Emission Factors

Lime Production 231 Methodological issues

Calcium oxide (CaO or quicklime) is formed by heating limestone to decompose the carbonates. This is usually done in shaft or rotary kilns at high temperatures and the process releases CO2. Depending on the product requirements (e.g., metallurgy, pulp and paper, construction materials, effluent treatment, water softening, pH control, and soil stabilisation), primarily high calcium limestone (calcite) is utilized in accordance with the following reaction CaCO3 (high-purity limestone) + heat CaO...

Choice of method

As is the case for emissions from cement production, there are three basic methodologies for estimating emissions from lime production an output-based approach that uses default values (Tier 1), an output-based approach that estimates emissions from CaO and CaO-MgO production and country-specific information for correction factors (Tier 2) and an input-based carbonate approach (Tier 3). Unlike the Tier 3 method which requires a plant-specific assessment, the Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods can be...

TIER 1 method

In Tier 1, inventory compilers may use default values for either of the following variables (1) the types of lime produced and or (2) the proportion of hydrated lime produced. Table 2.4, provides data on stoichiometric ratios, the ranges of CaO and CaO-MgO contents and the resulting default emission factors, for the main lime types produced. Where there are no disaggregated data for the breakdown of lime types, it is good practice to assume that 85 percent is high-calcium lime and 15 percent...

Developing a consistent time series

It is good practice to calculate emissions from lime production using the same method for every year in the time series. These Guidelines introduce a new Tier 3 approach based on carbonate input to lime production. These data may or may not be available historically. If the inventory compiler chooses to implement this Tier for current and future inventories they are encouraged to collect this data for historical years to ensure time series consistency. Where these data are not available, the...

Reporting and Documentation

The inventory should include summaries of methods used and references to source data such that the reported emissions estimates are transparent and steps in their calculation may be reproduced. As noted above, the most important consideration that inventory compilers should make when reporting emissions from other process uses of carbonates is that emissions should be reported in the source category where the carbonates are consumed. Information should be reported on the quantity of limestone...

Equations For Livestock

Emesiion Factor Equation

AAP annual average population NAPA number of animals produced annually Coefficient for calculating net energy for maintenance Cfi (in _ cold) Cfi + 0.0048 (20 - C) Cfi a coefficient which varies for each animal category as shown in Table 10.4 (Coefficients for calculating NEm), MJ day-1 kg-1 C mean daily temperature during winter season net energy required by the animal for maintenance, MJ day- Cfi a coefficient which varies for each animal category as shown in Table 10.4 (Coefficients for...

Introduction

Coke Oven Process

Metallurgical coke is primarily used in the blast furnace to make iron. Coke is also used in other metallurgical processes, such as the manufacture of cast iron, ferroalloys, lead, and zinc, and in kilns to make lime and magnesium. Metallurgical coke is the solid product obtained from the carbonisation of coal, principally coking coal, at high temperature. It is low in moisture content and volatile matter. Coking coal refers to bituminous coal with a quality that allows the production of a coke...

Volume Of Emissions In Carbon Black Processes

The petrochemical industry uses fossil fuels (e.g., natural gas) or petroleum refinery products (e.g., naphtha) as feedstocks. This section provides guidance for estimating emissions from the production of methanol, ethylene and propylene2, ethylene dichloride, ethylene oxide, and acrylonitrile. These petrochemicals are addressed in detail because their global production volume and associated greenhouse gas emissions are relatively large. However, the chemicals included are not intended to...

Choice of emission factors

This section includes a discussion of the choice of emission factors for the Tier 1 method. The Tier 2 method is based on mass balance principles and the Tier 3 method is based on plant-specific data therefore there are no default emission factors applicable to the Tier 2 and Tier 3 methods. Petrochemical production Tier 1 default feedstocks and processes Conventional steam reforming without primary reformer Ethylene Dichloride Vinyl Chloride Monomer Balanced Process for EDC production with...

Uncertainty assessment

Uncertainty assessments for each emissions factor and activity data applicable to each process are discussed in this section. Uncertainty ranges for the emission factors and activity data included in the Tables in the previous sections are summarised in Table 3.27. Much of the uncertainty in emission estimates for methanol production is related to the difficulty in determining activity data including the quantity of methanol produced and, for higher tier methodologies, the amount of natural gas...

Choice of emission factors tier

Default carbon dioxide emission factors (Table 3.5.2) are based on the fuel type and carbon content and take account of the fraction of carbon oxidised (100 percent), as described in Chapter 1, Introduction, of this Volume and Table 1.4). For non-CO2 gases, Tier 1 default emissions factors on a very general level are provided in Table 3.5.3. Default water-borne Navigation ch4 and n2o Emission Factors *Default values derived for diesel engines using heavy fuel oil. Source Lloyd's Register (1995)...

Annex 3A1 First Order Decay Model

First Order Decay Curve

The first order decay (FOD) model introduced in Chapter 3 is the default method for calculating methane (CH4) emissions from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS). This Annex provides the supplementary information on this model mathematical basis for the FOD model (see Section 3A1.2), key issues in the model, such as the estimation of the mass of degradable organic carbon available for anaerobic decomposition at SWDS (DDOCm) (Section 3A1.2) and the delay time from disposal of waste in the SWDS till...

Basis For Future Methodological Development

Gaps in this methodology exist because sufficient data are not available to quantify all of the pools and fluxes of greenhouse gases in settlements. Obvious gaps include Methodology for estimating emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (N2O and CH4) Detailed methodology to account for carbon stocks other than live biomass and soils (specifically, dead wood and litter) Discussion of carbon stocks and fluxes from turfgrass and turf management Discussion of carbon stocks and fluxes from gardens and...

Iron Steel And Metallurgical Coke Production

Metallurgical Coke Production Process

The production of iron and steel leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). This chapter provides guidance for estimating emissions of CO2 and CH4. The iron and steel industry broadly consists of Primary facilities that produce both iron and steel Secondary steelmaking facilities Iron production facilities and Offsite production of metallurgical coke. Figure 4.1 illustrates the main processes for iron and steel production metallurgical coke production,...

Direct N2O emissions

N2o Cause Sector

In most soils, an increase in available N enhances nitrification and denitrification rates which then increase the production of N2O. Increases in available N can occur through human-induced N additions or change of land-use and or management practices that mineralise soil organic N. The following N sources are included in the methodology for estimating direct N2O emissions from managed soils synthetic N fertilisers FSN organic N applied as fertiliser e.g., animal manure, compost, sewage...

Annex 5A1 Estimation of default stock change factors for mineral soil C emissionsremovals for cropland

Default stock change factors are provided in Table 5.5 that were computed using a global dataset of experimental results for tillage, input, set-aside, and land use. The land-use factor represents the loss of carbon that occurs after 20 years of continuous cultivation. Tillage and input factors represent the effect on C stocks after 20 years following the management change. Set-aside factors represent the effect of temporary removal of cultivated cropland from production and placing it into...

Mineral soil C emissionsremovals for Grassland

Default soil C stock change factors are provided in Table 6.2 that were computed from a global dataset of experimental studies for three general types of grassland condition degraded, nominally managed, and improved grassland. An additional input factor was included for application to improved grassland. The management improvements considered here were limited to fertilization (organic or inorganic), sowing legumes or more grass species, and irrigation. Overgrazed grassland and poorly managed...

Coverage Of The Guidelines

Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC Guidelines. Estimation methods are provided for the gases shown in Tables 2 and 3, and cover the categories shown in Figure 1. Reporting is described in Chapter 8 of Volume 1. Coverage is complete for all greenhouse gases not covered by the Montreal Protocol, for which the IPCC, at the time of writing, provided a global warming potential (GWP)7. Table 1 shows the contents of the five volumes that make up the 2006IPCC...

Approach To Developing The Guidelines

The 2006IPCC Guidelines are an evolutionary development starting from the 1996IPCC Guidelines, GPG2000 and GPG-LULUCF. A fundamental shift in methodological approach would pose difficulties with time series consistency in emissions and removals estimation, and incur additional costs, since countries and the international community have made significant investments in inventory systems. An evolutionary approach helps ensure continuity, and allows for the incorporation of experiences with the...

Structure Of The Guidelines

The structure of the 2006IPCC Guidelines improves upon the structure of the 1996IPCC Guidelines, GPG2000 and GPG-LULUCF in two respects. Firstly, whereas a user of the 1996IPCC Guidelines, GPG2000 and GPG-LULUCF may need to cross reference between four or five volumes13 to make an emission or removal estimate, the 2006 IPCC Guidelines may require cross referencing between two volumes Volume 1 (General Guidance and Reporting), and the relevant sectoral volume (one of Volume 2 (Energy), Volume 3...

Estimation Methods

As with the 1996 Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice Guidance the most common simple methodological approach is to combine information on the extent to which a human activity takes place (called activity data or AD) with coefficients which quantify the emissions or removals per unit activity. These are called emission factors (EF). The basic equation is therefore For example, in the energy sector fuel consumption would constitute activity data, and mass of carbon dioxide emitted per unit of fuel...

Compiling An Inventory

Compiling a greenhouse gas inventory is a step-by-step process. This section provides guidance on these steps for the inventory compiler, i.e., the person, persons or institutions who put together or compose the inventory from materials gathered from several sources. Compilation includes the collection of data, estimation of emissions and removals, checking and verification, uncertainty assessment and reporting. Before undertaking estimates of emissions and removals from specific categories an...

Annex 2A1 A protocol for expert elicitation

Wherever possible, expert judgement should be elicited using an appropriate protocol. An example of a well-known protocol for expert elicitation, Stanford SRI protocol, has been adapted and is described below. Motivating Establish a rapport with the expert, and describe the context of the elicitation. Explain the elicitation method to be used and the reason it was designed that way. The elicitor should also try to explain the most commonly occurring biases to the expert, and to identify...

Overall structure of uncertainty analysis

Spinal Cord Injury Pathophysiology

This section provides a brief overview of the overall structure of uncertainty analysis, as illustrated in Figure 3.1. Emissions removals estimates are based on (1) conceptualisation (2) models and (3) input data and assumptions (e.g., emission factor and activity data). Each of these three can be a source of uncertainty. The analysis begins with a conceptualisation. This is a set of assumptions regarding the structure of an inventory or of a sector. These assumptions typically include the...

Methods for encoding Expert Judgements

When empirical data are lacking or are not considered fully representative for all causes of uncertainty (Table 3.1), expert judgement may be necessary for estimating uncertainty. This section focuses on methods for encoding (quantifying) expert judgement regarding uncertainty in the form of PDFs. Encoding is the process of converting an expert's judgement regarding uncertainty into a quantitative PDF. Chapter 2 provides guidance on the definition of an expert, considerations in choosing...

Recalculations due to methodological changes and refinements

A methodological change in a category is a switch to a different tier from the one previously used. Methodological changes are often driven by the development of new and different data sets. An example of a methodological change is the new use of a higher tier method instead of a Tier 1 default method for an industrial category because a country has obtained site-specific emission measurement data that can be used directly or for development of national emission factors. A methodological...

Tier 3 approach

The Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of estimating emissions described in the previous sections necessitate using an average emission factor for a source category and fuel combination throughout the source category. In reality, emissions depend on the age of the equipment used to burn the fuel. In a Tier 3 approach this is taken into account by splitting the fuel combustion statistics over the different possibilities and using emission factors that are dependent upon these differences. In Equation...

Choice of activity data

Activity data may be provided either by fuel consumption or by vehicle kilometres travelled VKT. Use of adequate VKT data can be used to check top-down inventories. Emissions from road vehicles should be attributed to the country where the fuel is sold therefore fuel consumption data should reflect fuel that is sold within the country's territories. Such energy data are typically available from the national statistical agency. In addition to fuel sold data collected nationally, inventory...

Inventory Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1 Chapter 6 Quality Assurance Quality Control and Verification and expert review of the emission estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Tier 2 procedures in the same chapter and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this source category. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for source...

Contents

4.1 Fugitive emissions from mining, processing, storage and transportation of 4.1.1 Overview and description of 4.1.1.1 Coal mining and 4.1.1.2 Summary of 4.1.2 Methodological 4.1.3 Underground coal 4.1.3.1 Choice of 4.1.3.2 Choice of emission factors for underground 4.1.3.3 Choice of activity 4.1.3.4 Completeness for underground coal 4.1.3.5 Developing a consistent time 4.1.3.6 Uncertainty 4.1.4 Surface coal 4.1.4.1 Choice of 4.1.4.2 Emission factors for surface 4.1.4.3 Activity 4.1.4.4...

Quality Assurance Quality Control

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6. More extensive quality control checks and quality assurance procedures are applicable, if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. Inventory compilers should check if the estimated emission factors are within the range of default emission factors provided for the Tier 1 method,...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC Reporting and Documentation

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6. More extensive quality control checks and quality assurance procedures are applicable if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. Comparison of emissions estimates using different approaches If emissions are calculated using data from individual caprolactam plants (bottom-up...

Quality Assessment Quality Control

Quality Assurance Quality Control for emissions factors and activity data involves methods to improve the quality or better understand the uncertainty of the emissions estimates. It is good practice to conduct quality control checks for the Tier 1 method as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6. More extensive quality control checks and quality assurance procedures are applicable, if Tier 2 or Tier 3 methods are used to determine emissions. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this source category. Inventories agencies are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. In addition to the...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC for All Ods Substitutes Applications

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from these applications or sub-applications. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. In addition to...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QA QC

It is good practice to conduct quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and to organise an expert review of the emissions estimates. Additional quality control checks as outlined in Volume 1, Chapter 6, and quality assurance procedures may also be applicable, particularly if higher tier methods are used to determine emissions from this application. Inventory compilers are encouraged to use higher tier QA QC for key categories as identified in Volume 1, Chapter 4. In addition...

A3 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry Gpglulucf

GPG-LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) elaborated on the 1996 IPCC Guidelines to adopt an approach based on land-use categories for organizing the methodologies and good practices associated with estimating emissions and removals in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Sector, including Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements and Other Land. Each land category was further sub-divided into land remaining in the same category (e.g., Forest Land Remaining Forest Land) or land...

Measurementbased Tier 3 inventories

Inventories can be based on direct measurements of C stock changes from which emissions and removals of carbon are estimated. Measurement of some non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions is possible, but because of the high spatial and temporal variability of non-CO2 emissions, Tier 3 methods will likely combine process models with measurements to estimate non-CO2 emissions. Purely measurement-based inventories, e.g., based on repeated measurements using a national forest inventory can derive carbon...

Quality Assurance and Quality Control

The characteristics of the greenhouse gas inventory estimate of Forest Land can have different level of precision, accuracy and levels of bias. Moreover, the estimates are influenced by the quality and consistency of data and information available in a country, as well as gaps in knowledge. In addition, depending on the tier level used by a country, estimates can be affected by different sources of errors, such as sampling errors, assessment errors, classification errors in remote sensing...

Completeness Time Series Qaqc And Reporting

The total area of Other Land covered by the inventory methodology is the sum of Other Land Remaining Other Land and Land Converted to Other Land during the time period. Inventory compilers are encouraged to track through time the total area of land classified as Other Land within country boundaries, keeping transparent records on which portions are used to estimate change in carbon stocks. All land area in a country should be included in the reporting even if an inventory of emissions and...

Completeness Time series Quality assurance Quality control and Reporting

A complete inventory should estimate CH4 emissions from all systems of manure management for all livestock species categories identified in Section 10.2. Countries are encouraged to use manure management system definitions that are consistent with those presented in Table 10.18 to ensure that all types of systems are being accounted for. Population data should be cross-checked between main reporting mechanisms (such as FAO and national agricultural statistics databases) to ensure that...

Completeness Time series Quality assuranceQuality control and Reporting

A complete inventory should estimate N2O emissions from all systems of manure management for all livestock species categories. Countries are encouraged to use manure management system definitions that are consistent with those presented in Table 10.18. Population data should be cross-checked between main reporting mechanisms (such as FAO and national agricultural statistics databases) to ensure that information used in the inventory is complete and consistent. Because of the widespread...

Completeness Time series QAQC

Complete coverage of the direct and indirect N2O emissions from managed land requires estimation of emissions for all of the anthropogenic inputs and activities (FSN, FON, FCR, FPRP, FSOM and FOS), if they occur. Experience has shown that none of these sub-categories are likely to be missed in inventories, although countries may have difficulty obtaining accurate statistics for all sub-categories, particularly the amounts of crop residues (by crop type) that are typically returned to soils, and...

Completeness Time series consistency QAQC

Tier 1 inventories are complete if emissions are computed based on a full accounting of all urea that is applied to soils. Urea usage statistics or sales provide the most direct inference on applications to soils, but production and import export records are sufficient for making an approximate estimate of the amount of urea applied to soils. If current data are not sufficient due to incomplete records, it is good practice to gather additional data for future inventory reporting, particularly...

Uncertainty attributable to data

This source of uncertainty is simply the uncertainty attributable to each of the parameter inputs. The uncertainty attributable to the data can be classified into activity data and parameters. 3.7.2.1 Uncertainties associated with activity data The quality of CH4 emission estimates is directly related to the quality and availability of the waste generation, composition and management data used to derive these estimates. The activity data in the waste sector include the total municipal solid...

Choice of method for estimating N2O emissions

Nitrous oxide is emitted in combustion processes at relatively low combustion temperatures between 500 and 950 C. Other important factors affecting the emissions are the type of air pollution control device, type and nitrogen content of the waste and the fraction of excess air (BREF, 2005 Korhonen et al, 2001 Loffer et al, 2002 Kilpinen, 2002 Tsupari et al., 2005). N2O emissions from the combustion of fossil liquid waste can be considered negligible, unless country-specific data indicate...

Domestic wastewater 6221 Choice of method

Policy Factors

A decision tree for domestic wastewater is included in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater Figure 6.2 Decision Tree for CH4 emissions from domestic wastewater 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section 4.1.2 on limited resources), for discussion of key categories and use of decision trees. 1. See Volume 1 Chapter 4, Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories (noting Section...

Industrial wastewater

Wastewater Data

Industrial wastewater may be treated on site or released into domestic sewer systems. If it is released into the domestic sewer system, the emissions are to be included with the domestic wastewater emissions. This section deals with estimating CH4 emissions from on-site industrial wastewater treatment. Only industrial wastewater with significant carbon loading that is treated under intended or unintended anaerobic conditions will produce CH4. Organics in industrial wastewater are often...

Quality Control

Quality Control (QC) is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality of the inventory as it is being developed. The QC system is designed to (i) Provide routine and consistent checks to ensure data integrity, correctness, and completeness (ii) Identify and address errors and omissions (iii) Document and archive inventory material and record all QC activities. QC activities include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations and...

Roles And Responsibilities

The inventory compiler should be responsible for coordinating the institutional and procedural arrangements for inventory activities. It is good practice for the inventory compiler to define specific responsibilities and procedures for the planning, preparation, and management of inventory activities, including Selection of methods, emission factors, activity data and other estimation parameters Estimation of emissions or removals QA QC and verification activities Documentation and archiving....

Annex 6A1 QC checklists

FORMS AND CHECKLISTS FOR QUALITY CONTROL FOR SPECIFIC SOURCE CATEGORIES This annex contains a number of example forms that provide means to record both general and category-specific QC activities. These forms are only examples, and inventory compilers may find other means to effectively record their QA QC activities (to be defined in the QA QC plan). Refer to the IPCC Guidelines chapters on QA QC and Verification, Data Collection, and for each category as described in Volume 2-5 for more...

Etching and CVD cleaning for semiconductors

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS, AND PHOTOVOLTAICS The default emission factors for the Tier 1 method is presented in Table 6.2 below. In using Tier 1, it is not good practice to modify, in any way, the set of the FCs or the values of the emission factors assumed in Table 6.2. Inventory compilers should not combine emissions estimated using Tier 1 method with emissions estimated using the Tier 2 or 3 methods. For example, inventory compilers may not use the Tier 1 factor for CF4 to estimate the...

A38 Completeness And Allocation Of Co2 From Nonenergy Uses Of Fuels

Two Quality Control (QC) approaches - a CO2 completeness check and a feedstock balance check - have been introduced for checking the completeness of accounting CO2 emissions from feedstock reductant use of fossil fuels. Guidance is provided to facilitate the organisation and completion of this task (a) checking that total reported bottom-up calculated CO2 emissions from non-energy use sources (including uses as feedstock and reductant) at different subcategory levels are complete and consistent...

Steps to define categories and subcategories of livestock

Good practice is to identify the appropriate method for estimating emissions for each source category, and then base the characterisation on the most detailed requirements identified for each livestock species. The livestock characterisation used by a country will probably undergo iterations as the needs of each source category are assessed during the emissions estimation process (see Figure 10.1, Decision Tree for Livestock Population Characterisation). The steps are Identify livestock species...

Annex 11A1 References for crop residue data in Table 112

Dry matter fraction of harvested product Lander, C.H., Moffitt, D., and Alt, K. (1998). Nutrients available from livestock manure relative to crop growth requirements. Resource Assessment and Strategic Planning Working paper 98-1. USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service. II. Above-ground residue dry matter Ames, J.W., and Simon, R.H. (1924). Soil potassium as affected by fertilizer treatment and cropping. Bulletin 379. Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio. Anonymous (1924)....

Change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter

Acdom Figure

Dead organic matter (DOM) comprises dead wood and litter (See Table 1.1). Estimating the carbon dynamics of dead organic matter pools allows for increased accuracy in the reporting of where and when carbon emissions and removals occur. For example, only some of the carbon contained in biomass killed during a biomass burning is emitted into the atmosphere in the year of the fire. Most of the biomass is added to dead wood, litter and soil pools (dead fine roots are included in the soil) from...

Methodological issues 4521 Choice of method

Policy Factors

CO2 EMISSIONS FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION The choice of a good practice method for inventory preparation of carbon dioxide emissions from the primary magnesium (raw material) production segment will depend on national circumstances. The decision tree (see Figure 4.13, Decision Tree for Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Primary Magnesium Production) describes good practice in adapting the methods to these country-specific circumstances. The Tier 1 method relies on national primary production data and...

Methodological issues 3921 Choice of method

Petrochemicals Tree

The emissions from petrochemical and carbon black production vary both with the process used and the feedstock used. The choice of method should thus be repeated for each product, process and feedstock used. Three methodological tiers are provided depending on the availability of data. The choice of method depends on national circumstances and is given by the decision trees in Figure 3.8 and Figure 3.9. Figure 3.8 Decision tree for estimation of CO2 emissions from petrochemical industry Figure...

Literature sources

Inventory compilers commonly rely on the available literature to find emission factors or other estimation parameters. Table 2.2 lists a variety of potential literature sources in order of descending likelihood of the data being representative and appropriate for national circumstances. It is good practice, for countries to use their own, peer-reviewed, published literature because this should provide the most accurate representation of their country's practices and activities. If there are no...

Emepcorinair Emission Inventory Guidebook

Table 7.1 provides specific information on methodologies for preparing national emission inventories of NOx, CO, NMVOCs, and SO2. The table includes information on the availability of methodologies in the EMEP CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook and the expected significance of the emissions for each IPCC category under the 2006 Guidelines see Table 8.2 of Chapter 8 of this Volume and gas. The Guidebook's codes are equivalents in function to the IPCC reporting categories under the 1996...

Definitions of specialist terms

Aviation Gasoline - A fuel used only in small piston engine aircraft, and which generally represents less than 1 of fuel used in aviation Climb - The part of a flight of an aircraft, after take off and above 914 meters (3000 feet) above ground level, consisting of getting an aircraft to the desired cruising altitude. Commercial scheduled - All commercial aircraft operations that have publicly available schedules (e.g., the Official Airline Guide, OAG 2006), which would primarily include...

Strengths and weaknesses of the emissionfactor approach

The emission-factor approach equates emissions to the product of an emission factor and either (1) the nameplate capacity of the equipment that uses or holds a chemical, or (2) the bank of a chemical. (These quantities are similar but not necessarily identical.) Fortunately, where the mass-balance approach is likely to be inaccurate, the emission-factor approach can be used. However, the robustness and reliability of an emission- 8 The maximum, long-term accuracy of the mass-balance approach...

Choice of emission factors tier 1 method

Table 4.1 provides default emission factors for coke, sinter, pellet, iron, and steel production. The emission factors for the three steelmaking methods are based on expert judgment using typical practice for the different steel production scenarios listed. The default emission factors account for all carbon input into the blast furnace. It is assumed based on the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control IPPC Reference Document on Production of Iron and Steel European IPPC Bureau, 2001...

Production and use of asphalt for road paving

Asphalt paving consist of a mix of aggregate, sand, filler, bitumen and occasionally a number of additives. Asphalt road surfaces are, thus, composed of compacted aggregate and bitumen binder. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is by far the most widely used, generally over 80 percent, and produces very few emissions (EAPA, 2003). Other types of road paving include cutback asphalt and emulsified asphalt, which are both liquefied asphalts (EEA, 2005). Cutback asphalts are liquefied by blending with petroleum...

Apparent consumption

The first step of the Reference Approach is to estimate apparent consumption of fuels within the country. This requires a supply balance of primary and secondary fuels (fuels produced, imported, exported, used in international transport (bunker fuels) and stored or removed from stocks). In this way carbon is brought into the country from energy production and imports (adjusted for stock changes) and moved out of the country through exports and international bunkers. In order to avoid double...

Choice of method decision trees tiers

Decision Tree And Enpv Oil And Gas

There are three methodological tiers for determining fugitive emissions from oil and natural gas systems, as set out in Section 4.2.2.2. It is good practice to disaggregate the activities into Major Categories and Subcategories in the Oil and Gas Industry (see Table 4.2.2 in Section 4.2.2.2), and then evaluate the emissions separately for each of these. The methodological tier applied to each segment should be commensurate with the amount of emissions and the available resources. Consequently,...

Choice of stock change and emission factor

Default reference C stocks are found in Table 2.3 of Chapter 2, and stock change factors for previous land uses can be found in the relevant Chapters (for Forest Land in Section 4.2.3.2, Cropland in 5.2.3.2, Grassland in 6.2.3.2, and Other Land in 9.3.3.2). Default stock change factors for land use after conversion (Settlements) are not needed for the Tier 1 method for Settlements Remaining Settlements because the default assumption is that inputs equal outputs and therefore no net change in...

Specific Developments In The 2006 Ipcc Guidelines

The 2006IPCC Guidelines are based on a thorough scientific review and a structural enhancement of the IPCC's inventory methodology across all categories, including the following specific developments Volume 1 (General Guidance and Reporting) Introductory advice A new section has been included, providing for an overview of greenhouse gas inventories and the steps needed to prepare an inventory for the first time. Extended advice on data collection The 2006 IPCC Guidelines introduce systematic...

Science background

Land use and management influence a variety of ecosystem processes that affect greenhouse gas fluxes (Figure 1.1), such as photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, nitrification denitrification, enteric fermentation, and combustion. These processes involve transformations of carbon and nitrogen that are driven by the biological (activity of microorganisms, plants, and animals) and physical processes (combustion, leaching, and run-off). historical fire suppression and past forest harvest...

Modelbased Tier 3 inventories

Policy Factors

Model-based inventories are developed using empirical, process-based or other types of advanced models. It is good practice to have independent measurements to confirm that the model is capable of estimating emissions and removals in the source categories of interest (Prisley and Mortimer, 2004). In general, seven steps are used to implement a Tier 3 model-based inventory (Figure 2.7). Step 1. Select develop a model for calculating the stock changes and or greenhouse gas emissions. A model...

Avoiding double counting activity data with

The use of fuel combustion statistics rather than fuel delivery statistics is key to avoid double counting in emission estimates. Fuel combustion data, however, are very seldom complete, since it is not practical to measure the fuel consumption or emissions of every residential or commercial source. Hence, national inventories using this approach will generally contain a mixture of combustion data for larger sources and delivery data for other sources. The inventory compiler must take care to...

General Rules For Identification Of Key Categories

The results of the key category identification will be most useful if the analysis is done at the appropriate disaggregation level of categories. Table 4.1, Suggested aggregation level of analysis for Approach 1, lists the source and sink categories that are recommended and identifies special considerations related to the disaggregation of the analysis, where relevant. For example, the combustion of fossil fuels is a large emission source category that can be broken down into subcategories of...

HFCs PFCs SF6 and other halogenated gases

CO2 equivalent conversion factors (1) Source of the factor _ _ Emissions in original mass unit (tonne) Emissions in CO2 equivalent unit (Gg-CO2) (1) Typically, global warming potential (100 year time horizon) identified in the IPCC Assessment Report can be used. The source of the factors must be specified in the bracket. (2) Insert additional columns if necessary. The other halogenated gases for which the CO2 equivalent conversion factor is not available should not be included in this table....

Identification of key categories

The background discussion on the approach and methods for key category analysis are given in Volume 1 Chapter 4 (Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories). This chapter describes the approach to key category analysis for AFOLU. A key source sink category is defined in Volume 1 Chapter 4 as one that is prioritised within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country's total inventory of greenhouse gases in terms of the absolute...

A1 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines

The emission and removal categories covered together in Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines were previously separated in different chapters of the 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) Chapter 4 (Agriculture) and Chapter 5 (Land-Use Change and Forestry, LUCF). The fundamental basis for the methodology in LUCF rested upon two linked themes i) that the flux of CO2 to and from the atmosphere can be equated to changes in terrestrial carbon stocks and product pools, and ii) changes in carbon stocks can...

Characterisation for livestock without species Specific emission estimation methods

Some countries may have domesticated livestock for which there are currently no Tier 1 or Tier 2 emissions estimating methods (e.g., llamas, alpacas, wapiti, emus, and ostriches). Good practice in estimating emissions from these livestock is to first assess whether their emissions are likely to be significant enough to warrant characterising them and developing country-specific emission factors. Volume 1, Chapter 4 (Methodological Choice and Identification of Key Categories) presents guidance...

Methane emissions from enteric fermentation

Methane is produced in herbivores as a by-product of enteric fermentation, a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by micro-organisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream. The amount of methane that is released depends on the type of digestive tract, age, and weight of the animal, and the quality and quantity of the feed consumed. Ruminant livestock (e.g., cattle, sheep) are major sources of methane with moderate amounts produced from non-ruminant...

Authors and Review Editors

Michael Gytarsky Institute of Global Climate and Ecology Russian Federation Taka Hiraishi c o Institute for Global Environmental Strategies Japan William Irving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USA Thelma Krug Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research Brazil Jim Penman Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs UK Bubu Jallow Department of State for Fisheries and Water Resources Gambia Dina Kruger U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USA Volume 1 General Guidance and...

Figures

Figure 3.1 Decision tree for preparation of land-use area Figure 3A.3.1 Principle of Figure 3A.3.2 Simple random layout of plots (left) and systematic layout Figure 3A.3.3 Use of different configurations of permanent and temporary sampling units for estimating Figure 3A.4.1 Overview of Approach 3 Direct and repeated assessments of land use from full spatial Figure 3A.5.1 Delineation of major climate zones, updated from the 1996IPCC Guidelines 3.38 Figure 3A.5.2 Classification scheme for default...

Settlements 81 Introduction

This Chapter provides methods for estimating carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with changes in biomass, dead organic matter (DOM), and soil carbon on lands classified as settlements. Settlements are defined in Chapter 3 as including all developed land -- i.e., residential, transportation, commercial, and production (commercial, manufacturing) infrastructure of any size, unless it is already included under other land-use categories. The land-use category...

Methodological issues

Fugitive emissions are a direct source of greenhouse gases due to the release of methane (CH4) and formation carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., CO2 present in the produced oil and gas when it leaves the reservoir), plus some CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) from non-productive combustion activities (primarily waste gas flaring). As is done for fuel combustion (see Chapter 1 of this Volume), CO2 emissions are calculated in Tier 1 assuming that all hydrocarbons are fully oxidized. If information is available...

Annex 4 Glossary For Industrial Processes And Product Use Sector

This annex provides definitions and abbreviations for terms used in this volume on Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU) Sector. This annex should be used in conjunction with the general 'Glossary' in Volume 1 of these Guidelines which provides definitions for terms used not only in this volume but also in the other volumes. Thermal decomposition process to produce carbon black from acetylene. ADIPIC ACID (HEXANEDIOIC ACID) A carboxylic acid primarily used in the chemical industry as an...

Comparisons with atmospheric measurements

An ideal condition for verification is the use of fully independent data as a basis for comparison. Measurements of atmospheric concentrations potentially provide such datasets, and recent scientific advances allow using such data as a basis for emission modelling. The approach is particularly valuable as it is independent of standard estimation method drivers, such as sector activity data and implied emission factors. The scale of such models can be designed around local, regional, or global...

Electronics Industry Emissions 61 Introduction

Several advanced electronics manufacturing processes utilise fluorinated compounds (FCs) for plasma etching intricate patterns, cleaning reactor chambers, and temperature control. The specific electronic industry sectors discussed in this chapter include semiconductor, thin-film-transistor flat panel display (TFT-FPD), and photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing (collectively termed 'electronics industry').1 The electronics industry currently emits both FCs that are gases at room temperature and FCs...

Flooded land surface area

National statistical information on the flooded area retained behind large dams (> 100km2) should be available and will probably be accurate to within 10 . Where national database on dams are not available, and other information is used, the flooded land areas retained behind dams will probably have an uncertainty of more than 50 , especially for countries with large flooded land areas. Detailed information on the location, type and function of smaller dams may be also difficult to obtain,...

A2 Land Converted to Flooded Land

With the actual knowledge, for Land Converted to Flooded Land, it is suggested to use measured emissions in Table 3a.2. Inventory compilers should use Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 methods described in Section 3a. 1 to estimate CH4 emissions from Land Converted to Flooded Land. Abril, G., Gu rin, F., Richard, S., Delmas, R., Galy-Lacaux, C., Gosse, P., Tremblay, A., Varfalvy, L., dos Santos, M.A. and Matvienko, B. (2005). Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and the carbon budget of a 10-years old...

N2O emission factors

Nitrous oxide emissions from waste incineration are determined by a function of the type of technology and combustion conditions, the technology applied for NOx reduction as well as the contents of the waste stream. As a result, emission factors can vary from site to site. Several countries have reported N2O emissions from waste incineration in their national inventory reports. Table 5.4 shows examples of emission factors that have been used for incineration of MSW. The differences in the...

Estimating carbon released to the atmosphere in the Form Of Co2

Carbon that is released in the form of CO2 may be calculated if the methane emitted from HWP in landfills is t CHWP DC CO2 t CHWP DC - EW CH4. Annual release of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 from HWP accounting for carbon emitted as methane emitted from HWP in SWDS. EW CH4 is the carbon in CH4 emitted from the decomposition of HWP in SWDS in the year concerned. It can be estimated using the methodology in Chapter 3, Section 3.2 of Volume 5. The IPCC Waste Model spreadsheet estimates this...

Reporting Tables And Worksheets

To report the HWP Contribution an approach should be selected. It is good practice to report the following in the AFOLU sectoral background Table 3.10 (see Table 12.7 and Table A12.1) The approach used to estimate the HWP Contribution. If the HWP Contribution is assumed to be zero (Section 12.2.1) then the reason for this should be stated instead of the approach chosen, The amounts harvested, imported and exported should be given in Table 12.7 even if the HWP Contribution is assumed to be zero....

Equations For Harvested Wood Products

Estimation of carbon stock and its annual change in HWP pools of the reporting Starting with i 1900 and continuing to present year, compute Inflow(i) with C(1900) 0.0 Note For an explanation of technique used in Equations 12.1A to estimate first-order decay see Pingoud and Wagner (2006). C(i) the carbon stock of the HWP pool in the beginning of year i, Gg C k decay constant of first-order decay given in units, yr-1 ( k ln(2) HL, where HL is half-life of the HWP pool in years. A half-life is the...

Municipal Solid Waste MSW

Municipal waste is generally defined as waste collected by municipalities or other local authorities. However, this definition varies by country. Typically, MSW includes Garden (yard) and park waste and Commercial institutional waste. The regional default composition data for MSW is given in Section 2.3.1. Default data Region-specific default data on per capita MSW generation and management practices are provided in Table 2.1. These data are estimated based on country-specific data from a...

Waste Composition 231 Municipal Solid Waste MSW

Waste composition is one of the main factors influencing emissions from solid waste treatment, as different waste types contain different amount of degradable organic carbon DOC and fossil carbon. Waste compositions, as well as the classifications used to collect data on waste composition in MSW vary widely in different regions and countries. In this Volume, default data on waste composition in MSW are provided for the following waste types 2 garden yard and park waste 6 nappies disposable...

Choice of emission factors and parameters

Degradable organic carbon (DOC) is the organic carbon in waste that is accessible to biochemical decomposition, and should be expressed as Gg C per Gg waste. The DOC in bulk waste is estimated based on the composition of waste and can be calculated from a weighted average of the degradable carbon content of various components (waste types material) of the waste stream. The following equation estimates DOC using default carbon content values Estimates DOC using default carbon content values DOC...

Amount of waste openburned

The amount of waste open-burned is the most important activity data required for estimating emissions from open burning of waste. In most countries statistics may not be available. Where the data on waste amount are not available, alternative methods such as data from period surveys, research project or expert judgement can be used to estimate total amount of waste burned together with appropriate explanation and documentation. Extrapolation and interpolation can be used to obtain estimates for...

Choice of stock change and emission factors

Table 5.5 provides Tier 1 approach default stock change factors for land use (FLU), input (FI) and management (Fmg). The method and studies that were used to derive the default stock change factors are provided in Annex 5A.1 and References. The default time period for stock changes (D) is 20 years and management practice is assumed to influence stocks to a depth of 30 cm, which is also the depth for the reference soil C stocks in Table 2.3 (Chapter 2). A Tier 2 approach entails the estimation...

Classification And Definition Of Categories

Table 8.2 introduces the classification and definition of categories and subcategories6 of emissions and removals (consistent with the sectoral, sectoral background and cross-sectoral tables provided in Annex 8A.2). The correspondence with the reporting categories of the 1996 Guidelines is also provided in the third column of Table 8.2. A fourth column identifies gases that may be relevant to each category. Additional guidance on gases is provided in Volumes 2-5 and in Table 7.1 of Chapter 7 of...

International data sources

Good national data are to be preferred and used wherever available. In cases where data availability is a problem inventory compilers may consult international data sources for proxy data for IPPU estimates. Sources include United Nations UN industrial production statistics which are available in hard copy in the 'Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook' UN, 2004 from 1991 onwards and as CD-ROM with statistics from 1950 onwards data in physical units are given by commodity and country for all...

Choice of emission and scaling factors

A baseline emission factor for no flooded fields for less than 180 days prior to rice cultivation and continuously flooded during the rice cultivation period without organic amendments (EFc) is used as a starting point. The IPCC default for EFc is 1.30 kg CH4 ha-1 day-1 (with error range of 0.80 - 2.20, Table 5.11), estimated by a statistical analysis of available field measurement data (Yan et al, 2005, the data set used in the analysis is available at a web site5). Scaling factors are used to...

Activity data

This section provides general advice for the production or review of activity data. This includes Information on specialised data sources, Conducting surveys and censuses, Where appropriate, the use of measurement related data. It is good practice when producing suitable activity data to follow the stepwise approach to set priorities for action according to the importance of the sector, putting in place a strategy for accessing the data needed, collecting the data needed, and processing it to...

Annex 39A Feedstockproduct flow diagrams

Methanol Production Process Flow Diagram

Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.11 Methanol production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.12 Ethylene dichloride production feedstock-product flow diagram Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process Figure 3.13 Ethylene oxide production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.14 Acrylonitrile production feedstock-product flow diagram Figure 3.15 Carbon black production feedstock-product...