Steps to Build a Successful Family Emergency Plan

The Last Man Standing

Have you ever been caught up in a fight or flight situation? Like most of us, you must have been since the times are tough and the world is crazy. Even if you haven't you'll need The Last Man Standing because anything can happen any second. An Ebook that contains 3 primary survival tactics, The Last Man Standing could be your chance of getting through the misery protected and triumphant. The fact is it has been developed for that very purpose. The book has simplified ample survival knowledge and has summed it up to three basic things: Specialized knowledge, Creative thinking, and The ability to push pass stress, fear or pain. This is not all, however. There are certain additional secrets in the book that buttress the whole course. Those secrets are ancient in their nature but the author has managed to mold them for the 21st century. The fact that the course is developed by a former special forces soldier and international trainer, Tom Anderson. He has worked with soldiers across North America and Europe to prep them up for guerilla warfare in hostile countries like Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, etc. Bonuses include DIY Survival 71 Everyday Items That Can Save Your Life, Invincible Wilderness Survival: A Detailed Field Guide To Bushcrafting, and The Suburban Stronghold: A Complete Blueprint For An Impenetrable Homestead. Read more...

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Globalclimatenotes.info

Aukland, L., Moura Costa, P., and Brown, S., 2003, A conceptual framework and its application for addressing leakage The case of avoided deforestation, Climate Policy. 3 123-136. Boisvenue, C. and Running, S.W., 2006, Impacts of climate change on natural forest productivity - evidence since the middle of the 20th century, Global Change Biology. 12 1-21. Cole, V., Cerri, C., Mosier, A., Rosenberg, N.J., and Sauerbeck, D., 1996, Agricultural Options for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Chapter 23, in Watson, R.T., Zimoywera, M.C., and Moss, R.H. (eds.), Climate change Impacts, adaptation and mitigation of climate change, Report of IPCC Working Group II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. DeFries, R.G., Asner, F., Achard, C., Justice, N., Laporte, K., Price, C., and Townshend, J., 2005, Monitoring Tropical Deforestation for Emerging Carbon Markets, in Mountinho, P. and Schwartzman, S. (eds.), Tropical deforestation and climate change. IPAM, Belem, Brazil and Environmental...

Impact of Climate Change on Hydropower Generation and Irrigation A Case Study from Greece

Abstract Due to climate change, water availability for different uses such as domestic water supply, hydropower production and agricultural irrigation could be significantly reduced in the near future mainly in regions with arid and semiarid climate. Precipitation data in the form of time series from different stations in South East Europe (SEE) as well as results from global atmospheric circulation models indicate that climate change will reduce water availability in this part of the Mediterranean. In this presentation the coupling of hydrological, hydraulic and climate change models is suggested in order to explore the impact of climate change on water resources at the river basin level. The methodology is illustrated for the Mesta Nestos river basin, which is shared between Bulgaria and Greece. The case study is part of the worldwide UNESCO-HELP initiative. Keywords Climate change Hydropower Irrigation Mesta Nestos River

Efficiency of Water Supply Assessment

Wirbels Ule Nervenzuordnung

Scientific basis for efficiency of water supply assessment is the empirical dependence of crop capacity on water consumption under different climatic regions. Under the condition of water resource deficiency, low water and land efficiency, it is suggested to take into account the sufficiency of water supply not only during the vegetation period but also its distribution within this period (that is, the regime of crop irrigation), and also the mineralization of irrigating water, which is not done when conducting the present cadastre. Efficiency of the water supply assessment for an irrigated area is calculated for every farm area. It consists of an average assessment over 3-5 years of actual water infiltration for crops conforming to the conditions of maximal crop growing. The irrigated area is considered supplied with water if 9.Insufficient water supply of irrigation sources 7.The rise of water supply Under the condition of water resource deficiency and in the presence of large areas...

Managing Water under Current Climate Variability

Throughout history, people have tried to cope with the variability of their climate. First this was done simply by living in areas in which this variability caused no or few problems (e.g. sufficiently far away from floodplains, or close to springs, lakes or oases with a reliable supply of water). Moreover, people developed sustenance and economic activities that matched their natural conditions - for example, growing crops that were suited to the specific climate in which they were living. Population pressure and external forces have made people move to areas that are more prone to climate variability. The fertility of floodplains and vicinity of trade routes attracted people to rivers, accepting the risk of occasional floods. To reduce that risk, measures were taken flood defences and drainage systems were built to prevent flooding, and irrigation systems and drinking water supply systems coped with occasional shortages. Societies and political systems were organized around the need...

Introduction climate and agriculture in Russia

Busting Out Brick Wall Clip Art

When analyzing the development of Soviet agriculture it should be borne in mind that Russia is comparatively poorly endowed in terms of agricultural land and climate and that, under any system of farming, agricultural productivity would be appreciably lower than, for example, that of the United States or Western Europe. Russian farming is characterized by its extreme northerly location. The center of Russia lies at roughly the same latitude as Hudson Bay, and St. Petersburg is actually at the same latitude as southern Alaska. Western European countries, although at the same latitude as some parts of Russia, have an unusually temperate climate for their latitude due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. According to the Koppen (Parker, 1972) climate classification system, the most typical climate in the USSR is humid continental, marked by at least some (but sometimes not much) precipitation all year round but with cool summers and cold winters. This type of climate is characteristic...

Annex 3A5 Default climate and soil classifications

Usda Classification Soil

Climate regions are classified in order to apply emission and stock change factors for estimating biomass, dead organic matter and soil C stock changes. The default climate classification is provided in Figure 3A.5.1 and can be derived using the classification scheme in Figure 3A.5.2. This classification should be used for Tier 1 methods because the default emission and stock change factors were derived using this scheme. Note that climate regions are further subdivided into ecological zones to apply the Tier 1 method for estimating biomass C stock changes (see Table 4.1, Chapter 4). Inventory compilers have the option of developing a country-specific climate classification if using Tier 2 and 3 methods, along with country-specific emission and stock change factors. It is good practice to apply the same classification, either default or country-specific, across all land-use types. Thus, stock change and emission factors are assigned to each pool in a national inventory using a uniform...

The Worlds Diminishing Freshwater Supply

Freshwater Floods

On a global scale only about half of the world's population has a connection to a piped-water supply in the home, whereas 30 percent rely on wells or local village pipes, and about 20 percent have no access at all to clean water. World population is expected to grow by another 50 percent (another 3-4 billion people) in the next 50 years, so huge investments are needed to maintain the existing water supply infrastructure and develop new supply networks. As population grows and water supplies remain the same or diminish, it is expected that in the next 10 years about half the world's population will not have access to clean drinking water. Most of those without access to clean water will live in Africa, south and Central America, and southeast Asia. Many of the countries of the Middle East face a different prob-lem an extreme paucity of water of any kind. many of these countries have other economic resources such as petroleum, and will have to invest in desalination to meet the needs of...

Water Supply and Wastewater Management in Antiquity

Management Antiquity Images

In Hellenistic and Roman times, several water supply systems were constructed for Pergamon castle, which is situated on a rock with an 800 m long plateau, at a height of nearly 300 m over the town situated below it. We are here only interested in one of these systems the Madradag pipe 2 constructed during the rule of Eume-nas II (197-159 BC Garbrecht 1987). This pipe had a length of 42 km and started in the Madradag mountains at a height of 1230 m, that is 900 m higher than the rock of Pergamon. Three valleys had to be crossed and afterwards the Pergamon rock had to be climbed. Therefore, the pipe had to be operated under pressure. This was an extremely demanding requirement for the quality of pipe manufacturing, laying and sealing. The difference in the height of 900 m (from source to castle) corresponding to a pressure drop of 90 bar (9 MPa) alone for the nonflow-ing water column. Therefore, very stringent requirements had to be met. The pipes 1.1 Water Supply and Wastewater...

Water Supply and Wastewater Management in the Medieval

Different Parts Medieval Monastery

Monasteries founded by Cistercians, Premonstratensians and Benedictines in Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries were exemplary business undertakings for that time. Besides the monks and the abbot, numerous lay persons worked and prayed there, all requiring a reliable source of water. Frequently, a monastery was placed near a river and a ditch was dug, which was laid with a necessary gradient through the area of the monastery. Figure 1.4 presents a system for water supply and wastewater discharge as a fundamental concept (Bond 1991). Fig. 1.4 Fresh water supply and wastewater discharge in monasteries (Bond 1991). Fig. 1.4 Fresh water supply and wastewater discharge in monasteries (Bond 1991). 1.2 Water Supply and Wastewater Management in the Medieval Age 5 First, the water flowed slowly through two sedimentation basins to a distribution house crossing the main ditch of the monastery. Pipes made either from tree trunks, ceramic material or lead were used for this purpose. From the...

Bibilography Of Drinking Water Supply

Case study Automatic reservoir aeration to control manganese in raw water Maryborough town water supply, Queensland, Australia. Water Science Tech-nol., Proc. 1997 1st IAWQ-IWSA Joint Specialist Conf. on Reservoir Manage. and Water Supply An Integrated Syst., May 19-23, Prague, Czech Republic, 37, 2, 301-308. Elsevier Science Ltd., Exeter, England. Clasen, J. (1997). Efficiency control of particle removal by rapid sand filters in treatment plants fed with reservoir water A survey of different methods. Water Science Technol., Proc. 1997 1st IAWQ-IWSA Joint Specialist Conf. on Reservoir Manage. and Water Supply An Integrated Syst., May 19-23, Prague, Czech Republic, 37, 2, 19-26. Elsevier Science Ltd., Exeter, England.

Indian Agriculture and Climate Change

Agriculture sector alone represents 23 per cent of India's Gross National Product (GNP), plays a crucial role in the country's development and shall continue to occupy an important place in the national economy. It sustains the livelihood of nearly 70 of the population. It seems obvious that any significant change in climate on a global scale will impact local agriculture, and therefore affect the world's food supply. Considerable studies have been carried out to investigate how farming might be affected in the different regions. Several uncertainties limit the accuracy of current projections. One relates to the degree of temperature increase and its geographic distribution. Another pertains to the concomitant changes likely to occur in the precipitation patterns that determine the water supply to the crops, and the evaporative demand imposed on the crops in carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere. The problems of predicting the future course of agriculture in the changing world are...

Using Subgrid Parameterisation and a Forest Canopy Climate Model for Improving Forecasts of Snowmelt Runoff

Climate and Hydrology in Mountain Areas. Edited by C. de Jong, D. Collins and R. Ranzi 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd The goal of this study is to investigate whether a suitable compromise between accuracy and computation time requirements exists for snowmelt simulations and predictions on a regional scale. We apply the ISBA-CROCUS modelling scheme to the upper Durance catchment (Rhone-Alpes France) at two spatial resolutions (1 km and 8 km) and investigate methods of subgrid parameterisation that can be applied at the coarse 8-km resolution and that lead to improvements in simulations. The following subgrid parameterisation methods are explored the first is a technique that utilises the high-resolution (1 km) elevation data to derive subgrid information for topography in the 8-km model cells. In principle, this approach is based on the probability distributed principle (Moore 1985) three subareas that are not necessarily coherent are derived for each grid cell by statistically adapting...

Colorado Climate Center

The COLORADO Climate Center (CCC) is part of the Department of Atmospheric Science in the College of Engineering at Colorado State University. The aim of the center is to assist the state of Colorado in monitoring climate change over time, ranging from weeks to years. The CCC provides climate-related services to business, government, industry, researchers, educators, and the general public. The center tries to understand the complex interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, continental glaciers, land, and vegetation processes. The CCC has stressed the importance of observation and data collection for climate monitoring, research, and service. It is involved in snow measurement research in collaboration with the National Weather Service. The services provided by the center aim to reduce the state's vulnerability to climate variability and change. The CCC provides links to regional climate centers, and to the National Climate Data Center, where detailed climate information is...

Impacts of Climate Change in Japan

Climate Change Japan

The observed and projected impacts of climate change are described for several sectors The impacts on food (agriculture, livestock and fisheries) contain changes in the rice production, Ukikawa symptoms (detached fruit skin and flesh) in mandarin and grapes due to high temperature and delayed seaweed harvests due to a later cooling down of water temperatures in autumn. It is expected that poor ripening of rice increases, a shift northward will take place for apple cultivation lands (Fig. 1.38), a northward shift of damage and pest, water shortages during rice planting, a decreased habitat for salmon and northward shift for herring, slower growth of the Pacific saury (Fig. 1.39) and a northward shift of suitable aqua-farming of Blowfish (Torafugu). The impacts on water environment and resources are increasing restrictions on water intake and water supply (Fig. 1.40), an abnormal bloom of blue-green algae in lakes and marshes and the increased use of groundwater. It is expected that the...

Emergency Planning and Community Rightto Know

EPCRA22 is intended to help communities prepare to respond in the event of a chemical emergency, and to increase the public's knowledge of the presence and threat of hazardous chemicals. To this end, EPCRA requires the establishment of state and local committees to prepare communities for potential chemical emergencies. The focus of the preparation is a community emergency response plan that must

Operational Agrometeorological Services to Cope with Risks and Uncertainties of Natural Disasters

Cree Worksheets

National Weather Service (NWS) was created in 1870 and was officially transferred to the Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1891 and then to the Department of Commerce (DOC) on June 30,1940. As early as 1941, operational agrometeorological services were provided for orchardists under DOC and USDA weather, climate, and agricultural activities, tte farmers were advised on conditions suitable for spray on fruit trees. Pioneering research at USDA resulted in the publication of Atlas of Climatic Types in the United States 1900-1939 (Motha et al. 2006), categorizing climate by moisture regimes, providing definitions of effective precipitation, the use of vegetation as climatic indicators, and discussions of climate variations. While the meteorological requirements of USDA are numerous, they can be categorized into four basic areas, ttey include current measurement and observational data and services climate services including the summarization of historical weather data, the...

Anthropogenic Climate Change A Consensus Paradigm

The 1960s and 1970s of the last century saw remarkable advances in space exploration and computer technology that vastly facilitated acquisition of data and capacity for numerical analysis. In the new electronic age, multidisciplinary developments flourished through a leap in the capacity for information transfer between environmentally concerned individuals, national and international integrative research centers, philanthropic and conservation groups, conservation clubs, NGO's, and a variety of lobby groups. New concepts and environmental consciousness were boosted by highly organized and prestigious WMO, UNEP and United Nations sponsored programs and conferences, and coordinated leadership, as provided for example by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and its SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment. Particularly important also became publication series devoted to natural hazards and climate change issues that have culminated in the Assessment...

Why Does Climate Vary From One Place To Another

Essentially, there arc two main reasons that climate varies from place to place first, the amount of energy arriving from the sun, and second the circulation of the atmosphere and oceans which carry heat and moisture from one placc to another. One of the major factors determining the relative warmth of a climate is the angle of the sun in the sky. The sun shines almost straight at the earth's equator, because the equator sits in the direct plane of the sun within the solar system. So, if you stand on the equator during the middle part of the day, the sun passes straight overhead. At higher latitudes, such as in Europe or North America, you would be standing a little way around the curve of the earth and so the sun always stays lower in the sky. The farther away from the equator you go. the lower the sun stays until at the poles it is really only barely above the horizon during the day. There are however some exceptions to this pattern of temperature decline with altitude places where...

National Security and Climate Change in Perspective

N early 2007 the group responsible for setting the Doomsday Clock, a depiction of the risks of imminent worldwide catastrophe, cited the threat of climate change as one reason for moving its minute hand two minutes closer to midnight.1 Although the nuclear-era clock is perhaps an imperfect depiction of the nature of the challenge posed by climate change the cumulative impact of human activities that affect the environment versus the kind of events that lead to a sudden conflict climate change can provide profound and urgent threats to the well-being of mankind. Yet the risk that such catastrophe may lie at this intersection of climate change and national security is not as well understood as it should be, despite decades of exploration of the relationship between the two fields. The overall purpose of this book is to fill this gap to provide a primer on how climate change can serve to undermine the security of the planet. For most of 2006 and 2007, a diverse group of experts, under...

History Of Water Supply And Its Effects On Public Health

The urban water cycle can be divided into a water supply side and a wastewater disposal side (see Figure 1-1). The basic technological framework for the water supply side began as far back as 5,000 years ago when people from the Nippur of Sumeria, reason, bypassing the wastewater treatment side of the urban water cycle affected both water supply and water resource users.

Impact of climate change on water resources

Water is one of the main integrating factors for many environmental and economic systems in Europe. Under current climatic conditions, many areas have problems with water supply. Climate change is likely to enhance water-related stresses in these areas (8). In a warmer climate, water availability will be reduced by increased evapotranspiration. However, the response of hydrological systems depends on many factors, such as the distribution of precipitation and storage capacity. Many regions will experience a general decrease in runoff, although the change in runoff may range between -5 and +12 . More droughts are expected in southern Europe (8). The potential for winter and springtime flooding may be greater in northern, northwestern and central Europe.

Center for International Climate and environment Research

The center FOR International Climate and Environment Research (CICERO) is a nonprofit, independent research institution established in association with the University of Oslo by the Norwegian government in 1990. CICERO conducts experiments and performs research regarding issues, such as climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, it offers recommendations to alleviate the detrimental effects of climate change. CICERO has published an array of articles and continues to undertake research projects that serve to deter the process of global warming. CICERO has three objectives to recommend policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to encourage global participation in adopting climate and environmental policies, and to propose policies that accomplish long- and short-term goals. CICERO's work influences a wide range of audiences, including national and international organizations, government agencies, and academics. CICERO's research branch has three main programs,...

Management of Karst Aquifers Under Climate Change Sustainable Use of Unsustained Resource

The consequences of climate change on water resources is due to the alteration of the seasonal distribution of precipitation, temperature increase and the change in evapotranspiration, as a result of the change on vegetation cover. All these changes In contrast to capture water at the possible lowest elevation, management of karst aquifers under climate change should consider raising the discharge elevation by capturing the flush waters of floods and thus store more water for later use during the long-term droughts. However, the shorter the residence times the lower the possibility of availability of the flood water. This hydraulic behavior is reflected in a high recession coefficient and low regulation power. According to the conceptual scheme suggested by Hobbs and Smart 7 , karst aquifers with point recharge, low storage and conduit type flow are considered to be hypersensitive to external factors. They behave like surface waters rather than groundwater systems. This is also true...

Impact of climate change

Ohio experienced the effects of higher temperatures in 1993. While other states flooded, Ohio had the driest August on record since 1895. While climate models vary on the amount of temperature increase possible, potential risks include having decreased water supplies, increased risk for wildfires, population (both human and animal) displacement, changes in food production (with agriculture improving in cooler climates and suffering in warmer climates), and changes in rain patterns to downpours, with the potential for flash flooding and health risks of certain infectious diseases from water contamination or disease-carrying vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and rodents, and heat-related illnesses. Warmer temperatures can cause heat-related illnesses and lead to higher concentrations of ground-level ozone pollution, causing respiratory illnesses, especially in Ohio's major cities, where air pollution problems already exist. Higher temperatures and more frequent heat waves could raise...

Climate Change and Natural Disasters

India Natural Disasters

Scientific research is now producing mounting evidence of a causal link between the increasing frequencies and intensities of weather-related disasters and anthropogenic climate change. Global warming is a fact and will further accelerate in the coming decades. A British study (Stott et al. 2004), for example, shows that human influence has already at least doubled the risk of a heatwave exceeding the magnitude of the European heatwave in 2003. Another study modelling the effects of climate change Fig. 21.4. Development of economic and insured losses in India from Natural Disasters between 1980 and 2005 (Datafrom Munich Re NatCatSERVICE) Fig. 21.4. Development of economic and insured losses in India from Natural Disasters between 1980 and 2005 (Datafrom Munich Re NatCatSERVICE) on hurricanes has found that, due to global warming, the maximum wind speed of hurricanes and the associated precipitation will increase (Emanuel 2005). tte number of major tropical storms has already increased...

Research Needs for Advancing Science on Freshwater Resources in the Context of Climate Change

Changes in freshwater systems are expected to create significant challenges for flood management, drought preparedness, water supplies, and many other water resource issues. Responding to these challenges will require better data and improved model projections as well as a better understanding of both the impacts of climate change and the role of water governance on future water resources. Significant gaps remain in the knowledge base that informs both projections of climate impacts on water resources and governance strategies that can build adaptive capacity of water systems to climate effects. Key research needs, which are explored in more detail in Chapter 8, include the following Evaluate effects, feedbacks, and mitigation options of water resource use on climate.

Monetary Impacts Of Climate Change

While it is very difficult to reliably estimate the monetary impacts of climate change, one study estimates that climate change may lower India and Southeast Asia's gross domestic product by 9-13 percent by the end of the century, compared to what it would be in the absence of climate change. An estimated 145-220 million more people may have to subsist on less than 2 a day, resulting in 165,000-250,000 additional annual child deaths in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa attributable just to lower income. Lower farm profits will increase rural poverty rates, preventing farmers from investing in the necessary capital to expand and secure future production. at risk under scenarios predicting greater warming toward the end of the century. Canada, Russia, and Scandinavia may see higher crop yields, fewer cold-related deaths, lower heating fuel needs, and an influx of winter tourists, initially. However, warming in these countries is predicted to progress faster, requiring ecosystems to...

Box 75 Climatechange adaptation and local government

Threats and opportunities presented by climate change are typically focused at a local scale and it makes sense for local authorities, including mayors, to consider adaptive responses. Climate change can threaten lives, property, environmental quality and future prosperity by increasing the risk of storms, flooding, landslides, heatwaves and drought and by overloading water, drainage and energy supply systems. Local governments around the world already play a part in climate-change mitigation, but they can also play a role in adaptation (see Chapter 14, Section 14.5.1 Chapter 18, Section 18.7.2), as guarantors of public services and as facilitators, mobilising stakeholders - such as local businesses, developers, utilities, insurers, educational institutions and community organisations - to contribute their technical and even financial resources to a joint initiative, such as the one formed for London (London Climate Change Partnership, 2004). In many cases, in fact, good governance is...

Science To Support Adapting To Climate Change

Options to adapt to the impacts of climate change in cities and built-up areas encompass a wide array of potential actions. To date, most of the options considered have fallen into the category of structural or engineering strategies such as protecting existing development and infrastructure from sea level rise (e.g., NYCDEP, 2008) improving water supply, drainage, and water treatment infrastructure and reducing urban heat island effects. In some cases, local and regional entities sharing a common problem thought to be amplified by climate change, such as water in the American West, have begun planning to address adaptation beyond infrastructure per se, including more efficient water markets. Although noninfrastructural strategies, such as improving emergency preparedness and response (above), have also been considered, in general there is insufficient concern with, or scientific understanding of, the underlying social-ecological vulnerabilities that cities and the people within them...

Preparing and Protecting American Families from the Onslaught of Catastrophe

American families need to be better prepared for and protected from mega-catastrophes. Hurricane Katrina underscored this point with the same force and clarity that the savage attacks of 11 September 2001 crystallized our national awareness and galvanized our national thinking about the immediate need to improve and enhance our preparation and defenses with regard to terrorism. ProtectingAmerica.org is committed to finding better ways to prepare for and protect American families from the devastation caused by natural catastrophes. I co-chair the organization with James Lee Witt, the former director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and our coalition members include the American Red Cross, other first responder groups, emergency management officials, insurers, municipalities, small businesses, Fortune 100 companies and private citizens. The membership is broad and diverse and includes members from virtually every state in the nation. ProtectingAmerica.org was formed to raise...

Theme 2 Climaterelated Human Behaviors And Institutions

Knowledge gained from research involving physical, chemical, and ecological processes has been critical for establishing that climate change poses sufficiently serious risks to justify careful consideration and evaluation of alternative responses. Emerging concerns about how best to respond to climate change also bring to the fore questions about human interactions with the climate system how human activities drive climate change how people understand, decide, and act in the climate context how people are affected by climate change and how human and social systems might respond. Thus, not surprisingly, many of the research needs that emerge from the detailed analyses in Part II focus on human interactions with climate change (see Table 4.2). Human and social systems play a key role in both causing and responding to climate change. Therefore, in the context of climate change, a better understanding of human behavior and of the role of institutions and organizations is as fundamental to...

Adapting to Climate Change in Cities

Cities face all the challenges that any other sector encounters in regard to adaptation, but research on urban adaptation has only recently begun in earnest. Attention to date has focused on infrastructure and strategies such as emergency preparedness and response. In addition, where resource stresses have already mounted, such as water shortages in the American West, local and regional entities have begun planning to address their vulnerability to climate change in the context of specific natural

Preparedness strategies

Few countries have actually implemented risk-based drought policies and preparedness programs or strategies. However, Australia is an exception to this and some components associated with effectiveness in program development can be provided. Encouraging self-reliant approaches to managing climate variability Protecting the natural resource base in times of extreme climate stress Wilhite (1996) argued that drought policy should be informed about the impact of climate variability on key policy relevant outcomes such as farm incomes and profitability. ttompson and Powell (1998) showed how this could be done using whole-farm models, ttey concluded that a preoccupation with climate and environmental definitions of drought was not consistent with a need to holistically manage all sources of risk on farms, tte relevance gap that has emerged between the information necessary to support drought policy, and that being supplied has been highlighted through the work of Nelson et al. (2005)....

Impacts Of Sea Level Rise And Other Climate Changes On Coastal Environments

While humans have always made use of coastal resources and areas, permanent settlements with high levels of investment and infrastructure are a relatively recent phenomenon, as prehistoric peoples and even early settlers of the United States did not have the technology to protect themselves against storms. The modern concentration of people, human activities, development, and infrastructure is taking place in one of the most dynamic environments on Earth, where land, ocean, and climate are constantly changing. This interaction between a highly variable natural environment and the growing pressures from human use and development produces multiple stresses that make coastal areas particularly vulnerable to additional impacts from climate change. The IPCC (Nicholls et al., 2007), the recent Global Climate Change Impacts on the United States report by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP, 2009a), and other studies have documented that a growing number of well-studied coastal...

Water Affects Climate

Water affects the climate in many ways. One of the most important of them is through the hydrologic cycle. The hydrologic cycle is the circulation of water molecules from the earth's surface to the atmosphere and back again. The hydrologic cycle is powered by the sun, which heats the earth, turning water on the surface to water vapor. The water vapor then rises into the atmosphere, where it condenses and falls back to the earth as rain. Local and seasonal variations in the hydrologic cycle can have a major effect on climate. The world's oceans also have a major effect on climate. Water has a higher specific heat than land, which means that it is more resistant to changes in temperature than is land. Thus, the fact that the majority of the earth is covered in water helps to keep temperatures stable worldwide. Moreover, the high specific heat of water affects local climates. Regions of land that are close to water tend to have warmer winters and cooler summers. Regions of land that are...

Challenges to preparedness as a coping strategy

Stigter et al. (2003a) put forward the opinion that coping with flood disasters would gain from the same change of emphasis in the approach as took place in Japan with respect to earth quakes, ttey thought that in such an approach additional measures had to get focus and different questions would have to be asked with respect to preparing victims for the occurrence of floods. It was concluded from the Oris-sa super cyclone disaster in India that trying to build preparedness models maybe counterproductive, because of the occurrences and effects being extremely location specific. Furthermore, lessons learned from very exemplarious villages fitted in three preparedness categories (i) livelihood-focused support, (ii) participation perspectives, and (iii) community perspectives (Stigter et al. 2003a). tte challenges of giving contents to such an approach would apply to the other disasters that we have considered as well. As to the first category, beyond contingency and response planning...

Climate Change and Net Primary Production

30.1.1.1 Climate Change CO2 Fertilization Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Production The relative contributions of CO2 fertilization and climate change effects on terrestrial CO2 sources and sinks have been estimated for different ecoregions. They suggest that the CO2 effect on total net primary production (NPP) content will be positive, and that NPP will decrease without it. On the other hand, the effect of projected climate changes on total NPP appear to be negative. Aggregate global impacts of CO2 fertilization and climate change on CO2 appear to be positive. Modeling results also suggest that the geographic distribution of NPP will change along with changes in CO2 and climate. Ecosystems with the highest NPP show the greatest change. The effects of other factors, such as land use history and nitrogen cycling, have generally not been considered in these simulation models. They need to be carefully assessed. 30.1.1.2 Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems Free-air CO2...

Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Review of a Case Study in Azerbaijan

Abstract Groundwater and surface water are the sources of water supply in Azerbaijan. The hydroeconomic balance of Azerbaijan is characterized by annual and seasonal deficits arising from the implementation of hydroeconomic measures for increasing the water supply to different branches of the national economy. When almost all available surface water resources are involved in the national economical production, the optimal use of aquifers' fresh groundwater resources are currently playing pivotal role. That is the reason that the interest in the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources in Azerbaijan has developed greatly. This paper examines the scientific and technical aspects of evaluating the fresh ground-water resources formation in the hydrogeological structures, such as deposits in the mountainous regions, foothill and intermountain plains. It also investigates the role of the climatic factors and impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Keywords Groundwater...

Climate Scenario 3 Catastrophic Climate Change

This scenario provides the basis for chapter 6 in this volume, by Sharon E. Burke, on catastrophic consequences of climate change for national and international security through the end of the twenty-first century. On the basis of current scientific understanding, we assume that abrupt, global catastrophic climate events cannot plausibly occur in the next three decades, but could plausibly do so over the course of this century. To examine the consequences of such events, scenario 3 extends the rapid warming and attendant accelerated impacts associated with scenario 2 to the end of the twenty-first century, leading to assumed rapid loss of polar land ice, abrupt 2-meter (6.6-foot) sea level rise, and the collapse of the North Atlantic MOC. We therefore assume warming that is double the best estimate of modeled surface warming under emissions scenario A1B for the year 2100 (see table 3-1).

Managing Freshwater In A Changing Climate

In the face of the many, and sometimes uncertain, impacts on freshwater resources outlined above, water managers face a variety of challenges. For example, new infrastructure construction (e.g., large dams) is expected to be limited, so water managers will have to develop and implement approaches to increase the efficiency of water use (Gleick, 2003a,b). On the other hand, existing water infrastructure (e.g., reservoirs, conveyer pipes, sewage lines, and treatment plants) will need to be maintained and upgraded, which offers opportunities for taking account of current and projected impacts of climate change (e.g., ASCE, 2009 EPA, 2008 King County, 2008). Projections of freshwater supply as well as climate change impacts on water infrastructure itself are uncertain, so water managers will need more information about risks and about managing water in the face of uncertainty (Beller-Simms et al., 2008 CDWR, 2008 Delta Vision Blue Ribbon Task Force, 2007 EPA, 2008 Wilby et al., 2009). In...

Freshwater Supply Issues

Global climate change will have major impacts on freshwater ecosystems. This will affect availability, as well as quality, distribution, and form. In certain regions, where stream flow and precipitation increase, flooding could threaten the structure and functions of aquatic systems, leading to increased pollution of freshwater ecosystems, especially in areas where human-mediated activities might have altered the landscape. The impacts of climate change on the Earth's freshwater resources have the potential of affecting international relations, especially at continental or country borders, where shared wetlands can generate local and international political and geographical disputes. Impacts of climate change on water resources will have a wide range of consequences for coastal ecosystems. The health of the Earth's ecosystems will be affected by changes in the quality and quantity of freshwater runoff into coastal wetlands, higher water temperatures, extreme runoff rates or altered...

What futures for climate capitalism

So where might all this be heading In the introduction, we ended by suggesting that the issue is less whether we have climate capitalism or not, but rather what sort of climate capitalism we end up with. Capitalism of one form or another will provide the context in which near-term solutions to climate change have to be found. The governance questions we have just discussed, as well as the critiques of carbon markets we looked at in Chapter 8, suggest the issues climate capitalism will have to address if it is to be effective. The forces behind the development of carbon markets - those forces dominant under neoliberalism that we discussed in Chapter 2 - also provide clues as to the possible forms that climate capitalism might take as it develops. But how might we imagine the current ways that climate change is being managed developing into a more fully fledged, coherent system that could lead to decarbonisation of the economy And what then might be done to make one or other scenario...

Global Warming Climate Change and Hurricanes

The hurricane season for the Atlantic region begins on June 1 and ends on November 30. Since these ''intense tropical storms'' require warm ocean temperatures, the ''more heat available in the surface water, the more potential there is to generate heavy rain and high wind'' (Pew Center on Global Climate Change 2007). Notwithstanding natural factors that influence the development of hurricanes, the question has been raised whether and to what extent anthropogenic activities have played a role in generating an increase in frequency as well as severity of Atlantic hurricanes. According to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (U.S. NOAA 2006a), our ''science is not mature enough to determine what percentage of anthropogenic climate change and what percentage of natural climatic variability is driving our current hurricanes.'' Ironically, while NOAA argued in favor of improving the quality and scope of hurricane relevant data sets, a two-year study by the U.S....

Conclusion links between climate change and sustainable development

African people and the environment have always battled the vagaries of weather and climate (see Section 9.2.1). These struggles, however, are increasingly waged alongside a range of other stresses, such as HIV AIDS, conflict and land struggles (see Section 9.2.2). Despite good economic growth in some countries and sectors in Africa (OECD, 2004 2005), large inequalities still persist, and some sources suggest that hopes of reaching the MDGs by 2015 are slipping (UNDP, 2005). While climate change may not have featured directly in the setting of the MDGs, it is clear from the evidence presented here that climate change and variability may be an additional impediment to achieving them (Table 9.3 Thornton et al., 2006). Although future climate change seems to be marginally important when compared to other development issues (Davidson et al., 2003), it is clear that climate change and variability, and associated increased disaster risks, will seriously hamper future development. On an...

Climate change An age of migration

In October 2006, the Stern Review delivered a grim forecast for people around the world - climate change threatens our access to water, food production, health and use of land. And by the summer of 2007 it looked as though climate change was already hitting home against the backdrop of raging heat in Greece and extensive flooding in the UK, newspapers declared that 'the world is warming before our eyes' (McCarthy, 2007). The impact of climate change therefore was no longer an 'if' but a 'when and how'. The distant threat could come knocking on our doors in as little 50 years as Stern estimated that '200 million more people may become permanently displaced due to rising sea levels, heavier floods and more intense droughts' (Stern, 2006). More recently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group II report had a similarly bleak outlook 'stresses such as increased drought, water shortages and riverine and coastal flooding will affect many local and regional...

Potential National Security Consequences of Climate Change

In a world that sees a 2-meter (6.6-foot) sea level rise with continued flooding ahead, it will take extraordinary effort for the United States, or indeed any country, to look beyond its own salvation. All of the ways in which human beings have responded to natural disasters in the past, which John R. McNeill describes in chapter 2, could come together in one conflagration rage at government's inability to deal with the abrupt and unpredictable crises religious fervor and perhaps even a dramatic rise in millennial end-of-days cults hostility and violence toward migrants and minority groups, at a time of demographic change and increased global migration and intra-and interstate conflict over resources, particularly food and freshwater.

Effects of climate change

The federal government heavily subsidizes the protection of the densely developed New Jersey coast. Taxpayers, through the Army Corps of Engineers, pay for shoreline erosion and beach replenishment programs. New Jersey's current plans for beach sand replenishment will cost about 60 million per mile, with a 50-year total of 9 billion. Many property owners also get subsidized insurance through the National Flood Insurance Program. Storms often result in the use of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) funds to rebuild in the same place, without important property modifications Changes to temperature, sea level, and water regimes in New Jersey could affect its most important and unique ecosystems. Temperature increases and rainfall declines could make the Pine Barrens area on the outer coastal plains and the skylands area of the mountainous northwest more prone to catastrophic fires or biological invasion. This could affect rare and endangered species like the Pine Barrens tree...

Increasing Climate Variability And Change Reducing The Vulnerability

Since time immemorial, climate variability and change have triggered natural disasters and climate extremes causing heavy losses of life and property, forcing civil society to learn to live with these calamities. Floods, droughts, hurricanes, storm surges, heat waves precipitating wild fires and such other natural calamities have claimed more than 2.8 million lives all over the world in the past 25 years, adversely affecting 828 million people. Damage caused by these climate extremes during the same period was estimated at 25-100 billion dollars, dramatically affecting agriculture and forestry systems in regions where these have occurred. Agricultural and forestry production is highly dependent on climate, and is adversely affected by increasing climate variability and anthropogenic climate change leading to increases in climate extremes. There is strong evidence that global warming over the last millennium has already resulted in increased global average annual temperature and...

Natural Disastersand Losses

Munich Re has one of the world's largest global databases on natural catastrophes, the Munich Re NatCatSERVICE. Currently, it contains entries for more than 23,000 individual natural events which have caused human suffering and or property losses. Figure 21.1 shows the development in the number of great natural disasters (causing billion dollar losses and or thousands of fatalities) since 1950, broken down into the different perils floods, windstorms, geophysical disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions) and other weather-related events (heatwaves, forest fires, droughts), tte figure clearly shows a steep increase in the number of such events. While in the 1950s there were about two of them per year, the expected value has now risen to about seven. Most of the trend is driven by weather-related disasters, whereas there has been only a small trend upwards as far as geophysical events are concerned. Fig. 21.1. Development of the number of Great Natural Disasters between 1950...

Threats and Responses Associated with Rapid Climate Change in Metropolitan New York

Mapa Relieves Mexico Para Imprimir

Recent storms have already revealed the intrinsic potential for disaster in this region. For example, the nor'easter of December 1992 flooded the entrance of the Hoboken train station with seawater, short-circuiting the electric trains and city subways and shutting down the underground public transportation system for up to ten days. The Brooklyn-Battery tunnel experienced serious flooding as did the FDR Highway on Manhattan's east side. Fortunately, no lives were lost, but there would have been fatalities if the sea had risen another 30 cm (US Army Corps of Engineers et al, 1995). During the 21st century, rising sea level will aggravate the effects of storm surges and wave damage along the Metropolitan New York, Long Island and northern New Jersey coastlines, leading to more severe and more frequent flooding. An abrupt acceleration in the pace of climate change would accelerate sea level rise and make infrastructure protection measures and emergency planning imperatives even more...

Climate Change And Human Societies

Despite advances in technology, climate extremes can still impact human societies today. This is well illustrated by statistics on the impact of frosts related to polar air outbreaks on crops in Florida and Brazil (Marengo and Rogers, 2000). Climate extremes also affected pre-Columbian societies. Examples from the Maya in Central America and the Tiwanaku in the Andes illustrate that population declined following extended droughts (Brenner et al. 2000). Also, pastoral societies were affected by climate change, especially those populations living in semiarid regions, where food resources were restricted to areas around permanent water bodies (Nunez et al., 2000). According to these authors, after climate changes led to reductions in water supplies, which occurred at different times in the Americas, human populations disappeared from the affected regions. Either these groups relocated elsewhere, or the centers of cultural activity shifted to more suitable regions. An example is the shift...

Food Availability and Climate Change

The food availability dimension of food security encompasses issues of global and regional food supply, and asks the basic question can we physically produce enough food to feed our population There is a vast literature on past trends and future trajectories in the world's ability to feed itself which cannot be adequately summarized in the current chapter (Conway and Serageldin 1997 Dyson 1999), Nevertheless, any discussion of the effect of climate change on the global food supply must take into account current realities and trends in global and regional supplies of food. We therefore highlight three particularly important characteristics of the global food supply. The first is that on an average per capita basis, the world today produces more than enough food to meet caloric requirements, and that this success has been based mostly on yield gains over the last half century. Perhaps first popularized by Thomas Malthus in the early 1800s, the question of whether the world can produce...

You already mentioned natural disasters What is the role of serious natural disasters with huge damages in triggering

It is quite unfortunate, but if you look at investments in mitigation or adaption, you find that they always follow natural disasters. Even the implication of the USA in international negotiations was related to the drought in the central US in the 1980s. Disasters are striking events, everybody realizes his own vulnerability, this helps making decisions. But there are two problems and I will discuss the one related to adaptation first. money. But building an efficient protection system takes 10-15 years and after a few years you meet increase difficulties, such as budgetary constraints. And a dike can easily be postponed in case of budgetary problem. You think, that is fine because it is just for one year. But then it gets postponed forever. That is exactly how the protection system that was planned after the hurricane Betsy in 1965 never got finished. And this was one reason explaining the heavy consequences of hurricane Katrina in 2005. The second point is more related to climate...

Agricultural impacts of climate change

Given that crops and livestock thrive in a relatively narrow set of environmental parameters, it makes sense to explore how climate change will affect agricultural productivity. Factors considered include the impacts of rising temperatures, increased production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, water supply fluctuations, soil quality variations, sea-level increases, and the introduction of new pests, diseases, and weeds, which could hurt agricultural output. These Temperature increases will affect crop and livestock production in various ways. A warming climate will extend the frost-free growing season at higher latitudes. Regions that are too cold to support commercial agriculture in northern Canada, Alaska, Scandinavia, and Russia, may become viable agricultural areas if temperatures increase. On the other hand, temperature-sensitive crops may no longer be commercially viable in regions that become too hot or dry. Also, rising temperatures could increase the heat stress...

Toward Optimum Utilization Of Climate Information And Forecast Products

Anthropogenic climate change, climate variability, and environmental degradation issues are among the big challenges of the twenty-first century. Greater responsibility has been imposed on farmers for climate-related risk management, and they must increasingly rely on climate forecast information for operational and strategic decision making. Advance warning of hazards and extreme climate anomalies at different time scales is therefore extremely important for them. Such early warning information can also form a crucial component of national regional disaster preparedness systems, which will help to minimize loss of life and property, including damage to agricultural investments (Ogallo, Boulahya, and Keane, 2000). Apart from the traditional weather information, agricultural systems would benefit from the following, among many others.

Box 82 Gender and natural disasters

Men and women are affected differently in all phases of a disaster, from exposure to risk and risk perception to preparedness behaviour, warning communication and response physical, psychological, social and economic impacts emergency response and ultimately to recovery and reconstruction (Fothergill, 1998). Natural disasters have been shown to result in increased domestic violence against, and post-traumatic stress disorders in, women (Anderson and Manuel, 1994 Garrison et al., 1995 Wilson et al., 1998 Ariyabandu and Wickramasinghe, 2003 Galea et al., 2005). Women make an important contribution to disaster reduction, often informally through participating in disaster management and acting as agents of social change. Their resilience and their networks are critical in household and community recovery (Enarson and Morrow, 1998 Ariyabandu and Wickramasinghe, 2003). After the 1999 Orissa cyclone, most of the relief efforts were targeted at or through women, giving them control over...

Sectors that May be Affected by Climate Change

Coastal management It is expected that climate adaptation in connection with the coast and ports will be necessary as a consequence of increasing sea levels and more storms, if the current safety levels and operational conditions are to be upheld. Renewal, dismantlement or renovation of dykes or port installations may be necessary Moreover, ongoing adaptation of disaster and storm flooding contingency plans is needed as well as information on conditions that may affect planning of coastal construction projects in future risk areas 2. Construction Increased focus on the indoor climate will be necessary, in particular on temperature and humidity conditions. To support adaptation measures to reduce extreme indoor temperatures during heat waves, guidelines for new construction techniques may be needed. Moreover, a compulsory labelling scheme may be introduced for small individual cooling facilities that can be set up at short notice. Drainage systems for roads should be considered in view...

Conseqences of Climate Change for Industry

By the emissions discussed industry actively influences the climate change. On the other hand, industry itself is influenced passively by climate effects. One main factor could be the situation of infrastructure which may be influenced or even destroyed by weather events such as snow, floods, or low water levels in rivers, which make shipping of goods untenable. Low water supply or higher water temperatures make process cooling and environmental activities more difficult. Moreover, industrial activities would be affected through the impact of government policies pertaining to climate change, such as carbon taxes which increase the material and energy costs. They could also be affected through a changed consumer behavior. An example is clothing, the choice of which depends on the temperature, and more warm-weather clothing might be ordered in cold climates, and vica versa. Climatic impacts on natural resources may influence manufacturing that depends on that type of resource, e.g. food...

Modeling the earths climate

Today, several scientific endeavors are attempting to model the Earth's weather and climate for a variety of reasons, such as for farming, urban- ization, and emergency preparedness and for economic, scientific, political, and humanitarian reasons. GISS has taken a lead and become one of the premier groups involved in modeling climate in order to better understand it. One of the main goals of the researchers is to be able to anticipate the effect climate change will have on society and the environment. Although they are involved with several types of models, they are currently focusing most on global climate models (GCMs). These are large-scale models with the ability to simulate the entire Earth and all the forces that affect it, both human-induced and natural. For example, natural forces include volcanic eruptions, variations in insolation (incoming solar radiation), and changes in the Earth's orbital path. Human-induced forces include pollution (increasing greenhouse gases from...

Box 74 Vulnerabilities to extreme weather events in megadeltas in a context of multiple stresses the case of Hurricane

It is possible to say with a high level of confidence that sustainable development in some densely populated megadeltas of the world will be challenged by climate change, not only in developing countries but in developed countries also. The experience of the U.S. Gulf Coast with Hurricane Katrina in 2005 is a dramatic example of the impact of a tropical cyclone - of an intensity expected to become more common with climate change - on the demographic, social, and economic processes and stresses of a major city located in a megadelta. In late August 2005, Hurricane Katrina - which had been a Category 5 storm but weakened to Category 3 before landfall -moved onto the Louisiana and Mississippi coast with a storm surge, supplemented by waves, reaching up to 8.5 m above sea level along the southerly-facing shallow Mississippi Coast (see also Chapter 6, Box 6.4). In New Orleans, the surge reached around 5 m, overtopping and breaching sections of the city's 4.5 m defences, flooding 70 to 80...

Climate and Soil Water

Precipitation or water supply is fundamental to terrestrial ecosystem evaporation. In the boreal zone, it is relatively sparse. Precipitation cannot generally be exceeded by evaporation in the long term. Ground water collection areas are exceptional in that water TABLE 1 Latitudinal Transects of Climate Data from M ller (1982) for the Boreal Zone TABLE 1 Latitudinal Transects of Climate Data from M ller (1982) for the Boreal Zone Rainfall frequency can be important because surface drying during fine weather greatly reduces the ground evaporation rate, which can be a significant fraction of the total evaporation from boreal ecosystems with sparse vegetation (e.g., Kelliher et al., 1998). For the summer months of June-August, rainfall frequency may be considered a Poisson process with the probability of each event being independent (although, in a continental climate, terrestrial surface-energy partitioning may contribute to rainfall occurrence.) It is represented by a simple...

Using Traditional Methods And Indigenous Technologies For Coping With Climate Variability

In agrometeorology and management of meteorology related natural resources, many traditional methods and indigenous technologies are still in use or being revived for managing low external inputs sustainable agriculture (LEISA) under conditions of climate variability. This paper starts with the introduction of an end-to-end climate information build up and transfer system in agrometeorology, in which the use of such methods and technologies must be seen to operate. It then reviews the options that LEISA farmers have in risk management of agrometeorological and agro-climatological calamities. This is based on the role that the pertinent meteorological climatological parameters and phenomena play as limiting factors in agricultural production and the expectations on their variability. Subsequently, local case studies are given as examples of preparedness strategies to cope with i). variable water moisture flows, including mechanical impacts of rain and or hail, ii). variable...

Climate Change And

Funding in recent years and the major funding reductions since the major funding increases in the 1970s, which were motivated by the 1967 oil embargo. It should be recognized that, in the last few years, the United States has redirected some of its research resources to some key technologies, especially hydrogen fuel cells, IGCC, carbon capture and storage, and biomass-to-ethanol technologies. The United States has coordinated its efforts in this area through the Climate Change Technology Program, CCTP 24 . Within the constraint of current budget priorities, the CCTP has coordinated a diversified portfolio of advanced technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment projects, focusing on energy efficiency enhancements low-GHG-emission energy supply technologies carbon capture, storage, and sequestration methods and technologies to reduce emissions of non-CO2 gases. The key agency responsible for CCTP related research is the Department of Energy, with about 86 of fiscal...

Overview on Agriculture and Climate Interaction

The agricultural production system is strongly influenced by several climate factors. Therefore it passively suffers or benefits from climate change. On the other hand it actively influences climate change due to two separate aspects During most of its production steps greenhouse gases are emitted, which adversely influences the climate. However, agriculture is the producer of renewable crops which replace fossil fuels and supply industry with renewable raw material. This contributes to heavily reduced climate impacts mostly of energy and traffic sectors. To define the net effect of agriculture on climate factors, a complex analysis is necessary. As was mentioned, emissions by agriculture are the one side of the medal by which it has high climate impacts. On the other hand agriculture is highly sensitive to climate variability and weather extremes such as severe droughts, floods and storms, which are critical to farm productivity. Climate variability and change also modify the risks...

A portfolio of adaptation and mitigation measures can diminish the risks associated with climate change

Even the most stringent mitigation efforts cannot avoid further impacts of climate change in the next few decades, which makes adaptation essential, particularly in addressing near-term impacts. Unmitigated climate change would, in the long term, be likely to This suggests the value of a portfolio or mix of strategies that includes mitigation, adaptation, technological development (to enhance both adaptation and mitigation) and research (on climate science, impacts, adaptation and mitigation). Such portfolios could combine policies with incentive-based approaches and actions at all levels from the individual citizen through to national governments and international organisations 18.1,18.5 . These actions include technological, institutional and behavioural options, the introduction of economic and policy instruments to encourage the use of these options, and research and development to reduce uncertainty and to enhance the options' effectiveness and efficiency 18.4.1,18.4.2 . Many...

Box 32 IPCC Findings for Regional Climate Projections

Christensen and others, Regional Climate Projections, in Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis, edited by Susan Solomon and others (Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 847-940. Two important correlates of precipitation are annual runoff (surface water flow) and soil moisture. These parameters are critical to water supply for consumption and irrigation and to the ability of soil to support crop production and natural ecosystems. Soil moisture generally corresponds with precipitation, but declines in some areas where precipitation increases because warmer temperatures lead to greater evaporation. The biggest changes in soil moisture include a strong increase in a narrow band of equatorial Africa and a moderate increase in a band extending from northern and eastern Europe into Central Asia. Soil drying is more widespread soil moisture decreases by 10 percent or greater over much of the United States, Mexico and Central America, southern Europe and the Mediterranean...

Improved Methods for Conducting the Cadastre of Meliorative Condition in Irrigated Areas Subject to Climate Change

Abstract In 1982, the Ministry of melioration and water industry (now called the Ministry of agriculture and water industry) began conducting the cadastre of meliorative condition of irrigated areas and technical condition of hydrameliorative systems. This cadastre is still performed according to methods created during the former USSR. Today, these methods do not meet requirements of practice under conditions of increasing deficiency of water resources, their deterioration, and climate change. In this study, the acceptable depth to ground water (LGW) for different hydrogeologic and soil conditions is investigated. Methods for ensuring that a sufficient water supply exists for irrigated areas are developed based on irrigation and climatic factors and degree of area drainage. In the assessment of meliorative condition indicators, we suggest that investigators analyze the evolution over the most recent 3-5 years taking into account their degree of stability during and crop capacity. To...

Box 31 Costs of climate change in Okanagan Canada

The Okanagan region in British Columbia, Canada, is a semi-arid watershed of 8,200 km2 area. The region's water resources will be unable to support an increase in demand due to projected climate change and population growth, so a broad portfolio of adaptive measures will be needed (Cohen and Neale, 2006 Cohen et al., 2006). Irrigation accounts for 78 of the total basin licensed water allocation. Figure 3.7 illustrates, from a suite of six GCM scenarios, the worst-case and least-impact scenario changes in annual water supply and crop water demand for Trout Creek compared with a drought supply threshold of 30 million m3 yr (36 of average annual present-day flow) and observed maximum demand of 10 million m3 yr (Neilsen et al., 2004). For flows below the drought threshold, local water authorities currently restrict water use. High-risk outcomes are defined as years in which water supply is below the drought threshold and water demand above the demand threshold. For all six scenarios,...

Other Trends In Forest With Climate

There are also trends in the appearance of trees along rainfall gradients. Generally, individual leaf sizes of trees get smaller as you move from a very moist tropical climate (e.g., the central Amazon Basin) to a rather drier hotter climate (e.g., the southern Amazon Basin), even if it is still covered in forest. It has been suggested that this is because drier climates can get hotter (see Chapters 5 and 6 for the reasons for this) and a big leaf cannot loose heat as well as a small one when it is heated under the sun. And being hotter, it looses water by evaporation quicker so the tree is more likely to suffer drought, if water is in short supply. So, perhaps a plant that has small leaves looses heat faster so that it won't loose water so fast Perhaps this is a good reason to have small leaves, but it begs the converse question of why it is any advantage for a tree in a moist climate to have big leaves. Are they in some sense cheaper to make and maintain, perhaps So far, no clear...

Impacts of climate change and variability on water resource management

Perhaps the most important effect of climate change is the impact that it has on river discharge. Climate change affects total annual stream flow, as well as seasonal dynamics (e.g. due to changes in snowmelt period). In general, the impacts are relatively simple higher rainfall will result in higher stream flow and reduced rainfall will decrease the stream flow. However the correlation between changes in stream flow and rainfall are very different in different climates. Especially in semi-arid regions, river flows are sensitive to changes in rainfall. Generally, in semi-arid regions only a small portion of the rainfall results in runoff and most rainfall will evaporate or infiltrate into the soil. Due to the very small difference between rainfall and evaporation in these dry regions, a small reduction in rainfall can cause rivers to dry up. For example, in Africa, in regions with an annual rainfall of less than 500mm, a 10 per cent reduction in precipitation causes a 50 per cent...

The doomsday device

Strangelove. It was made back in 1964, when the biggest global threat was nuclear Armageddon. Directed by Stanley Kubrick, and starring Peter Sellers as Dr. Strangelove, a wheelchair-bound caricature of Henry Kissinger, the film was a satire of the military strategy known as Mutual Assured Destruction or MAD, for short. The plot involved the Soviet Union's building the ultimate defense, a doomsday device in the remote wastes of Siberia. If Russia were attacked, the device would shroud the world in a radioactive cloud and destroy all human and animal life on earth. Unfortunately, the Soviet generals forgot to tell the Americans about this, and, needless to say, Dr. Strangelove and the American military attacked. The film ends with a deranged U.S. officer (played by Slim Pickens) sitting astride a nuclear bomb as it is released into the sky above Siberia. The end of the world is nigh, as the credits roll. Now our most feared global Armageddon is climate...

Climate Forcing

Climate forcing occurs when the global energy balance of the Earth is changed. There are a number of mechanisms that can force climate change. The Earth's global climate is a dynamic system that is in equilibrium. On a planetary scale, it is steered by the amount of energy available in the system for use by its various ecosystems. If the amount of energy stored or received in the climate system changes, then climate changes occur as well. The global climate is affected by the Sun, which provides much of the energy in the global energy balance. If the energy from the Sun increases or decreases, climatic changes will likely occur. On the other hand, if the amount of energy kept by the Earth from sunlight increases, then climate changes will also occur. The flows of energy occurring in the planetary climate system are important to the global climate system. The global climate system includes the heated core of the Earth and the parts of the Earth that receive the Sun's energy. The parts...

Preparedness

Preparedness FOR global warming and climate change requires multilevel planning, at the international, national, local, and individual levels to deal with the direct effects of climate changes in temperature, precipitation, wind, storm patterns, sealevel, as well as the indirect strain on world resources leading to migration, famine, and conflicts. While mitigation strategies like reducing greenhouse gas emissions are a start, they do not take precedence over readiness to respond to natural disaster emergencies associated with the impact of climate change (intense storms, flooding, wildfires, public health, or the necessity to deal with future environmental pressures, the decreasing longevity of infrastructure with roads, bridges, waterworks, buildings, and facilities requiring earlier replacement, repair or modifications to remain safe for use. Adaptive measures in the form of physiological, social, and cultural measures will allow people to live throughout the world. In order to...

Risk Management in Agrometeorology

Degrading environmental conditions, when compounded by severe climatic events such as recurrent droughts, will cause more serious negative effects, making the drylands increasingly vulnerable, and furthermore desertification. In coping with risks systematically, especially when main risks are compounded with other factors, a reliable risk management system is essential to prevent or mitigated potential risks and uncertainties through appropriate preparedness and response strategies, which will be also a major challenge in decision making in farm managements. Risk management system in agricultural meteorology can comprise of early warning systems provided by government authorities and agricultural management systems operated at farmer's site tte former will be mainly responsible for issuing warnings and advisories from authorities, while the latter for preparedness and response measures being made by farmers. It also needs proper communication mechanisms between two systems to share...

Drought Types and Vulnerability

Hydrological drought is even further removed from the deficiency of precipitation since it is normally defined in terms of the departure of surface and subsurface water supplies from some average condition at various points in time. Like agricultural drought, there is not a direct relationship between precipitation amounts and the status of surface and subsurface water supplies in lakes, reservoirs, aquifers, and streams because these components of the hydrological system are used for multiple and competing purposes (e.g., irrigation, recreation, tourism, flood control, hydroelectric power production, domestic water supply, protection of endangered species, and environmental and ecosystem preservation), ttere is also considerable time lag between departures of precipitation and the point at which these deficiencies become evident in the components of the hydrologic system. Recovery of these components is also slow because of long recharge periods for surface and subsurface water...

The basis of drought contingency planning

Tracking Tracing

Policy makers, analysts, and farmers in regions prone to drought requiring access to the most recent climate, drought status, and crop prospects are able to use information on specialised drought exceptional circumstance information on sites such as the Australian National Agricultural Monitoring System (NAMS) (http www.nams.gov.au). However, major stakeholder groups involved in preparedness planning (policy makers, regulators and large agribusinesses, including financial institutions) and those involved directly in crop production (farmers, farm managers, rural businesses and consultants) may require widely varying different information. ttis means that information sources need to be continually re-evaluated and assessed as to their appropriateness in provision of most appropriate information for key users. Tactical as well as strategic preparedness decisions need to be made continuously and some climate forecast-related information outputs might onlybe relevant for some of these...

Wet Ever Green Forest In Ghana

Guinea Upper Lower

Climate The climate in Upper Guinea is determined by the seasonal movement of the sun, the interplay between maritime and continental winds, and the position of the coastline. When the sun is overhead the irradiance leads to Figure 1.5 Three different forest types in Ghana (A) Moist Evergreen forest in Subri Forest Reserve. The big tree is Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae). (B) Moist Semi-deciduous forest on the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The big tree is Antiaris toxicaria (Moraceae). (C) Southeast Outlier dry forest on the Shai Hills Game Production Reserve. This dry forest type receives less than 1000 mm rainfall per year, is short statured (c.10 m) and contains only few species. Figure 1.5 Three different forest types in Ghana (A) Moist Evergreen forest in Subri Forest Reserve. The big tree is Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae). (B) Moist Semi-deciduous forest on the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The big tree is Antiaris...

Refugees Environmental

IN THE LAST 10 years, the issue of environmental refugees has emerged as a pressing issue. Most refugees are fleeing from natural disasters such as the Asian tsunami in 2004, or as a result of the impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise. As the executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) noted in 1989, as There are a number of reasons to become an environmental refugee. First, it may happen as a result of a natural disaster. Natural disasters include floods, cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, or any other major event that will make the lived environment temporarily or permanently inhabitable. One example is the eruptions of the Soufriere Hills Volcano on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat in 1995-98. As a result of these eruptions, 7,000 residents were forced to evacuate. Second, individuals or whole groups of people might become environmental refugees due to the appropriation of habitat or land by external parties, hence dispossessing and...

Florida International university

One of the first major storms to be recorded and measured in Florida was the Great Miami Hurricane, which swept over the center of the city in September 1926, as a Category 4 storm on the Saffir-Simp-son scale, damaging every building in the downtown area and causing many deaths. On August 24, 1992, hurricane Andrew powered across the southern tip of mainland Florida as a Category 4 storm with even stronger winds gusts, and left behind over 20 billion in wind and water damage. On August 25, 2005, hurricane Katrina passed over Miami as a Category 1 storm before it gathered strength and brought devastation to New Orleans. As part of an effort to protect the millions of dollars invested in research programs at universities, the federal government set up the Disaster Resistant University (DRU) program. In 2007, FIU became the first public university in Florida to become DRU-certified. Under this program, the Federal Emergency Management Agency has responsibility for reviewing and...

Arctic And SuBarctic IssuES

To strengthen the global response, CIEL's Climate Change Program focuses on impacts to people and ecosystems of the Arctic and subarctic. The program works to protect the Earth's climate system through promotion of human rights, forest conservation, and biodiversity protection. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the destructive effects of climate change will not only affect the environment, but also Arctic peoples. Average annual temperatures in the Arctic have increased by approximately double the increase in global average temperatures. In Shishmaref, Alaska, a small Inuit village in the Chukchi Sea, seven houses have had to be relocated, three have fallen into the sea, and engineers predict that the entire village of 600 houses could disappear into the sea within the next few decades. Shishmaref's airport runway has almost been met by rising seawater, and its fuel tank farm, which seven years ago was 300 ft. (92 m.) from the edge of a seaside bluff, is now...

Strategiesto Improvethe Agrometeorological Services to Cope with Risks and Uncertainties

Sivakumar et al. (1998 and 2000) emphasized that the agrometeorological information plays a valuable part not only in making daily and seasonal farm management decisions but also in the management of disasters, risks, and uncertainties. Earlier, Das (1999) expressed that it may not be possible to prevent the occurrence of natural disasters, but agreed with the observations of Sivakumar et al. (2004) that the tte purpose of agroclimatic characterization is to identify those aspects of climate which distinguish a region from the nearby regions and to draw inferences on the influence of climatic factors on crop production, tte hypothesis is that under given climatic conditions there are similarities in crop growth and development, there by the yield in that homogenous region. According to Reddy (2002), four decades ago, Chang observed that the failures or disappointing results of agricultural development projects in various parts of the world including projects to produce pineapples in...

What Leisa Farmers do and may do

Climate variability and related disasters can be mitigated by temporary or permanent protective measures or by avoidance strategies that try to escape the peak values or their consequences. These are all aspects of preparedness strategies. We have indicated above that i. heavy moisture flows or the lack of water, ii. changing heat flows and related temperatures, iii. cropping seasons' climate distributions are the meteorological climatological factors we should particularly deal with in this paper on traditional knowledge and indigenous technologies that mitigate consequences of climate variability in LEISA farming systems. Traditional methods and farmer innovations of using occult precipitation under very dry conditions have been dealt with by Acosta Baladon (1995). Further evidence that many of the current traditional adaptation strategies with agrometeorological components also hold for the situations of increasing climate variability is the following quotation from Lin Erda in...

Geospatial Technology

Geospatial technology includes three different technologies that are all related to mapping features on the surface of the Earth for environmental management. They are geographical information systems (GIS), global-positioning systems (GPS), and remote sensing (RS). This is also synonymous with spatial information technology. Together, the three components of geospatial technology can track, map, analyze, and disseminate environmental management information. RS technology helps survey the entire Earth with unprecedented regularity, thus any environmental change can be noticed. Global atmospheric conditions are monitored on an hourly basis by weather satellites. RS imagery provides information on drought, vegetation, flood damage, forest fires, deforestation, and other natural disasters. GIS provides the tools to accurately map this information in both global and local perspectives. GPS technology accurately tracks the position of environmental fallout. Geospatial information...

Forecasting for a Purpose Contextualised Forecasting

As this workshop showed, climate forecasting and its applications have matured considerably over the last few decades. There is excitement about the potential benefits our societies might reap from further research and development. Hence, this paper is titled 'Seasonal and inter-annual climate forecasting The new tool for increasing preparedness to climate variability and change in agricultural planning and operations'. We asked ourselves how 'new' are climate applications To answer this question, we will quote from one of the most significant books in Brazilian literature, 'Os Sertoes', first published by Euclides da Cunha in 1902. Our quotations are taken from the English translation (Rebellion in the Backlands) published by University of Chicago Press, 1995 edition 3.1. CLIMATE VARIES AT A RANGE OF SCALES In addition to ENSO and an inherently unpredictable chaotic component there are a range of other climate phenomena varying at a wide range of time scales that determine what...

Informal risk management mechanisms

Tte production strategy selected becomes an important means of mitigating the risk of crop failure. Traditional cropping systems in many places rely on crop and plot diversification. Crop diversification and intercropping systems signify common strategies of reducing the risk of crop failure due to adverse weather events, crop pests, or insect attacks. Morduch (1995) presents evidence that households whose consumption levels are close to subsistence (and which are therefore highly vulnerable to income shocks) devote a larger share of land to safer, traditional varieties such as rice and castor than to riskier, high-yielding varieties. Morduch also finds that near-subsistence households diversify their plots spatially to reduce the impact of weather shocks that vary by location. Apart from altering agricultural production strategies, households also smooth income by diversifying income sources, thus minimizing the effect of a negative shock to any one of them. According to Walker and...

CGIAR Inter Center Initiatives

VASAT aims to develop climate literacy and drought preparedness among rural communities, development workers, service providers, policy makers, and other strategic sectors through the integrated use of information and communication technology (ICT), open distance learning, and other communication media. It will also communicate information on climatic trends like monsoon behavior and methods of drought management for community mobilization and disaster preparedness.

COF and Associated Institutional Synergies

COF is a coordinated and collaborative effort of NOAA and a range of partners, such as the USAID-OFDA, the World Bank, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), etc., designed to give decision-makers in climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture, water resources, guidance on the status of the approaching rainfall season. The use of this guidance would help to reduce the impacts of climate risks. The COF processes have now evolved into a well-defined international procedure for the annual preparation, dissemination, and verification of research based seasonal rainfall forecasts for developing regions such as Africa. Decision-makers in these regions have used the forecasts in the various climate sensitive sectors for strategic management decision, such as decisions on type of farm management practices based on a given seasonal forecast. The COFs have improved institutional capacities, promoted regional cooperation and integration, especially among the National Meteorological and...

National center for Atmospheric Research NcAR

BASED IN boulder, Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) provides the university community with the tools, facilities, and support required to perform innovate research. Through NCAR, scientists have access to high-performance computational and observational facilities, such as supercomputers, aircraft, and radar. These resources can be used to improve human understanding of atmospheric and Earth system processes. NCAR and university scientists collaborate on issues such as atmospheric chemistry, climate, cloud physics and storms, weather hazards to aviation, and interactions between the Sun and Earth. In all of these areas, scientists are looking closely at the role of humans in both creating climate change and responding to severe weather occurrences. The core research of NCAR is based on the assumption that human activities are causing large-scale changes in the Earth system. The advances in scientific understanding, Earth system modeling, and computational...

University of Birmingham

THE University OF Birmingham is an English university in the city of Birmingham. Founded in 1900 as a successor to Mason Science College, with origins dating back to the 1825 Birmingham Medical School, the University of Birmingham was arguably the first so-called red brick university. It currently has over 18,000 undergraduate and over 11,000 postgraduate students. The University of Birmingham has an international reputation for excellence in research and teaching in environmental science, engineering, and policy. There are currently around 150 academic staff actively investigating scientific, technical, and socioeconomic aspects across a broad range of environmental disciplines, including the management of freshwater resources, environmental restoration, sustainable use of natural materials, pollution control, waste management, management of natural hazards, and human health. ciplinary research within the university. The Institute for Energy Research and Policy, founded in 2005,...

World Meteorological organization

The world Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). It is the UN voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces, and the resulting distribution of water resources. The WMO has a membership of 188 member states and territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization, which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations in 1951 for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology, and related geophysical sciences. It is based in Geneva, Switzerland. The WMO seeks to provide the framework for an international cooperation regarding climate matters. The organization points out that weather, climate, and the water cycle know no national boundaries, so international cooperation at a global scale is essential for the development of meteorology and operational hydrology. Since its establishment, the...

An Inconvenient Truth

ARGUABLY THE MOST famous documentary of the early 21st century about the issues of global warming and climate change, An Inconvenient Truth was directed by Davis Guggenheim, with former U.S. Vice President Albert A. Gore, Jr., as narrator and creator. Gore steals the show, and very few people remember The first hour shows Gore explaining how the climate went out of control in just a few years. Graphs, photographs, data, short films, and anecdotes are shown. From the beginning, the film mentions a national disaster from 2005, Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, as a patent case of a tragedy that was not considered very important by the U.S. Government. At some point in the argument, these terrible events in New Orleans are presented as the direct consequence of the global warming. It also explains that the administration in Washington, D.C., does not seem to be fully aware of the danger of global warming to U.S citizens. who in 1957-58 was already doing research and teaching about...

Agricultural Drought Risk Management Understanding the Hazard and Societal Vulnerability

Many people consider drought to be largely a natural or physical event. Although all types of drought originate from a deficiency of precipitation, it has both a natural and social component, tte risk associated with drought for any region is a product of both the region's exposure to the event (i.e., probability of occurrence at various severity levels) and the vulnerability of society to the event, tte natural event (i.e., meteorological drought or the drought hazard) is a result of the occurrence of persistent large-scale disruptions in the global circulation pattern of the atmosphere. Exposure to drought varies spatially and there is little, if anything, that we can do to alter drought occurrence. Vulnerability, on the other hand, is determined by social factors such as population changes, population shifts (regional and rural to urban), demographic characteristics, land use, environmental degradation, environmental awareness, water use trends, technology, policy, and social...

Government And Markets

Corporations can do a great many things better than they have, and markets can be harnessed to better purposes than they have served in the past. Some major corporations such as Wal-Mart are greening their operations and supply chains. Others have joined together in the U.S. Climate Action Partnership to support climate legislation. Some survivors in the financial management community are developing instruments and investment A great deal, accordingly, depends on how and how well we repair and enhance the capacity of government to do what only governments can do. The market is the arena in which we say I and mine and in which we act mostly for near-term advantage. Government is one in which we come together to say we and ours, in order to protect and enhance our common interests immediately and over the long term. Markets seldom act for the enduring public good governments can and must. But a great deal of our commonwealth, common property, and capacity to act collectively has been...

MODIS Rapid Response Fire Detections for 2005

FDRS tools for early warning are highly adaptable and have demonstrated their application to a wide range of users, from independent remote field stations (for making local fire suppression and preparedness decisions) to global and regional fire information centres (for large-scale decision making, such as multi-national resource sharing), ttere are numerous examples of current operational systems utilizing CIS technology and computer modelling of landscape level fire danger, which process and transfer early warning information very quickly via the World Wide Web. Long-term knowledge of conditions during wildfires and the utility of fire danger forecasts are important to the immediate development of early warning systems and to undertake the planning and preparation associated with the impacts of climate change. Understanding the characteristics of extreme wild fire events is a paramount consideration. A long-term global dataset of fire danger metrics is also required to meet these...

Tropical storms tornadoes and strong winds

In development planning in areas where wind catastrophes are limited, the wind climate can be most successfully used as a source of energy (e.g. Wisse and Stigter 2007). Agroforestry solutions will often do in wind protection under such conditions (Stigter et al. 2002). But south, southeast and east Asia are among the areas susceptible to hurricanes and typhoons, again with track areas that have to be used for agricultural production. Like floods they are among the highest relative intensities of natural disasters, and wind calamities are often occurring in combination with floods (Viet 2002). However, floods are getting much more attention than winds in planning for coping with damage due to cyclones, due to higher vulnerability to floods in most instances, with forests as an exception (Viet 2002). ttis is in line with little attention for damage to buildings in wind disasters in Africa (e.g. Wisse and Stigter 2007), but Dhameja gives several pages in Sahni and Ariyaban-du (2003) of...

Levels and Types of Adaptation

Several typologies of adaptation to natural hazards, climate change and variability have been developed. (Burton et al., 1993 Smit et al., 2000 Smit and Pilifosova, 2001). Adaptation in a narrow sense refers only to those measures that are taken Most of the literature on climate change and agriculture deals with adaptation at the local level. Many lists have been published showing the wide range of adaptation options theoretically available. Numerous examples may be found in the first national communications submitted by developing country governments under the UNFCCC. Typically these include changes in seasonality of production dates of sowing choice of crop varieties or species development of new varieties including GMOs improved water supply and irrigation systems including efficiency in use tillage practices other inputs and management adjustments and improved short-term weather and seasonal climate forecasting. As noted above efforts are now being made to strengthen the role of...

Early warning systems for assessing agrometeorological risks

Use of improved climate and weather information and forecasts along with efficient early warning systems would contribute to the preparedness for extreme weather events. New technologies have brought about an accelerated increase in our knowledge of the climate system. Today the accuracy of forecasts of large-scale weather patterns for seven days in advance is the same as those for two days in advance only 25 years ago. tte accuracy of tropical cyclone track forecasts and the timeliness of warnings have been steadily improving in the past few years. When properly communicated and absorbed, early warnings may empower farmers and communities threatened by natural hazards to prepare themselves in sufficient time and in an appropriate manner so as to minimize the risk of the impending hazard. Technologically oriented early warning, integrated with field data on crop and livestock conditions, price movements, human welfare etc. is for example crucial for tracking drought, its onset, its...

Decision Support Toolsfor Drought Risk Management

Tte mission of the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln is to lessen societal vulnerability to drought through the application of appropriate risk management techniques, including development of preparedness plans and improved drought monitoring and early warning systems and the adoption of appropriate drought mitigation measures, tte NDMC was formed in 1995, and it has been working with local, state, and national government in the United States foreign governments international organizations and others to build awareness of drought and to implement strategies to lessen risk, tte NDMC's mission is much broader than just the agricultural sector. Agriculture is certainly one of the most drought-affected sectors, and it is one in which substantial reductions in vulnerability can be achieved through changes in management. However, in many cases, this requires access to better and more timely information. For this reason, the NDMC is focusing...

Remote sensing for spatial information

To study certain impacts of meteorological hazards on agriculture and forestry and improve our understanding of certain preparedness issues, use of remote sensing data is a precious tool in obtaining spatial information on areas of interest where ground measurements are difficult. Moreover, additional information on the land may be essential in establishing its sensitivity to water excess or deficit, water and wind erosion, and the risks of soil degradation. In recent years, many investigations have demonstrated the capability of satellite-borne sensors to provide information on various crop indicators, which help to monitor and identify crop stress more effectively. For example during drought conditions, physiological changes within vegetation may become apparent, tte National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) in India is using a vegetation index to determine vigor of vegetation. Condition of the crop is affected by factors such as supply of water and nutrients, insect pest attack,...

Complying with conditions and needs

Tte three remaining issues in Aceh Sumatra are all related to policy matters. Van Noordwijk et al. (2005) distinguish (a) environmental issues, (b) infrastruc-tural and market issues and (c) issues related to the lack of base line data and the support to collect and collate these. Under (a) they argue for example that (a physical system for) preventing another tsunami to cause the same amount of damage has probably been too high on the public list, ttis is comparable to our pleas for having environmental monitoring, early warning, and other predictions of disasters in (agro)meteorology, always directly related to relatively easy and economically sound preparedness and mitigation possibilities within the livelihood of people (e.g. Stigter et al. 2003). ttis confusion is also well illustrated in a recent paper by Verdin et al. (2005). ttey believe that creative coping strategies to manage climate change and increased climate variability requires fundamental technical capacities first,...

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