950 C. Other important factors affecting the emissions are the type of air pollution control device, type and nitrogen content of the waste and the fraction of excess air (BREF, 2005 Korhonen et al, 2001 Loffer et al, 2002 Kilpinen, 2002 Tsupari et al., 2005). N2O emissions from the combustion of fossil liquid waste can be considered negligible, unless country-specific data indicate...

Classification And Definition Of Categories

Table 8.2 introduces the classification and definition of categories and subcategories6 of emissions and removals (consistent with the sectoral, sectoral background and cross-sectoral tables provided in Annex 8A.2). The correspondence with the reporting categories of the 1996 Guidelines is also provided in the third column of Table 8.2. A fourth column identifies gases that may be relevant to each category. Additional guidance on gases is provided in Volumes 2-5 and in Table 7.1 of Chapter 7 of...

Heat transfer fluids

There are two methods for estimating emissions from the use of heat transfer fluids. The choice of methods will depend on the availability of activity data on the use of heat transfer fluids, and is outlined in the decision tree (see Figure 6.2, Decision Tree for Estimation of FC Emissions from Heat Transfer Fluids, and see Section 1.5 of Chapter 1, Choosing between the Mass-Balance and Emission-Factor Approach). Tier 1 is appropriate when company-specific data are not available on heat...

Sf6 and pfc emissions from other military applications

There is wide range of military applications using PFCs or SF6.5 Military electronics are believed to be an important and growing application of PFC heat transfer fluids, which are valued for their stability and dielectric properties. The fluids are used in ground and airborne radar (klystrons), avionics, missile guidance systems, ECM (Electronic Counter Measures), sonar, amphibious assault vehicles, other surveillance aircraft, lasers, SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), and stealth aircraft....

Annex 39A Feedstockproduct flow diagrams

Methanol Production Process Flow Diagram

Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.12 Ethylene dichloride production feedstock-product flow diagram Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process Figure 3.13 Ethylene oxide production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.15 Carbon black production feedstock-product...

Choice of method for PFCs

Pfc Product Statistic

During electrolysis, alumina (Al2O3) is dissolved in a fluoride melt comprising about 80 weight percent cryolite (Na3AlF6). Perfluorocarbons (CF4 and C2F6 collectively referred to as PFCs) are formed from the reaction of the carbon anode with the cryolite melt during a process upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. An anode effect occurs when the concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is too low to support the standard anode reaction. An anode effect is a process upset condition where...

Landfill gas

Municipal solid waste contains significant portions of organic materials that produce a variety of gaseous products when deposited, compacted, and covered in landfills. Anaerobic bacteria thrive in the oxygen-free environment, resulting in the decomposition of the organic materials and the production of primarily carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide is likely to leach out of the landfill because it is soluble in water. Methane, on the other hand, which is less soluble in water and lighter...

Sf6 emissions from manufacturing of electrical components

Some electrical equipment components may contain 1 percent or less by weight of SF6 in the insulating medium of the product. These components include but are not limited to medium voltage cast resin instrument transformers and high voltage bushings. In medium voltage (up to 52 kV) cast resin instrument transformers, SF6 is used to fill up micro-cavities in the resin insulation to improve the dielectric quality and durability of the product. In High Voltage (above 52 kV) bushings, SF6 is used as...

Choice of method metallurgical coke production

The IPCC Guidelines outline three tiers for calculating CO2 emissions and two tiers for calculating CH4 emissions from coke production. The choice of a good practice method for estimation of CO2 emissions depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.6 Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production. For CH4 emissions, use the decision tree in Figure 4.8. Metallurgical coke is produced either at the iron and steel facility ('onsite') or at separate...

Modelbased Tier 3 inventories

Policy Factors

Model-based inventories are developed using empirical, process-based or other types of advanced models. It is good practice to have independent measurements to confirm that the model is capable of estimating emissions and removals in the source categories of interest (Prisley and Mortimer, 2004). In general, seven steps are used to implement a Tier 3 model-based inventory (Figure 2.7). Step 1. Select develop a model for calculating the stock changes and or greenhouse gas emissions. A model...

Inventory Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Chapter 6 of Volume 1 (Quality Assurance Quality Control and Verification), Tier 1 General Inventory Level QC Procedures. It is good practice to conduct expert review of the emission estimates when using Tier 2 or 3 methods. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Tier 2 procedures in the same chapter and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine...

TIER 1 method

In Tier 1, inventory compilers may use default values for either of the following variables (1) the types of lime produced and or (2) the proportion of hydrated lime produced. Table 2.4, provides data on stoichiometric ratios, the ranges of CaO and CaO-MgO contents and the resulting default emission factors, for the main lime types produced. Where there are no disaggregated data for the breakdown of lime types, it is good practice to assume that 85 percent is high-calcium lime and 15 percent...

Science background

Land use and management influence a variety of ecosystem processes that affect greenhouse gas fluxes (Figure 1.1), such as photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, nitrification denitrification, enteric fermentation, and combustion. These processes involve transformations of carbon and nitrogen that are driven by the biological (activity of microorganisms, plants, and animals) and physical processes (combustion, leaching, and run-off). historical fire suppression and past forest harvest...

Excluded Carbon

The next step is to exclude from the total carbon the amount of carbon which does not lead to fuel combustion emissions, because the aim is to provide an estimate of fuel combustion emissions (Source category 1A). 2 The difference between the net and the gross calorific value for each fuel is the latent heat of vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. For the purposes of the IPCC Guidelines, the default carbon emission factors have been given on a net calorific value...

Uncertainty assessment Tier 1

Under Tier 1, the sources of uncertainty are the use of global or national averages for biomass carbon stocks in Forest Land or Other Land uses before conversion, and coarse estimates of areas converted to Other Land. Areas should be estimated using the methods outlined in Chapter 3. Carbon stocks will have the uncertainties associated with their estimation in the relevant section of the Guidelines. In the absence of other estimates, a default uncertainty level of +75 of the estimated mean CO2...

N2O emission factors

Nitrous oxide emissions from waste incineration are determined by a function of the type of technology and combustion conditions, the technology applied for NOx reduction as well as the contents of the waste stream. As a result, emission factors can vary from site to site. Several countries have reported N2O emissions from waste incineration in their national inventory reports. Table 5.4 shows examples of emission factors that have been used for incineration of MSW. The differences in the...

Tier 3 approach

The Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of estimating emissions described in the previous sections necessitate using an average emission factor for a source category and fuel combination throughout the source category. In reality, emissions depend on the age of the equipment used to burn the fuel. In a Tier 3 approach this is taken into account by splitting the fuel combustion statistics over the different possibilities and using emission factors that are dependent upon these differences. In Equation...