Approach 1 Total landuse area no data on conversions

Approach 1 represents land-use area totals within a defined spatial unit, which is often defined by political boundaries, such as a country, province or municipality. Another characteristic of Approach 1 data is that only the net changes in land-use area can be tracked through time. Consequently, the exact location or pattern of the land uses is not known within the spatial unit, and moreover the exact changes in land-use categories cannot be ascertained. Datasets are likely to have been...

Strengths and weaknesses of the massbalance approach

The mass-balance approach tracks the amount of new chemical introduced into the country, facility, or stock of equipment (at the application or sub-application level) each year. This approach then accounts for the share of this new chemical that is used to fill new equipment capacity or to replace destroyed gas. The consumption that cannot be accounted for is assumed either to replace emitted gas or to be emitted itself. The mass-balance approach has the important advantage of reflecting actual...

IPCC Emission Factor Database

The Emission Factor Database (EFDB) is a continuously revised web-based information exchange forum for emission factors and other parameters relevant for the estimation of emissions or removals of greenhouse gases at national level. The database can be queried over the internet via the home pages of the IPCC, IPCC-NGGIP or directly at The IPCC distributes a CD-ROM with a copy of the database and a query tool at regular intervals.6 It is designed as a platform for experts and researchers to...

Uncertainty assessment

Table 7.8, Estimates for Charge, Lifetime and Emission Factors for Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems, presents emission factor ranges that highlight the uncertainty associated with this sector. Generally, disaggregated methods (Tier 2) have less uncertainty than Tier 1 methods because of the heterogeneous nature of the sub-applications. Those Tier 2 methods that rely on emission factors (Tier 2a) have more uncertainty than mass balance methods that use chemical sales data (Tier 2b)....

Restricted data and confidentiality

Data providers might restrict access to information because it is confidential, unpublished, or not yet finalised. Typically, this is a mechanism to prevent inappropriate use of the data, unauthorised commercial exploitation, or sensitivity to possible imperfections in the data. Sometimes, however, the organisation simply does not have the resources required to compile and check the data. It is advisable, where possible, to cooperate with data providers to find solutions to overcome their...

Introduction

Wastewater can be a source of methane (CH4) when treated or disposed anaerobically. It can also be a source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from wastewater are not considered in the IPCC Guidelines because these are of biogenic origin and should not be included in national total emissions. Wastewater originates from a variety of domestic, commercial and industrial sources and may be treated on site (uncollected), sewered to a centralized plant (collected) or...

Literature sources

Inventory compilers commonly rely on the available literature to find emission factors or other estimation parameters. Table 2.2 lists a variety of potential literature sources in order of descending likelihood of the data being representative and appropriate for national circumstances. It is good practice, for countries to use their own, peer-reviewed, published literature because this should provide the most accurate representation of their country's practices and activities. If there are no...

Quality Assurance Quality Control

In order to conduct a quality control for Tier 2 method, it is possible, but not necessary in order to satisfy the requirements of good practice, to compare the annual national HFC refrigerant market as declared by the chemical manufacturers or the refrigerant distributors with the annual HFC refrigerant needs as derived by the Tier 2 method. Refrigerant will be needed for either charging new equipment or servicing existing equipment. What is needed (i.e., purchased) to charge equipment...

Methodological Approaches To Identify Key Categories

It is good practice for each country to identify its national key categories in a systematic and objective manner, by performing a quantitative analysis of the relationships between the level and the trend of each category's emissions and removals and total national emissions and removals. Two Approaches for performing the key category analysis have been developed. Both Approaches identify key categories in terms of their contribution to the absolute level of national emissions and removals and...

Choice of activity data

The activity data needed to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning refers to the area affected by this activity. Countries shall stratify the area converted to Grassland by Forest Land- and by Cropland-converted, since the amount of fuel available for burning may vary markedly from one category of land use to another. Countries applying a Tier 1 approach should estimate the areas converted to Grassland from initial land uses (Forest Land, Cropland, etc.). The conversion should...

Reporting And Documentation

Guidelines for reporting emissions from geological storage Prior to the start of the geological storage operation, the national inventory compiler where storage takes place should obtain and archive the following Report on the methods and results of the site characterization Report on the methods and results of modelling A description of the proposed monitoring programme including appropriate background measurements The year in which CO2 storage began or will begin The proposed sources of the...

Calculation steps for Tiers 1 and 2

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in biomass (ACB) using the default methods Worksheets have been provided for completing Tier 1 estimates of emissions and removals from this category (see Annex 1 AFOLU Worksheets). For this calculation, Equation 2.15 is simplified. The assumption for Tier 1 is that ACg and ACL equal zero. Thus, the only term that requires calculation is the ACconversion, which is calculated with Equation 2.16. For lands converted to...

Production Approach

Figure 12.A.3 System boundary of the Production Approach. Figure 12.A.3 System boundary of the Production Approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, Edom carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of domestically grown HWP in use and in SWDS, EIM carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of imported HWP in use and in SWDS, Eex dom carbon release to the atmosphere from the pools of domestically grown but exported HWP in use and in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of...

Stock Change Approach

Figure 12.A.1 System boundary of the Stock-Change approach. Figure 12.A.1 System boundary of the Stock-Change approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, E carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in use, EW carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of harvested wood biomass transported from harvest sites, W carbon transfer in the form of wood waste into SWDS, Pex carbon transfer in the form of HWP exports, PIM carbon transfer in the form of HWP...

Methodological issues

There are two broad measurement approaches to estimating HFC-23 emissions from HCFC-22 plants. These are described in IPCC (2000), DEFRA (2002a and 2002b), EFCTC (2003) and UN (2004) and have been translated into Tier 2 and 3 methodologies described below. National emissions using either of these methodologies are the sum of those from the individual facilities. Tier 1 (default) methodology can be applied to individual plants or, if there is no abatement by destruction, to the total national...

Overview of carbon stock change estimation

The emissions and removals of CO2 for the AFOLU Sector, based on changes in ecosystem C stocks, are estimated for each land-use category (including both land remaining in a land-use category as well as land converted to another land use). Carbon stock changes are summarized by Equation 2.1. Annual carbon stock changes for the entire AFOLU Sector estimated as the sum OF CHANGES IN ALL LAND-USE CATEGORIES ACAFOLU & CFL + ACcl + ACgl + ACwl + ACSL + ACOL AC carbon stock change Indices denote...

Compiling An Inventory

Compiling a greenhouse gas inventory is a step-by-step process. This section provides guidance on these steps for the inventory compiler, i.e., the person, persons or institutions who put together or compose the inventory from materials gathered from several sources. Compilation includes the collection of data, estimation of emissions and removals, checking and verification, uncertainty assessment and reporting. Before undertaking estimates of emissions and removals from specific categories an...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QA QC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and to organise an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this application. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. In addition...

Domestic wastewater 6221 Choice of method

A decision tree for domestic wastewater is included in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees. 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section...

Boxes

Box 4.1 Levels of Box 4.2 Biomass conversion and expansion factors for assessing biomass and carbon in Box 4.3 Examples of good practice approach in identification of lands converted to Forest This chapter provides methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and removals due to changes in biomass, dead organic matter and soil organic carbon on Forest Land and Land Converted to Forest Land. It builds on the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996IPCC...

Choice of method

The basic equation to estimate CH4 emissions from rice cultivation is shown in Equation 5.1. CH4 emissions are estimated by multiplying daily emission factors by cultivation period3 of rice and annual harvested areas4. In its 3 In the case of a ratoon crop, 'cultivation period' should be extended by the respective number of days. most simple form, this equation is implemented using national activity data (i.e., national average cultivation period of rice and area harvested) and a single...

Ferroalloy Production 431 Introduction

Ferroalloy is the term used to describe concentrated alloys of iron and one or more metals such as silicon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium and tungsten. Silicon metal production is usually included in the ferroalloy group because silicon metal production process is quite similar to the ferrosilicon process. These alloys are used for deoxidising and altering the material properties of steel. Ferroalloy facilities manufacture concentrated compounds that are delivered to steel...

Figures

Figure 3.1 Decision tree for preparation of land-use area Figure 3A.3.1 Principle of Figure 3A.3.2 Simple random layout of plots (left) and systematic layout Figure 3A.3.3 Use of different configurations of permanent and temporary sampling units for estimating Figure 3A.4.1 Overview of Approach 3 Direct and repeated assessments of land use from full spatial Figure 3A.5.1 Delineation of major climate zones, updated from the 1996IPCC Guidelines 3.38 Figure 3A.5.2 Classification scheme for default...

HFCs PFCs SF6 and other halogenated gases

CO2 equivalent conversion factors (1) Source of the factor _ _ Emissions in original mass unit (tonne) Emissions in CO2 equivalent unit (Gg-CO2) (1) Typically, global warming potential (100 year time horizon) identified in the IPCC Assessment Report can be used. The source of the factors must be specified in the bracket. (2) Insert additional columns if necessary. The other halogenated gases for which the CO2 equivalent conversion factor is not available should not be included in this table....

Dry matter content

An important distinction needs to be made between dry weight and wet weight of waste, because the water content of waste can be substantial. Therefore, the dry matter content of the waste or waste fraction is an important parameter to be determined. The weight of waste incinerated should be converted from wet weight to dry weight, if the related emission factors refer to dry weight. The dry matter content of waste can range from below 50 percent in countries with a higher percentage of food...

Methodological issues 6311 Choice of method

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can occur as direct emissions from treatment plants or from indirect emissions from wastewater after disposal of effluent into waterways, lakes or the sea. Direct emissions from nitrification and denitrification at wastewater treatment plants may be considered as a minor source and guidance is offered in Box 6.1 to estimate these emissions. Typically, these emissions are much smaller than those from effluent and may only be of interest to countries that...

Concepts

Inventories rely on a few key concepts for which there is a common understanding. This helps ensure that inventories are comparable between countries, do not contain double counting or omissions, and that the time series reflect actual changes in emissions. Anthropogenic emissions and removals Anthropogenic emissions and removals means that greenhouse gas emissions and removals included in national inventories are a result of human activities. The distinction between natural and anthropogenic...

Equations For Rice Cultivation

CH4 Rice annual methane emissions from rice cultivation, Gg CH4 yr-1 EF jk a daily emission factor for i, j, and k conditions, kg CH4 ha-1 day-1 tj cultivation period of rice for i, j, and k conditions, day Ajk annual harvested area of rice for i, j, and k conditions, ha yr-1 i, j, and k represent different ecosystems, water regimes, type and amount of organic amendments, and other conditions under which CH4 emissions from rice may vary Equation 5.2 Adjusted daily emission factor EFi EFc SFw...

Simple Decay Approach

This approach estimates and reports the net emissions or removals of carbon to from the atmosphere when, but not where they occur if wood products are traded. Removals of carbon from the atmosphere due to forest growth, and emissions resulting from oxidation of harvested wood products are reported by the producing country. This approach to estimate and report from HWP (simple decay) has been proposed by Ford-Robertson (2003). Just as the Production Approach differs from the Stock-Change...

Identification of key categories

The background discussion on the approach and methods for key category analysis are given in Volume 1 Chapter 4 (Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories). This chapter describes the approach to key category analysis for AFOLU. A key source sink category is defined in Volume 1 Chapter 4 as one that is prioritised within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country's total inventory of greenhouse gases in terms of the absolute...

Completeness Time series QAQC

Complete coverage of the direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed land requires estimation of emissions for all of the anthropogenic inputs and activities (FSN, FON, FCR, FPRP, FSOM and FOS), if they occur. Experience has shown that none of these sub-categories are likely to be missed in inventories, although countries may have difficulty obtaining accurate statistics for all sub-categories, particularly the amounts of crop residues (by crop type) that are typically returned to soils, and...

Notation keys and completeness information

In all tables used by countries to summarise their inventory data, it is good practice to fill in information for all entries. If actual emission and removal quantities have not been estimated or can not otherwise be reported in the tables, the inventory compiler should use qualitative notation keys in Table 8.1 and provide supporting documentation. Notation keys are appropriate if emission estimates or removal are incomplete, or representative of only a part of the total activity, or require...

Atmospheric Flow Approach

Figure 12.A.2 System boundary of the Atmospheric Flow Approach. Note NEE net ecosystem exchange of carbon, E carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in use, EW carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in SWDS, H carbon transfer in the form of harvested wood biomass transported from harvest sites, W carbon transfer of wood waste into SWDS, PEX carbon transfer in the form of HWP exports, PIM carbon transfer in the form of HWP imports, O possible other cross-border carbon transfers from rest of...

Choice of emission factors

If plant-level information is not available, it is good practice to use default factors. These default values often represent midpoint or mean values of data sets (as determined by expert analysis). The extent to which they represent a specific plant's emission rate is unknown. Default factors by product are provided in Table 3.9, and should be used only in cases where plant-specific data are not available. The default factors are based on estimates of reductant or carbothermal input per unit...

Civil Aviation

Emissions from aviation come from the combustion of jet fuel (jet kerosene and jet gasoline) and aviation gasoline14. Aircraft engine emissions are roughly composed of about 70 percent CO2, a little less than 30 percent H2O, and less than 1 percent each of NOx, CO, SOx, NMVOC, particulates, and other trace components including hazardous air pollutants. Little or no N2O emissions occur from modern gas turbines (IPCC, 1999). Methane (CH4) may be emitted by gas turbines during idle and by older...

Mineral soil C emissionsremovals for Grassland

Default soil C stock change factors are provided in Table 6.2 that were computed from a global dataset of experimental studies for three general types of grassland condition degraded, nominally managed, and improved grassland. An additional input factor was included for application to improved grassland. The management improvements considered here were limited to fertilization (organic or inorganic), sowing legumes or more grass species, and irrigation. Overgrazed grassland and poorly managed...

Activity data uncertainties

Where clinker production data are estimated from cement production, the uncertainty of the activity data can be as high as about 35 percent. For Tier 2, the uncertainty in data on clinker production tonnages, when available, is about 1-2 percent. Collecting data from individual producers (if complete) rather than using national totals will reduce the uncertainty of the estimate because these data will account for variations in conditions at the plant level. This is particularly important for...

Annex 10A2 Data underlying methane default emission factors for Manure Management

This annex presents the data used to develop the default emission factors for methane emissions from Manure Management. The Tier 2 method was implemented with these data to estimate the default emission factors for each livestock category. Manure Management Methane Emission Factor Derivation for Dairy Cows Liquid Solid Range Daily Burned Slurry1 Storage Drylot Paddock Spread Digester for Fuel 27 29 32 35 39 42 46 50 55 60 65 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 North America Western...

Choice of emission factors and parameters

Degradable organic carbon (DOC) is the organic carbon in waste that is accessible to biochemical decomposition, and should be expressed as Gg C per Gg waste. The DOC in bulk waste is estimated based on the composition of waste and can be calculated from a weighted average of the degradable carbon content of various components (waste types material) of the waste stream. The following equation estimates DOC using default carbon content values Estimates DOC using default carbon content values DOC...

Approach 1 details of the equations for trend uncertainty

The following steps show how to calculate trend uncertainty using Types A and B sensitivities (see also Section 3.2.3.1). 1) The method for assessing level uncertainty in year Y assumes that categories and gases are uncorrelated, or are aggregated until the aggregated categories can be treated as uncorrelated. 2) The uncertainty in the trend in total emissions from the country (the quantity at the foot of Column M) is estimated as where UT is the uncertainty in the trend in total emissions from...

Mobile versus stationary combustion

For most sources the distinction between mobile and stationary combustion is quite clear. In energy statistics, this however is not always the case. In some industries it might occur that fuels are in part used for stationary equipment and in part for mobile equipment. This could for example occur in agriculture, forestry, construction industry etc. When this occurs and a split between mobile and stationary is not feasible, the emissions could be reported in the source category that is expected...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC Reporting and Documentation

It is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national emissions inventory estimates as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6. It is not practical to include all documentation in the national inventory report. However, the inventory should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be retraced. For transparency, providing information on the specific...

Glyoxal and glyoxylic acid production

Glyoxal (ethanedial) (C2H2O2) is produced from oxidation of acetaldehyde (ethanal) (C2H4O) with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3). Glyoxal can also be produced from catalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol (ethanediol) (CH2OHCH2OH). Glyoxal is used as a crosslinking agent for vinyl acetate acrylic resins, disinfectant, gelatine hardening agent, textile finishing agent (permanent-press cotton, rayon fabrics), wet-resistance additive (paper coatings) (Ashford, 1994 p.454). Glyoxylic acid is produced...

Dead organic matter

Methods for estimating carbon stock changes associated with dead organic matter pools are presented in this section for Cropland Remaining Cropland (CC). Methods are provided for two types of dead organic matter pools 1) dead wood and 2) litter. Chapter 1of this report provides detailed definitions of these pools. Dead wood is a diverse pool with many practical problems for measuring in the field and associated uncertainties about rates of transfer to litter, soil, or emissions to the...

Choice of method for estimating N2O emissions

Nitrous oxide is emitted in combustion processes at relatively low combustion temperatures between 500 and 950 C. Other important factors affecting the emissions are the type of air pollution control device, type and nitrogen content of the waste and the fraction of excess air (BREF, 2005 Korhonen et al, 2001 Loffer et al, 2002 Kilpinen, 2002 Tsupari et al., 2005). N2O emissions from the combustion of fossil liquid waste can be considered negligible, unless country-specific data indicate...

Classification And Definition Of Categories

Table 8.2 introduces the classification and definition of categories and subcategories6 of emissions and removals (consistent with the sectoral, sectoral background and cross-sectoral tables provided in Annex 8A.2). The correspondence with the reporting categories of the 1996 Guidelines is also provided in the third column of Table 8.2. A fourth column identifies gases that may be relevant to each category. Additional guidance on gases is provided in Volumes 2-5 and in Table 7.1 of Chapter 7 of...

Heat transfer fluids

There are two methods for estimating emissions from the use of heat transfer fluids. The choice of methods will depend on the availability of activity data on the use of heat transfer fluids, and is outlined in the decision tree (see Figure 6.2, Decision Tree for Estimation of FC Emissions from Heat Transfer Fluids, and see Section 1.5 of Chapter 1, Choosing between the Mass-Balance and Emission-Factor Approach). Tier 1 is appropriate when company-specific data are not available on heat...

Sf6 and pfc emissions from other military applications

There is wide range of military applications using PFCs or SF6.5 Military electronics are believed to be an important and growing application of PFC heat transfer fluids, which are valued for their stability and dielectric properties. The fluids are used in ground and airborne radar (klystrons), avionics, missile guidance systems, ECM (Electronic Counter Measures), sonar, amphibious assault vehicles, other surveillance aircraft, lasers, SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), and stealth aircraft....

Annex 39A Feedstockproduct flow diagrams

Methanol Production Process Flow Diagram

Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.12 Ethylene dichloride production feedstock-product flow diagram Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process Figure 3.13 Ethylene oxide production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.15 Carbon black production feedstock-product...

Calculation steps for Tier 1

The following summarizes steps for estimating change in carbon stocks in biomass (ACB) using the default methods step 1 Estimate area converted to Forest Land (during the period 20 years before the year of the inventory) from other land-use categories such as Cropland, Grassland, and Settlements. Refer to Chapter 3 for detailed approaches for estimating Land Converted to Forest Land. step 2 Disaggregate the area converted to Forest Land according to intensively managed forest (through...

Choice of method for PFCs

During electrolysis, alumina (Al2O3) is dissolved in a fluoride melt comprising about 80 weight percent cryolite (Na3AlF6). Perfluorocarbons (CF4 and C2F6 collectively referred to as PFCs) are formed from the reaction of the carbon anode with the cryolite melt during a process upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. An anode effect occurs when the concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is too low to support the standard anode reaction. An anode effect is a process upset condition where...

Landfill gas

Municipal solid waste contains significant portions of organic materials that produce a variety of gaseous products when deposited, compacted, and covered in landfills. Anaerobic bacteria thrive in the oxygen-free environment, resulting in the decomposition of the organic materials and the production of primarily carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide is likely to leach out of the landfill because it is soluble in water. Methane, on the other hand, which is less soluble in water and lighter...

Emission factor uncertainties

Uncertainties for the default values shown in Table 3.1 are estimates based on data from EFMA (2000a p.21) and de Beer, Phylipsen and Bates (2001 p.21). In general, default emission factors for gaseous inputs and outputs have higher uncertainties than for solid or liquid inputs and outputs. Mass values for gaseous substances are influenced by temperature and pressure variations and gases are more easily lost through process leaks. It is good practice to obtain uncertainty estimates at the plant...

Sf6 emissions from manufacturing of electrical components

Some electrical equipment components may contain 1 percent or less by weight of SF6 in the insulating medium of the product. These components include but are not limited to medium voltage cast resin instrument transformers and high voltage bushings. In medium voltage (up to 52 kV) cast resin instrument transformers, SF6 is used to fill up micro-cavities in the resin insulation to improve the dielectric quality and durability of the product. In High Voltage (above 52 kV) bushings, SF6 is used as...

Choice of method metallurgical coke production

The IPCC Guidelines outline three tiers for calculating CO2 emissions and two tiers for calculating CH4 emissions from coke production. The choice of a good practice method for estimation of CO2 emissions depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.6 Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production. For CH4 emissions, use the decision tree in Figure 4.8. Metallurgical coke is produced either at the iron and steel facility ('onsite') or at separate...

Modelbased Tier 3 inventories

Model-based inventories are developed using empirical, process-based or other types of advanced models. It is good practice to have independent measurements to confirm that the model is capable of estimating emissions and removals in the source categories of interest (Prisley and Mortimer, 2004). In general, seven steps are used to implement a Tier 3 model-based inventory (Figure 2.7). Step 1. Select develop a model for calculating the stock changes and or greenhouse gas emissions. A model...

Inventory Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Chapter 6 of Volume 1 (Quality Assurance Quality Control and Verification), Tier 1 General Inventory Level QC Procedures. It is good practice to conduct expert review of the emission estimates when using Tier 2 or 3 methods. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Tier 2 procedures in the same chapter and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine...

TIER 1 method

In Tier 1, inventory compilers may use default values for either of the following variables (1) the types of lime produced and or (2) the proportion of hydrated lime produced. Table 2.4, provides data on stoichiometric ratios, the ranges of CaO and CaO-MgO contents and the resulting default emission factors, for the main lime types produced. Where there are no disaggregated data for the breakdown of lime types, it is good practice to assume that 85 percent is high-calcium lime and 15 percent...

Science background

Land use and management influence a variety of ecosystem processes that affect greenhouse gas fluxes (Figure 1.1), such as photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, nitrification denitrification, enteric fermentation, and combustion. These processes involve transformations of carbon and nitrogen that are driven by the biological (activity of microorganisms, plants, and animals) and physical processes (combustion, leaching, and run-off). historical fire suppression and past forest harvest...

Excluded Carbon

The next step is to exclude from the total carbon the amount of carbon which does not lead to fuel combustion emissions, because the aim is to provide an estimate of fuel combustion emissions (Source category 1A). 2 The difference between the net and the gross calorific value for each fuel is the latent heat of vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. For the purposes of the IPCC Guidelines, the default carbon emission factors have been given on a net calorific value...

Uncertainty assessment Tier 1

Under Tier 1, the sources of uncertainty are the use of global or national averages for biomass carbon stocks in Forest Land or Other Land uses before conversion, and coarse estimates of areas converted to Other Land. Areas should be estimated using the methods outlined in Chapter 3. Carbon stocks will have the uncertainties associated with their estimation in the relevant section of the Guidelines. In the absence of other estimates, a default uncertainty level of +75 of the estimated mean CO2...

N2O emission factors

Nitrous oxide emissions from waste incineration are determined by a function of the type of technology and combustion conditions, the technology applied for NOx reduction as well as the contents of the waste stream. As a result, emission factors can vary from site to site. Several countries have reported N2O emissions from waste incineration in their national inventory reports. Table 5.4 shows examples of emission factors that have been used for incineration of MSW. The differences in the...

Tier 3 approach

The Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of estimating emissions described in the previous sections necessitate using an average emission factor for a source category and fuel combination throughout the source category. In reality, emissions depend on the age of the equipment used to burn the fuel. In a Tier 3 approach this is taken into account by splitting the fuel combustion statistics over the different possibilities and using emission factors that are dependent upon these differences. In Equation...

Rice cultivation

Cai, Z.C., Tsuruta, H. and Minami, K. (2000). Methane emission from rice fields in China measurements and influencing factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D13) 17231-17242. Cai, Z.C., Tsuruta, H., Gao, M., Xu, H. and Wei, C.F. (2003a). Options for mitigating methane emission from a permanently flooded rice field. Global Change Biology 9 37-45. Cai, Z.C., Sawamoto, T., Li, C.S., Kang, G.D., Boonjawat, J., Mosier, A. and Wassmann, R. (2003b). Field validation of the DNDC model for...

Definition of industrial process and fuel combustion emissions

Allocating emissions from the use of fossil fuel between the Energy and IPPU Sectors can be complex. The feedstock and reductant uses of fuels frequently produce gases that may be combusted to provide energy for the process. Equally part of the feedstock may be combusted directly for heat. This can lead to uncertainty and ambiguity in reporting. To help to overcome this problem, these Guidelines introduce practical guidance on when to allocate CO2 emissions released from combustion of fuel to...

Estimation Methods

As with the 1996 Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice Guidance the most common simple methodological approach is to combine information on the extent to which a human activity takes place (called activity data or AD) with coefficients which quantify the emissions or removals per unit activity. These are called emission factors (EF). The basic equation is therefore For example, in the energy sector fuel consumption would constitute activity data, and mass of carbon dioxide emitted per unit of fuel...

Developing a consistent time series

It is good practice to determine fuel use using the same method for all years. If this is not possible, data collection should overlap sufficiently in order to check for consistency in the methods employed. Emissions of CH4 and N2O will depend on engine type and technology. Unless technology-specific emission factors have been developed, it is good practice to use the same fuel-specific set of emission factors for all years. Mitigation activities resulting in changes in overall fuel consumption...

Methane emissions from enteric fermentation

Methane is produced in herbivores as a by-product of enteric fermentation, a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by micro-organisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream. The amount of methane that is released depends on the type of digestive tract, age, and weight of the animal, and the quality and quantity of the feed consumed. Ruminant livestock (e.g., cattle, sheep) are major sources of methane with moderate amounts produced from non-ruminant...

Methodological issues 3921 Choice of method

The emissions from petrochemical and carbon black production vary both with the process used and the feedstock used. The choice of method should thus be repeated for each product, process and feedstock used. Three methodological tiers are provided depending on the availability of data. The choice of method depends on national circumstances and is given by the decision trees in Figure 3.8 and Figure 3.9. Figure 3.8 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from petrochemical industry Figure...

Choice of stock change and emission factor

Default reference C stocks are found in Table 2.3 of Chapter 2, and stock change factors for previous land uses can be found in the relevant Chapters (for Forest Land in Section 4.2.3.2, Cropland in 5.2.3.2, Grassland in 6.2.3.2, and Other Land in 9.3.3.2). Default stock change factors for land use after conversion (Settlements) are not needed for the Tier 1 method for Settlements Remaining Settlements because the default assumption is that inputs equal outputs and therefore no net change in...

Foreword

Recognizing the problem of potential global climate change, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) co-established in 1988 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). One of the IPCC's activities is to support the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through its work on methodologies for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This report is the culmination of three years of work by the IPCC National Greenhouse Gas...

Flooded land surface area

National statistical information on the flooded area retained behind large dams (> 100km2) should be available and will probably be accurate to within 10 . Where national database on dams are not available, and other information is used, the flooded land areas retained behind dams will probably have an uncertainty of more than 50 , especially for countries with large flooded land areas. Detailed information on the location, type and function of smaller dams may be also difficult to obtain,...

CH4 Emissions from Flooded Land Basis for Future Methodological Development

This Appendix provides a basis for future methodological development rather than complete guidance. Flooded Land may emit CH4 in significant quantities, depending on a variety of characteristic such as age and depth of reservoirs, land-use prior to flooding, climate, and management practices. In contrast with CO2 emissions, CH4 emissions are highly variable spatially and temporally. Current measurements of CH4 fluxes from Flooded Land are not sufficiently comprehensive to support the...

A2 Land Converted to Flooded Land

With the actual knowledge, for Land Converted to Flooded Land, it is suggested to use measured emissions in Table 3a.2. Inventory compilers should use Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 methods described in Section 3a. 1 to estimate CH4 emissions from Land Converted to Flooded Land. Abril, G., Gu rin, F., Richard, S., Delmas, R., Galy-Lacaux, C., Gosse, P., Tremblay, A., Varfalvy, L., dos Santos, M.A. and Matvienko, B. (2005). Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and the carbon budget of a 10-years old...

Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds NMVOCs

A class of emissions which includes a wide range of specific organic chemical substances. Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) play a major role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere (lower atmosphere). Ozone in the troposphere is a greenhouse gas. It is also a major local and regional air pollutant, causing significant health and environmental damage. Because they contribute to ozone formation, NMVOCs are considered precursor greenhouse gases. NMVOCs, once oxidized in the...

Intermediate storage facilities on CO2 transport routes

If there is a temporal mismatch between supply and transport or storage capacity, a CO2 buffer (above ground or underground) might be needed to temporarily store the CO2. If the buffer is a tank, fugitive emissions should be measured and treated as part of the transport system and reported under category 1C1 c (other). If the intermediate storage facility (or buffer) is a geological storage reservoir, fugitive emissions from it can be treated in the same way as for any other geological storage...

Annex 2A1 Waste Generation and Management Data by country and regional averages

Table 2A.1 in this Annex shows MSW generation and management data for some countries whose data are available. Regional defaults for waste generation and treatment that are provided in Table 2.1 in Chapter 2 are derived based on the information from this table. The data are applicable as default data for the year 2000. For comparison, data on waste generation and disposal to SWDS from the Revised 1996IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (1996 IPCC Guidelines) are also given...

Time series consistency

Many countries have long time series of energy statistics that can be used to derive time series of energy sector greenhouse gas emissions. However, in many cases statistical practices (including definitions of fuels, of fuel use by sectors) will have changed over time and recalculations of the energy data in the latest set of definitions is not always feasible. In compiling time series of emissions from fuel combustion, these changes might give rise to time series inconsistencies, which should...

SF6 emissions from industrial and medical particle

SF6 is used as an insulating gas in two types of industrial particle accelerators (low and high voltage) and also in medical (cancer therapy) particle accelerators, as is the case for university and research particle accelerators. However, the emission and charge factors for industrial and medical particle accelerators are different from those of university and research accelerators, as discussed below. Global banked capacity for industrial particle accelerators is roughly estimated to be 500...

Coverage Of The Guidelines

Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC Guidelines. Estimation methods are provided for the gases shown in Tables 2 and 3, and cover the categories shown in Figure 1. Reporting is described in Chapter 8 of Volume 1. Coverage is complete for all greenhouse gases not covered by the Montreal Protocol, for which the IPCC, at the time of writing, provided a global warming potential (GWP)7. Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC...

Tiers

The Tier 1 method is fuel-based, since emissions from all sources of combustion can be estimated on the basis of the quantities of fuel combusted (usually from national energy statistics) and average emission factors. Tier 1 emission factors are available for all relevant direct greenhouse gases. The quality of these emission factors differs between gases. For CO2, emission factors mainly depend upon the carbon content of the fuel. Combustion conditions (combustion efficiency, carbon retained...

Use of worksheets

Use the worksheets for Livestock N2O contained in Annex 1 (AFOLU Worksheets) to calculate and report inventory information for default methodologies described in Section 10.5 N2O emission from manure management. The following is a summary of the step-by-step instructions to follow when completing the worksheets. Note that columns are referred to using the symbols of the variables that both appear in the equations, as well as in column headings of the worksheets. Step 1 Calculation of N...

Choice of emission factors for PFCs

Tier 1 Technology based default emission factors Default emission factors for Tier 1 method are provided in Table 4.15. Default emission factors and uncertainty ranges for the calculation of PFC emissions from ALUMINIUM PRODUCTION BY CELL TECHNOLOGY TYPE (TIER 1 METHOD) a Default CF4 values calculated from median anode effect performance from 1990 IAI survey data (IAI, 2001). b Uncertainty based on the range of calculated CF4 specific emissions by technology from 1990 IAI anode effect survey...

Equations For Harvested Wood Products

Estimation of carbon stock and its annual change in HWP pools of the reporting Starting with i 1900 and continuing to present year, compute Inflow(i) with C(1900) 0.0 Note For an explanation of technique used in Equations 12.1A to estimate first-order decay see Pingoud and Wagner (2006). C(i) the carbon stock of the HWP pool in the beginning of year i, Gg C k decay constant of first-order decay given in units, yr-1 ( k ln(2) HL, where HL is half-life of the HWP pool in years. A half-life is the...

Amount of waste openburned

The amount of waste open-burned is the most important activity data required for estimating emissions from open burning of waste. In most countries statistics may not be available. Where the data on waste amount are not available, alternative methods such as data from period surveys, research project or expert judgement can be used to estimate total amount of waste burned together with appropriate explanation and documentation. Extrapolation and interpolation can be used to obtain estimates for...

Table A Summary Table 6 of

Other halogenated gases with CO2 equivalent conversion factors (3) Other halogenated gases without CO2 equivalent conversion factors (4) 4B Biological Treatment of Solid Waste 4C Incineration and Open Burning of Waste 4D Wastewater Treatment and Discharge Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen in NOX and NH3 International Aviation (International Bunkers) International Water-borne Transport (International Bunkers) (1) CO2 net emissions (emissions minus removals) (2) Total amount of CO2 captured for...

Etching and CVD cleaning for semiconductors

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS, AND PHOTOVOLTAICS The default emission factors for the Tier 1 method is presented in Table 6.2 below. In using Tier 1, it is not good practice to modify, in any way, the set of the FCs or the values of the emission factors assumed in Table 6.2. Inventory compilers should not combine emissions estimated using Tier 1 method with emissions estimated using the Tier 2 or 3 methods. For example, inventory compilers may not use the Tier 1 factor for CF4 to estimate the...

Monte Carlo method

In these guidelines a Monte Carlo method is recommended to analyse the uncertainty of the inventory. The principle of Monte Carlo analysis is to perform the inventory calculation many times by computer, each time with the uncertain emission factors or model parameters and activity data chosen randomly (by the computer) within the distribution on uncertainties specified initially by the user. Uncertainties in emission factors and or activity data are often large and may not have normal...

Choice of emission and scaling factors

A baseline emission factor for no flooded fields for less than 180 days prior to rice cultivation and continuously flooded during the rice cultivation period without organic amendments (EFc) is used as a starting point. The IPCC default for EFc is 1.30 kg CH4 ha-1 day-1 (with error range of 0.80 - 2.20, Table 5.11), estimated by a statistical analysis of available field measurement data (Yan et al, 2005, the data set used in the analysis is available at a web site5). Scaling factors are used to...

Annex 3A1 First Order Decay Model

The first order decay (FOD) model introduced in Chapter 3 is the default method for calculating methane (CH4) emissions from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS). This Annex provides the supplementary information on this model mathematical basis for the FOD model (see Section 3A1.2), key issues in the model, such as the estimation of the mass of degradable organic carbon available for anaerobic decomposition at SWDS (DDOCm) (Section 3A1.2) and the delay time from disposal of waste in the SWDS till...

A24 Tools for data collection

Remotely sensed data, as discussed here, are those acquired by sensors (optical, radar or lidar) onboard satellites, or by cameras equipped with optical or infrared films, installed in aircraft. These data are usually classified to provide estimates of the land cover and its corresponding area, and usually require ground survey data to provide an estimate of the classification accuracy. Classification can be done either by visual analysis of the imagery or photographs, or by digital...

Roles And Responsibilities

The inventory compiler should be responsible for coordinating the institutional and procedural arrangements for inventory activities. It is good practice for the inventory compiler to define specific responsibilities and procedures for the planning, preparation, and management of inventory activities, including Selection of methods, emission factors, activity data and other estimation parameters Estimation of emissions or removals QA QC and verification activities Documentation and archiving....

Avoiding double counting activity data with

The use of fuel combustion statistics rather than fuel delivery statistics is key to avoid double counting in emission estimates. Fuel combustion data, however, are very seldom complete, since it is not practical to measure the fuel consumption or emissions of every residential or commercial source. Hence, national inventories using this approach will generally contain a mixture of combustion data for larger sources and delivery data for other sources. The inventory compiler must take care to...

Table S Afolu Sectoral Table 2 of

3B4aii Flooded Land Remaining Flooded Land 3B4bi Land Converted for Peat Extraction 3B4bii Land Converted to Flooded Land 3B4biii Land Converted to Other Wetlands 3B5a Settlements Remaining Settlements 3B5bi Forest Land Converted to Settlements 3B5bii Cropland Converted to Settlements 3B5biii Grassland Converted to Settlements 3B5biv Wetlands Converted to Settlements 3B5bv Other Land Converted to Settlements 3B6a Other Land Remaining Other Land 3B6bi Forest Land Converted to Other Land 3B6bii...

Worksheets

The four pages of the worksheets (Annex 1 of this Volume) for the Tier I Sectoral Approach should be filled in for each of the source categories indicated in Table 2.16. Only the amount of fuel combusted for energy purposes should be included in column A of the worksheets. When filling in column A of the worksheets, the following issues should be taken into account 1) some fuels are used for purposes other than for combustion, 2) waste-derived fuels are sometimes burned for energy purposes, and...

Military aviation

Military activity is defined here as those activities using fuel purchased by or supplied to the military authorities of the country. Emissions from aviation fuel use can be estimated using equation 3.6.1 and the same calculations approach recommended for civilian aviation. Some types of military transport aircraft and helicopters have fuel and emissions characteristics similar to civil types. Therefore default emission factors for civil aircraft should be used for military aviation unless...

Apparent consumption

The first step of the Reference Approach is to estimate apparent consumption of fuels within the country. This requires a supply balance of primary and secondary fuels (fuels produced, imported, exported, used in international transport (bunker fuels) and stored or removed from stocks). In this way carbon is brought into the country from energy production and imports (adjusted for stock changes) and moved out of the country through exports and international bunkers. In order to avoid double...

Coal mining and handling

The geological processes of coal formation also produce methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) may also be present in some coal seams. These are known collectively as seam gas, and remain trapped in the coal seam until the coal is exposed and broken during mining. CH4 is the major greenhouse gas emitted from coal mining and handling. The major stages for the emission of greenhouse gases for both underground and surface coal mines are Mining emissions - These emissions result from the...

Methane

When peatlands are drained in preparation for peat extraction, the natural production of CH4 is largely reduced, but not entirely shut down (Strack et al, 2004), as the methanogen bacteria thrive only in anaerobic conditions. Under Tier 1, methane emissions are assumed to be insignificant in these drained peatlands. At higher tiers, countries are encouraged to examine the pattern of CH4 emissions from topographic lows and drainage ditches, which can contribute a significant proportion of the...

Methodological issues 4521 Choice of method

CO2 EMISSIONS FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION The choice of a good practice method for inventory preparation of carbon dioxide emissions from the primary magnesium (raw material) production segment will depend on national circumstances. The decision tree (see Figure 4.13, Decision Tree for Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Primary Magnesium Production) describes good practice in adapting the methods to these country-specific circumstances. The Tier 1 method relies on national primary production data and...