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EDC Prepping Program

EDC Prepping Program is a guide that had been created to help the users with preparing for any emergency. It is packed with various methods that will help them to prepare for any emergency. With it, the users will learn how to prepare for each and every one of the 41 everyday emergencies including rape, choking to car crashes, riots, fainting to surviving a burning building. The methods are easy to learn and easy to understand that the users will not need to spend a lot of days with it. It has the effect that makes it looks as if the users have learnt all the methods for so long.It comes with various bonuses. Some of these bonuses are the Ebooks; 'Simple Self-Defense', The Gun Factor, Prep Under the Radar, Getting Home When Shtfit is a digital product that comes with both EBook and Videos.It is different for everyone. Some people only want a simple means of getting to that picnic. While others want to get prepared for a rainy day. Everyone has their own reasons and this guide addresses them all.When you use this product, you will become a subject matter expert on dealing with an emergency in days not months. Read more...

EDC Prepping Program Summary


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Author: Dan Sullivan
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Emergency Planning and Community Rightto Know

EPCRA22 is intended to help communities prepare to respond in the event of a chemical emergency, and to increase the public's knowledge of the presence and threat of hazardous chemicals. To this end, EPCRA requires the establishment of state and local committees to prepare communities for potential chemical emergencies. The focus of the preparation is a community emergency response plan that must

Climate Change and Natural Disasters

Development of economic and insured losses in India from Natural Disasters between 1980 and 2005 (Datafrom Munich Re NatCatSERVICE) Fig. 21.4. Development of economic and insured losses in India from Natural Disasters between 1980 and 2005 (Datafrom Munich Re NatCatSERVICE)

Preparing and Protecting American Families from the Onslaught of Catastrophe

ProtectingAmerica.org is committed to finding better ways to prepare for and protect American families from the devastation caused by natural catastrophes. I co-chair the organization with James Lee Witt, the former director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and our coalition members include the American Red Cross, other first responder groups, emergency management officials, insurers, municipalities, small businesses, Fortune 100 companies and private citizens. The membership is broad and diverse and includes members from virtually every state in the nation. ProtectingAmerica.org was formed to raise the national awareness about the important responsibility we all have to prepare and protect consumers, families, businesses and communities from natural disasters. We are building a campaign to create a comprehensive, national catastrophe management solution that protects homes and property at a lower cost, improves preparedness and reduces the financial burden on consumers and...

Natural Disastersand Losses

Munich Re has one of the world's largest global databases on natural catastrophes, the Munich Re NatCatSERVICE. Currently, it contains entries for more than 23,000 individual natural events which have caused human suffering and or property losses. Figure 21.1 shows the development in the number of great natural disasters (causing billion dollar losses and or thousands of fatalities) since 1950, broken down into the different perils floods, windstorms, geophysical disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions) and other weather-related events (heatwaves, forest fires, droughts), tte figure clearly shows a steep increase in the number of such events. While in the 1950s there were about two of them per year, the expected value has now risen to about seven. Most of the trend is driven by weather-related disasters, whereas there has been only a small trend upwards as far as geophysical events are concerned. Fig. 21.1. Development of the number of Great Natural Disasters between 1950...

You already mentioned natural disasters What is the role of serious natural disasters with huge damages in triggering

It is quite unfortunate, but if you look at investments in mitigation or adaption, you find that they always follow natural disasters. Even the implication of the USA in international negotiations was related to the drought in the central US in the 1980s. Disasters are striking events, everybody realizes his own vulnerability, this helps making decisions. But there are two problems and I will discuss the one related to adaptation first. The second point is more related to climate change impacts and the need to mitigation. If natural hazards change everywhere on the planet in response to climate change, you can basically think of two scenarios. One scenario is the most optimistic we anticipate the changes in climate and hazards, and we change the way we manage risks to limit disasters. The second scenario, the worse one, is that we do not anticipate but act only after disasters. In that scenario we would need one disaster in every location to prompt action, just to help people realize...

Box 82 Gender and natural disasters

Men and women are affected differently in all phases of a disaster, from exposure to risk and risk perception to preparedness behaviour, warning communication and response physical, psychological, social and economic impacts emergency response and ultimately to recovery and reconstruction (Fothergill, 1998). Natural disasters have been shown to result in increased domestic violence against, and post-traumatic stress disorders in, women (Anderson and Manuel, 1994 Garrison et al., 1995 Wilson et al., 1998 Ariyabandu and Wickramasinghe, 2003 Galea et al., 2005). Women make an important contribution to disaster reduction, often informally through participating in disaster management and acting as agents of social change. Their resilience and their networks are critical in household and community recovery (Enarson and Morrow, 1998 Ariyabandu and Wickramasinghe, 2003). After the 1999 Orissa cyclone, most of the relief efforts were targeted at or through women, giving them control over...

The doomsday device

Strangelove. It was made back in 1964, when the biggest global threat was nuclear Armageddon. Directed by Stanley Kubrick, and starring Peter Sellers as Dr. Strangelove, a wheelchair-bound caricature of Henry Kissinger, the film was a satire of the military strategy known as Mutual Assured Destruction or MAD, for short. The plot involved the Soviet Union's building the ultimate defense, a doomsday device in the remote wastes of Siberia. If Russia were attacked, the device would shroud the world in a radioactive cloud and destroy all human and animal life on earth. Unfortunately, the Soviet generals forgot to tell the Americans about this, and, needless to say, Dr. Strangelove and the American military attacked. The film ends with a deranged U.S. officer (played by Slim Pickens) sitting astride a nuclear bomb as it is released into the sky above Siberia. The end of the world is nigh, as the credits roll. Now our most feared global Armageddon is climate...

Slow Going For A Few Million Years

With larger brains, these beings gradually became more adept at a range of survival skills. They could begin to draw on stored knowledge of how the game had behaved in previous years and thereby anticipate the same behavior the following year and in the future. Their improving communication skills would also have made possible increasingly clever and complex group hunting strategies. And they could use stones as crude missiles to bring down small game. These people also managed to spread out of Africa and across southern Asia. Yet, considering that 2 million years had elapsed since our genus first appeared, not much progress had been made toward modernity. Humans were still in the Stone Age, still living a hunter-gatherer life, and still making crude (but now slightly more sophisticated) stone tools.

Do bay of bengal cyclones have to be so deadly

Of farmlands typical of the midwestern United States. Bangladesh's per capita income is only 200, whereas Myanmar's is 1,900. The delta regions of Bangladesh and Myanmar are the respective country's most fertile. Farmers can expect to yield three rice crops per year, making them attractive place to live despite the risk of storm surges. With the continued population explosion in coastal regions of the Bay of Bengal and the paucity of fertile soils in higher grounds, the delta regions continue to be farmed by millions and continue to be hit by tropical cyclones like the 1970, 1990, 2007, and 2008 disasters. The lower death toll in the 2007 category 5 cyclone in Bangladesh compared with similar earlier storms demonstrates that investment in better warning systems and planned evacuations can save tens to hundreds of thousands of lives. The government of Myanmar has not opened itself to international aid, advice on emergency planning, and better protection of its population.

The Megafauna Extinction

The megafauna mass extinction of the late Quaternary is now generally acknowledged by paleontologists and physical anthropologists to have occurred largely without the impact of global catastrophes such as sudden climatic change.53 In most cases, the megafauna extinctions began shortly after the first arrival of prehistoric humans. If we compare the number of genera of large mammals lost on the various continents, we find that Australia lost 94 per cent, North America 73 per cent, Europe 29 per cent, and Africa south of the Sahara 5 per cent.54 The first humans encountered animals that had evolved in the absence of human predators, and the animals were probably easily vanquished. Therefore, the most plausible explanation is that these extinctions were caused over the course of centuries and millennia by over-exploitation of relatively few, but growing numbers of big game hunters. Let us examine these extinctions in several geographical regions.

Ecocide And Modern Warfare

As used in this study, ecocide refers to certain acts that intend to disrupt or destroy species development and an entire ecosystem. Acts of war associated with ecocide include the use of weapons of mass destruction, whether nuclear, biological, or chemical, and attempts to provoke natural disasters such as volcanoes, earthquakes, or floods. In addition, ecocidal acts of warfare include the military use of defoliants, the use of explosives to impair soil quality and to enhance the prospect of disease the bulldozing of forest or croplands for military purposes attempts to modify weather or climate and the forcible and permanent removal of humans or animals from their places of habitation in the pursuit of military or other objectives.

Protection Motivation Theory An Organizing Framework

Protection Motivation Theory

Variables pertaining to sources of information, cognition, and decision-making lend themselves well to organizing the research in the natural hazards and societal impacts literature. In addition to health-related behaviours, PMT is also well-suited to model adaptive behaviour for weather and climate events (Grothmann and Patt 2005 Grothmann and Reusswig 2006 Prentice-Dunn, personal communication). Two meta-analyses of studies that employed PMT have been largely supportive of the model (Floyd et al. 2000 Milne et al. 2000). In addition, PMT has been evaluated favorably alongside other health behaviour models (Weinstein 1993).

Summary of Key Federal Environmental Statutes Enacted Since 19701

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA, also known as Title III of SARA) was also enacted in 1986. The enactment of EPCRA stems directly from an incident involving the chemical release of methyl isocyanate from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, in 1984 that killed thousands of nearby residents and the release of methylene chloride and aldicarb from a chemical plant in Institute, West Virginia, in 1985. EPCRA mandates that states and local communities prepare for chemical emergencies, requires facilities to notify their states and communities of the presence of an extremely hazardous substance and to report spills or releases of such substances immediately, and requires facilities to report annually on the amounts of certain hazardous chemicals produced, used, and stored within the facility if that amount exceeds a specified amount.

Integration and Adaptation Definition

Clearly the universality of homeostasis, and the ubiquitous nature of thermoregulation, does not sit well with the soft determinism semantics or concepts of either mainstream IPCC (2001) or its progenitor the Chicago school of Natural Hazards (as in Burton et al.1978). Marginalization of the significance of active biological impact -adaptation processes, can be seen in the seminal contribution by Bob Kates (1985) This surprising anachronism probably stems from the determinist-free will schism within Geography and from Natural Hazards work which had focused on differentiating cultural attitudes and perceptions. According to Burton et al. (1978) the process of biological adaptation is generally slow it cannot play a significant role in the short term responses to natural hazards (p. 36), but biological adaptations may also involve numerous mechanisms for temporary physiological responses in the face of hazards (p. 39). Seemingly over time human biological processes have atrophied to...

Impacts Of Droughts In South Africa

Drought impacts, however, are not the result only of insufficient rainfall or searing temperature. In most cases, drought impacts are the outcome of the interaction of a number of social and other human factors that can heighten the vulnerability of communities and various exposure units (e.g., vegetation) and reduce resilience of society and ecosystems to the natural hazard (Dilley, 2000 Vogel et al, 2000). As a result of these components of drought, a number of impacts are recorded.

Shaanxi China January 23 1556

Time tends to make people forget about risks associated with natural hazards. For events that occur only every couple of hundred years, several generations may pass between catastrophic events, and each generation remembers less about the risks than the previous generation. This character of human nature was unfortunately illustrated by another earthquake in central China, nearly 400 years later. In 1920, a large earthquake in Haiyuan, in the Ningxia Authority of northern Shaanxi Province, caused about 675 major landslides in deposits of loess, killing another 100,000-200,000 people. Further south in 2008, the May 12 magnitude 7.9 earthquake in Sichuan Province similarly initiated massive landslides that killed an estimated 87,587 people.

Examples of landslide disasters

Mass wasting is one of the most costly of natural hazards, with the slow downslope creep of material causing billions of dollars in damage to properties every year in the United States. Earth movements do not kill many people in most years, but occasionally massive landslides take thousands or even hundreds of thousands of lives. Mass wasting is becoming more of a hazard in the United States as people move in great numbers from the plains into mountainous areas as population increases. This trend is expected to continue in the future, and more mass-wasting events like those described in this chapter may be expected every year. Good engineering practices and understanding of the driving forces of mass wasting will hopefully prevent many mass-wasting events, but it will be virtually impossible to stop the costly gradual downslope creep of material, especially in areas with freeze thaw cycles.

Intervention Measures and Public Outreach

The intensity of intervention activities varies widely from community to community, region to region, and country to country. Many areas recognize that heat is possibly the major weather-related health issue in their jurisdiction, and these areas tend to have the most elaborate intervention systems. The development of HHWWS in many regions has enhanced awareness and stakeholder collaboration one good example is Seattle, USA, where prior to the establishment of a HHWWS in 2005, no heat advisories were ever issued by the local National Weather Service office. This cool, marine city did not consider heat to be a major (or even minor) health issue. Today, not only are advisories being issued utilizing a new synoptic-based HHWWS, but the city and surrounding communities have developed a comprehensive intervention plan, fact sheets on how people and agencies should respond to the heat, and recently the area sponsored a highly successful Partners for Preparedness Conference attended by the...

Recent Nearcollisions Of Asteroids With Earth

A close encounter by a large object posing a serious but still uncertain threat of a global catastrophe. Critical attention by astronomers is needed to determine conclusively whether a collision will occur. If the encounter is less than three decades away, governmental contingency planning may be warranted. A very close encounter by a large object, which if occurring this century, poses an unprecedented but still uncertain threat of a global catastrophe. For such a threat in this century, international contingency planning is warranted, especially to determine urgently and conclusively whether a collision will occur.

Mitigating The Dangers Of Future Impacts

It is now technically feasible to map and track many of the large objects that could be on an Earth-impacting trajectory, and this is being done to some degree. Greater efforts would involve considerable expense to advanced societies, principally the taxpayers of the United States. NASA, working with the United States Air Force, has mounted a preliminary program for mapping and tracking objects in near-Earth orbit and has already identified many significant objects. Lawmakers and the public must decide if the calculated risk of the hazards of impacts hitting the Earth is worth greater expense. Risk assessment typically involves many variables, such as the likelihood of an event happening, how many deaths or injuries would result, and what can be done to reduce the risk. Also, other questions need to be asked, such as is it more realistic to try to stop the spread of disease, crime, poverty, and famine and prepare for other natural disasters than to spend resources looking for objects...

Highelevation alpine snow cover

High alpine seasonal snow covers are present in mountainous areas around the world. The duration and spatial distribution of alpine snow covers is extremely variable and depends mainly on the geographical location, the climatic conditions, and the elevation of the mountain range. Alpine snow covers are of large economic and social importance in many areas, for example as a water resource for hydropower or as a base for tourism. In all alpine areas the snow cover is an important climate element because of its high albedo and low surface temperature. However, seasonal alpine snow covers may also cause natural hazards such as avalanches or flooding. The snow cover of the Alps - situated in the heart of densely populated Europe -meets all the above-mentioned issues and therefore considerable research effort has been spent towards its investigation.

Short Term Adaptation

Micro Climate Berlin

Lives would have been saved if adequate heat-health warning services (HHWS) had been activated in Europe in 2003, as promoted by the WMO WHO UNEP showcase projects in Rome and Shanghai. Such systems are based on biometeorological forecasts (Fig. 2.8) expecting exceeding of an agreed threshold (heat load forecast). The following interventions (based on a locally adjusted emergency response plan) are the responsibility of public health services PHS. HHWSs must be prepared in advance with complete descriptions of all processes and clear definition of the interface between NMHS and PHS (Koppe et al. 2004 WMO 2004 Kovats and Jendritzky 2006 EPA 2006 WMO 2007) (see also Chapter 3). The most important module is a locally adjusted disaster preparedness (emergency response) plan based on a specific mitigation strategy. This plan becomes active whenever a heat load event is expected. The scopes concerned, intervention measures, and responsible agencies, decision-makers, stakeholders, and other...

How catastrophic were massextinction events

Reef ecosystems, comprising rugose and tabulate corals and stromatoporoid sclerosponges, underwent a major crisis. Among the rest, both marine invertebrates (ammon-oids, brachiopods, trilobites) and vertebrates (conodonts, agnathan and armoured placoderm fish) suffered severe extinctions. The land record is much less clear, but there could have been an important extinction among plants.

Drought caused by changes in Global Atmospheric circulation

Radioactivity And Rain Fall Analogy

Global oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns undergo frequent shifts that affect large parts of the globe, particularly those arid and semiarid parts affected by Hadley Cell circulation. One of the better known variations in global circulation is known as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Fluctuations in global circulation can account for natural disasters, including the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s in the U.S. plains states. Similar global climate fluctuations may explain the drought, famine, and desertification of parts of the Sahel and the great famines of Ethiopia and Sudan in the 1970s, 1980s, and mid-2000s. Much of Africa, including the Sahel region, has become increasingly dry and desert-like over the past 100 years or more, and any attempts to restart agriculture and repopulate regions evacuated during previous famines in this region may be fruitless and lead to further loss of life.

Etymology and definition

Aim of weather and climate modification was improvement of the natural state or mitigation of natural hazards, whereas the aim of recent geoengineer-ing proposals is the mitigation of anthropogenic hazards. Weather and climate modification therefore had two of the three defining attributes (Section 10.2.1) of geoengineering - scale and intent - but not the third, as it was not a countervailing measure. The case for continuity rests on the similarity of proposed technical methods, the continuity of citations to earlier work, a similarity of debate about legal and political problems, and finally, the strong resemblance of climate and weather modification to geoengineering as defined here.

Psychological Conceptions of Adaptation

Adaptation will involve adjustment or coping processes as a function of the magnitude of the weather or climate event and of the timeframe in which adaptation is required (i.e., before, during, or after the event, Lazarus and Cohen 1977). These variables (nature of the event and relationship to time) give rise to three types of psychological adaptation to weather and climate. First, adaptation can occur as proaction and preparation ahead of a wide variety of weather events (Easterling et al. 2004 Grothmann and Patt 2005). The author refers to this as primary adaptation, borrowing from a classification used in public health (Caplan 1964). Viewed in this manner, primary adaptation could involve such long-term efforts as educating children about weather, climate, and other natural disasters through a program such as the American Red Cross' Masters of Disaster school curriculum (American National Red Cross 2000). Other more immediate and personal, primary adaptations could involve...

Sumatra 2004 magnitude 90 and Indian Ocean Tsunami

One of the worst natural disasters of the 21st century unfolded on December 26, 2004, following a magnitude 9.0 (some estimates are as high as 9.3, a threefold difference in energy released) earthquake off the coast of northern Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. The earthquake was the largest since the 1964 magnitude 9.2 earthquake event in southern Alaska, and released more energy than all the earthquakes on the planet in the last 25-30 years combined. During this catastrophic earthquake a segment of the sea-floor the size of California, lying above the Sumatra subduction zone trench, suddenly moved upward and seaward by several tens of feet. The slip event continued for nearly 10 minutes as the central section of the faulted area moved 65 feet (20 m) and the rupture propagated laterally more than 600 miles (1,000 km). The sudden displacement of this volume of undersea floor displaced a huge amount of water and generated the most destructive tsunami known in recorded history.

Examples of different types of floods

Floods are the most common natural hazard and have also proven to be the deadliest and costliest of all natural disasters in history. Individual floods have killed upwards of a million people in China on several occasions, and cause billions of dollars of damage annually in different parts of the world. The risk of flooding increases with time as many countries are allowing settlements on floodplains and even encouraging commercial and residential growth on floodplains known to experience floods at frequencies of every several to every couple of hundred years. As world population continues to grow and people move into harm's way on floodplains, this problem will only worsen. Further, as the climate changes, some areas will experience more rainfall while others experience drought, so areas that may be relatively safe on floodplains now may be frequently inundated with floodwaters in the near future. Development of floodplains should not proceed without proper scientific analysis of the...

Introduction and historical background

For historical reasons, research on glaciers and permafrost has primarily evolved along separate lines. Permafrost science has its main roots in glacier-free sub-Arctic and Arctic lowlands, whereas the science of glaciers originated in high mountains where permafrost is not easily recognized. Today, diverging scientific cultures exist in the two fields with physicists largely influencing glacier research and geoscientists engineers leading permafrost science. Corresponding terminological discrimination and confusion in various countries mirrors this unfortunate situation (e.g., 'geocryology' or 'cryope-dology' vs 'glaciology', with the latter term being incorrectly used for glacier research only). In fact, this dichotomy within the snow-and-ice community limits its credibility with respect to other domains and requires special coordinating efforts in order to avoid linear thinking and omission of fundamental aspects. Considerable shortcomings have developed, especially in the progress...

Cognitive Mediating Processes

Optimistic bias involves discounting or not attending to negative characteristics of a situation and instead placing greater emphasis upon positive, but unlikely outcomes. This bias also leads one to believe that he or she is less likely to experience negative events than are other people (Weinstein 1980 Weinstein and Klein 1996). Such a bias would serve to decrease the appraisal of impending conditions as severe or dangerous. In describing optimism about natural hazards that borders on denial, Eric Holdeman, director of emergency management for Seattle's King County, outlined four stages One is, it won't happen. Two is, if it does happen, it won't happen to me. Three if it does happen to me, it won't be that bad. And four if it happens to me and it's bad, there's nothing I can do to stop it anyway (Ripley 2006, p. 56). Other researchers observed that people would not evacuate ahead of a hurricane because they believed that their homes were built strong enough to withstand the storm...

Michael Renner Sean Sweeney and Jill Kubit

As climate action grows urgent, some observers warn that economies will suffer as a result. But economic prosperity and employment depend in fundamental ways on a stable climate and healthy ecosystems. Without timely action, many jobs could be lost due to resource depletion, biodiversity loss, the impacts of increasing natural disasters, and other disruptions. Meanwhile, employment that actually contributes to protecting the environment and reducing humanity's carbon footprint offers people a tangible stake in a green economy.

Refugees Environmental

IN THE LAST 10 years, the issue of environmental refugees has emerged as a pressing issue. Most refugees are fleeing from natural disasters such as the Asian tsunami in 2004, or as a result of the impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise. As the executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) noted in 1989, as There are a number of reasons to become an environmental refugee. First, it may happen as a result of a natural disaster. Natural disasters include floods, cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, or any other major event that will make the lived environment temporarily or permanently inhabitable. One example is the eruptions of the Soufriere Hills Volcano on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat in 1995-98. As a result of these eruptions, 7,000 residents were forced to evacuate. Second, individuals or whole groups of people might become environmental refugees due to the appropriation of habitat or land by external parties, hence dispossessing and...

Wastewater Effluent Requirements

Karta Ver Rmland Arvika

Other statutory requirements that have become a priority for metal fabricators are the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization (SARA) emergency planning and community right-to-know regulations, as well as recently passed California citizens right-to-know legislation i.e., proposition 65. State law also requires local governments to implement hazardous material storage programs to regulate industry (Chapter 6.95, CHSC).

Florida International university

As part of an effort to protect the millions of dollars invested in research programs at universities, the federal government set up the Disaster Resistant University (DRU) program. In 2007, FIU became the first public university in Florida to become DRU-certified. Under this program, the Federal Emergency Management Agency has responsibility for reviewing and approving the DRU certification. When a major storm requires the evacuation of people from locations vulnerable to wind damage, storm-surge, or flooding, the university is one of the designated hurricane shelters for residents of Miami-Dade County. Also, when a Category 3 or higher hurricane threatens the Florida Keys, FIU is the officially designated shelter for people seeking sanctuary from the approaching storm.

Explain Strata And Gravitational Eruption

Mount Helens Plate Boundary Map

One of the deadliest natural disasters in history unfolded on December 26, 2004, when a great undersea earthquake with a magnitude between 9.0-9.3 triggered a tsunami that devastated many coastal areas of the Indian ocean, killing an estimated 283,000 people. The tsunami devastated large parts of coastal Indonesia such as Banda Aceh, then swept across islands in the Indian ocean to strike Sri Lanka, India, and east Africa. The tsunami propagated into all of the world's oceans where it was locally amplified by local coastal effects, but generally did little damage outside the Indian ocean. The Indian ocean was not equipped with any tsunami warning system, so the wave successively surprised coastal residents and tourists visiting many beach resorts. If there had been even a simple warning system in place, then tens of thousands of lives may have been saved. Nations of the Indian ocean have

Examples of Expanding Deserts and Drought Disasters

Free Slave

Global climate change is causing many areas on the planet that were previously experiencing temperate climates to suffer drought conditions. Drought is very different from normal desert processes. A drought is a prolonged reduction in the amount of rainfall for a region. It is one of the slowest of all major natural disasters to affect people, but it is also among the most severe, causing more deaths, famine, and displacement than most other more spectacular disasters.

Selection of Least Hazardous Material Alternatives

The primary federal statutes and their implementing regulations regarding environment, safety, and health are the Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA), Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). These acts taken together impose a need to examine the feasibility of using materials that are less hazardous, are less costly, or impose fewer administrative or other regulatory compliance resource requirements. Personal protection Medical monitoring Spill prevention and control Regulatory overhead Liability

Cyclical Destruction And Regeneration In Coastal Habitats

Coastal Habitat Destruction

Of sand, most sandy beaches can repair storm damage. However, resistant as they are to frontal attack from the ocean, these natural coastal defences are nevertheless vulnerable to an attack from the rear through windblow and sometimes river erosion as well as other unexpected alterations in their environment. Although sand dune vegetation is highly drought resistant the water table must be accessible. Falling water tables, removal of expected resources such as seaweed, truncation oftheir natural development by roads and golf courses, all contribute to weakening the resilience of dune systems to withstand physical disturbance, whether from human interference or natural disasters. The conservation of biodiversity in dune systems therefore requires more than just ensuring the physical preservation of the front line of dunes. Equally, over protection can also result in dominance of a few aggressive species with the result that diversity is lost. For long-term preservation of dune systems...

Conclusion and Perspectives

The growing interest in perennially frozen ground of cold mountain ranges is justified and the rapidly developing progress in this young research field must be considered timely and most welcome. Continued if not accelerating atmospheric temperature rise indeed has the potential to cause serious and long-lasting disequilibria on the slopes as well as inside many mountain peaks on earth. Concerning impacts of climate change on mountain permafrost, system reactions deserve special attention the effects of permafrost thaw on soil humidity and growth conditions on gentle slopes of mountain ranges with a continental-type climate, or large rock falls into already existing or newly forming lakes in areas of fast glacier retreat, constitute major threats. International programs of long-term monitoring within the framework of global climate-related observations must continue at a level of higher intensity, and the exchange of experience and scientific-technological know-how for assessing...

Misleading and Irresponsible Statements

Increasing violence of tropical tornadoes that we are affecting the world climate. Governments are still reluctant to face this challenge and take effective action. The effects of the anti-nuclear campaigns are still strong, and Governments do not wish to court unpopularity by sanctioning the resumption of a nuclear power programme. Instead, they try to convince people that they can solve the world energy problems by relying on the so-called renewable energy sources, principally wind and solar, which are manifestly incapable of providing the power we need at an acceptable price. Unless realistic decisions are taken soon the situation will continue to deteriorate until more and more power cuts and natural disasters finally force Governments to act. The remedial actions inevitably take years to come into operation, and by then it may be too late.

Strategiesto Improvethe Agrometeorological Services to Cope with Risks and Uncertainties

Sivakumar et al. (1998 and 2000) emphasized that the agrometeorological information plays a valuable part not only in making daily and seasonal farm management decisions but also in the management of disasters, risks, and uncertainties. Earlier, Das (1999) expressed that it may not be possible to prevent the occurrence of natural disasters, but agreed with the observations of Sivakumar et al. (2004) that the Establishing measures to reduce the impacts and to mitigate the consequences of weather and climate related natural disasters for agricultural production tte role of early warning and advance planning for natural disaster management and the mitigation of extreme weather climate events is crucial for agriculture, forestry, rangelands, environment, livestock, etc. tte application of weather and climate information to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of emergency preparedness and response activities is essential. Critical thresholds must be monitored that should trigger early...

Migration of the Tropical Cyclone Zone Throughout the Holocene

The damage hurricanes inflicted upon the Caribbean and the United States during the 2004 and 2005 seasons dramatically demonstrate the societal importance of changes in tropical cyclone (TC) tracks and frequencies. The increase in coastal development that occurred during the relatively inactive TC regime that existed during the 1970s, 80s and early 90s has contributed to the mounting property losses and death toll that ensued following the return to a more active TC regime, beginning in 1995 (Pielke and Landsea 1998). Clearly, an increased understanding of the causes of these spatial temporal oscillations is critical to achieving an effective response to this natural hazard. The proximate cause(s) of these shifts, which occur across a variety of scales, from interannual to millennial (Reading 1990 Walsh and Reading 1991 Liu and Fearn 2000 Elsner et al. 2000), are not

Beauty And The Beach Rethinking Coastal Living

Nami that devastated coastal regions of the Indian Ocean. One of the worst natural disasters of the 21st century unfolded following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the northern Sumatra coast. Within minutes of the earthquake a mountain of water 100 feet (30 m) tall was ravaging northern Sumatra, sweeping into coastal villages and resort communities with a fury that crushed all in its path, removing buildings and vegetation, and in many cases eroding shoreline areas down to bedrock. Scenes of destruction and devastation rapidly moved up the coast of nearby Indonesia, then across the Indian Ocean to India and Africa. Buildings, vehicles, trees, boats, and other debris in the water formed projectiles that smashed into other structures at 30 miles (50 km) per hour, leveling all in their path, and killing nearly a quarter million people.

Vessels Containers and Wrapping Wastes

Chemicals commonly encountered in food processing are listed in Table 8, relating to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) in the United States 22 . The Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR) system was also enacted in Japan from the 2001 fiscal year. Figure 3 describes the chemicals used in food processing 22 . Similarly, it is applicable for other materials included in the food itself.

What Leisa Farmers do and may do

In an even more recent paper, Blench (1999) has noted that multi-lateral agencies are urging that climate forecasts be made available to small-scale farmers. Disaster preparedness strategies, both of governments and NGOs, have begun to take account of such forecasts, and there is considerable interest in assigning them an economic value. However, field studies of the impact of recent forecasts in southern Africa suggest that there is a considerable gap between the information needed by small-scale farmers and that provided by the meteorological services (Blench, 1999). This was confirmed by investigating the role of intermediaries such as Agricultural Demonstrators in Botswana (Stigter, 2002b) and Provincial Agrometeorologists in Vietnam (Stigter, 2002a). Risk-aversion strategies in LEISA production systems do pose a problem for adapting forecast information. Low-income farmers are interested in a broader range of characteristics of precipitation, notably total rainfall, patchiness of...

Homestead Configuration and Utilization

Boundary is the outer border or demarcation line of a homestead that makes it an independent unit. It is the most common and developed segment of a homestead, which is either narrow or wide. Homesteads located side by side may have common boundaries while isolated homesteads generally have separate boundaries (Fig. 16.6). Commonly, different types of trees, shrubs, and herbs are grown either in a single row or in double rows along the boundaries. However, a well-planned boundary plantation in view of spatial arrangement with multifunctional species leads to a green belt that eventually protects the homestead from different natural hazards and acts as a productive unit that significantly contributes to the food, energy, and economic security of the household. Privacy of homestead is an important objective as well. Besides protective and productive functions, a well-decorated plantation may have aesthetic and beautification values.

How the Issue of Permanence is Dealt With in Different Schemes

In the VCS the initial size of the buffer for each project is determined by an assessment of risk factors including not only natural disasters but financial and political factors also. If the risk assessment remains the same or improves from one verification period to the next, then 15 percent of the project's buffer reserve is released from the pool and made available for trading over the five years until the next risk assessment. If a project's risk rating increases from one five-year verification to the next, then there is no reduction in the buffer reserve.

Occupational Regulations and Recommendations

In addition, OSHA requires safety and health activities for hazardous waste operations, including treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, uncontrolled waste sites, and also any emergency responses for hazardous materials. The regulations cover employee protection during initial site characterization, air monitoring for employees, precautions for material handling, training, and emergency response capabilities 1 . For instance, the employer must write a site-specific health and safety plan however, a general plan may be used for all but the site-specific activities if the owner has multiple locations. Site-specific activities include analyzing tasks and warning workers of both the known and potential hazards present at that site. This training requirement includes contractors. The final design should include (1) an estimate of increased hazards (over background), (2) degree of hazard based on the contamination, (3) standards for protection of workers and the public, (4) safe...

Drying Of The American Southwest

A drought is a prolonged lack of rainfall in a region that typically experiences a significant amount of precipitation. If a desert normally receives a small amount of rainfall, and it still is getting little rainfall, then it is not experiencing a drought. In contrast, a different area that normally receives more rainfall than the desert may be experiencing a drought if it normally receives significantly more rainfall than it is at present, even if it still experiences more rainfall than the desert. A drought-plagued area may become a desert if the drought is prolonged. Droughts are the most serious natural hazard in terms of their severity, area affected, loss of livelihood, social impact, and other long-term effects. Droughts can cause widespread famine, loss of vegetation, loss of life, and eventual death or mass migrations of entire populations.

Anthropogenic Climate Change A Consensus Paradigm

The 1960s and 1970s of the last century saw remarkable advances in space exploration and computer technology that vastly facilitated acquisition of data and capacity for numerical analysis. In the new electronic age, multidisciplinary developments flourished through a leap in the capacity for information transfer between environmentally concerned individuals, national and international integrative research centers, philanthropic and conservation groups, conservation clubs, NGO's, and a variety of lobby groups. New concepts and environmental consciousness were boosted by highly organized and prestigious WMO, UNEP and United Nations sponsored programs and conferences, and coordinated leadership, as provided for example by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and its SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment. Particularly important also became publication series devoted to natural hazards and climate change issues that have culminated in the Assessment...

Geospatial Technology

Geospatial technology includes three different technologies that are all related to mapping features on the surface of the Earth for environmental management. They are geographical information systems (GIS), global-positioning systems (GPS), and remote sensing (RS). This is also synonymous with spatial information technology. Together, the three components of geospatial technology can track, map, analyze, and disseminate environmental management information. RS technology helps survey the entire Earth with unprecedented regularity, thus any environmental change can be noticed. Global atmospheric conditions are monitored on an hourly basis by weather satellites. RS imagery provides information on drought, vegetation, flood damage, forest fires, deforestation, and other natural disasters. GIS provides the tools to accurately map this information in both global and local perspectives. GPS technology accurately tracks the position of environmental fallout.

Human Diseases and Freshwater Vectors

Malaria is caused by several species of Plasmodium protozoans P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, and P. ovale. It is vectored by various species of Anopheles mosquitoes that often occur in high numbers in irrigation ditches and canals, lakes and ponds, riverine floodplains, wetland-rice cultivation areas, and human settlements. Current control measures involve personal protection (e.g., repellents, pesticide-impregnated bed nets, anti-malarial drugs), vector reduction through insecticide applications, and parasite elimination in infected humans through drug therapy.

Informal risk management mechanisms

Tte production strategy selected becomes an important means of mitigating the risk of crop failure. Traditional cropping systems in many places rely on crop and plot diversification. Crop diversification and intercropping systems signify common strategies of reducing the risk of crop failure due to adverse weather events, crop pests, or insect attacks. Morduch (1995) presents evidence that households whose consumption levels are close to subsistence (and which are therefore highly vulnerable to income shocks) devote a larger share of land to safer, traditional varieties such as rice and castor than to riskier, high-yielding varieties. Morduch also finds that near-subsistence households diversify their plots spatially to reduce the impact of weather shocks that vary by location. Apart from altering agricultural production strategies, households also smooth income by diversifying income sources, thus minimizing the effect of a negative shock to any one of them. According to Walker and...

CGIAR Inter Center Initiatives

VASAT aims to develop climate literacy and drought preparedness among rural communities, development workers, service providers, policy makers, and other strategic sectors through the integrated use of information and communication technology (ICT), open distance learning, and other communication media. It will also communicate information on climatic trends like monsoon behavior and methods of drought management for community mobilization and disaster preparedness.

Adaptation practices options and constraints

Some of the strategies are multi-sectoral, such as improving climate and weather forecasting at a local scale, emergency preparedness and public education. One example of cross-cutting adaptation is improving information and institutions for emergency preparedness. Systematic disaster preparedness at community level has helped reduce death tolls for instance, new warning systems and evacuation procedures in Andhra Pradesh, India, reduced deaths from coastal tropical cyclones by 90 , comparing 1979 with 1977 (Winchester, 2000), and poor societies in other parts of the Bay of Bengal area have undertaken practical measures to reduce flood risks due to high levels of awareness and motivation among local communities. However, the effectiveness of such systems in reaching marginal populations, and their responses to such warnings, is uneven and the timing of decisions to adapt affects the likely benefits.

Implications for the Oil and Gas Industries

What is complicating the picture is the fact that prices today stand at around 60 B. Most producing countries are at capacity. Nonetheless, there are no shortages today. What worries the markets are future problems, particularly during the fourth quarter of this year when demand usually rises and the fear of industrial accidents, natural disasters or political upheavals that could shut some supplies. There were expectations in 2003 that Iraq and Russia would substitute for Saudi Arabia. The fact of the

National Security and Climate Change in Perspective

N early 2007 the group responsible for setting the Doomsday Clock, a depiction of the risks of imminent worldwide catastrophe, cited the threat of climate change as one reason for moving its minute hand two minutes closer to midnight.1 Although the nuclear-era clock is perhaps an imperfect depiction of the nature of the challenge posed by climate change the cumulative impact of human activities that affect the environment versus the kind of events that lead to a sudden conflict climate change can provide profound and urgent threats to the well-being of mankind. Yet the risk that such catastrophe may lie at this intersection of climate change and national security is not as well understood as it should be, despite decades of exploration of the relationship between the two fields. The overall purpose of this book is to fill this gap to provide a primer on how climate change can serve to undermine the security of the planet.

Implications for risk hazard and disaster management

In practice, however, there has been a disconnect between disaster risk reduction and sustainable development, due to a combination of institutional structures, lack of awareness of the linkages between the two, and perceptions of 'competition' between hazard-based risk reduction, development needs and emergency relief (Yamin, 2004 Thomalla et al., 2006). The disconnect persists despite an increasing recognition that natural disasters seriously challenge the ability of countries to meet targets associated with the Millennium Development Goals (Schipper and Pelling, 2006).

Center for International Climate and environment Research

The second program looks into the socioeconomic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas emissions and climate policies. This division's objective is to diminish the detrimental effects brought on by climate change. It also applies economic models in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of policies. Scientists examine the impacts greenhouse gases have on energy stability. Besides focusing on how climate fluctuation affects regional populations, climate experts also focus on how it affects the agriculture industry. More specifically, researchers examine the effects pollution and the thinning ozone have on crop growth and yield. The relationship between climate change and the environment is also studied some of the research topics include acidification, deforestation, and soil erosion. Moreover, scientists examine the connection between climate change and natural disasters such as floods, water shortages, and forest fires.

Storm surge impact scale for coastal communities

With regard to short-term decision-making, such information could help in the evacuation process, as well as localized emergency preparedness. As communities understand impacts of various surge heights, they are more likely to take appropriate precautions, but less likely to over-react and take unnecessary precautions. Overreaction of local governments to storm surge threat may have negative long-term implications, as coastal populations become more skeptical of future warnings. For example, many people who evacuated the Upper Texas Coast as Hurricane Rita (2005) approached did not evacuate before Hurricane Ike (2008), because they became skeptical after Rita did not produce the anticipated surge in their specific region. Unfortunately, Ike generated a catastrophic 5.33-meter surge, which directly claimed 7 lives and was indirectly responsible for 55 other fatalities, including several people dying from carbon monoxide poisoning, a bus crash during the evacuation, and heat exhaustion....

Figure 94 Grain production and intensity of drought in the RSFSR 19761990

The major crisis in Soviet agriculture began in 1979. In that year the weather was very unstable in relation to temperature and moisture. The problems started with very cold spells in both the European and Asiatic parts of the USSR in January. The Siberian anticyclone caused a record low temperature in Western Siberia. In the western part of European Russia in January temperatures were 2 to 5 degrees below normal (Bulletin of WMO, 1980). Severe cold and snowdrifts were reported in many parts of the country creating many difficulties for workers on livestock units in kolkhozes and sovkhozes. Soviet officials called for major efforts to be directed towards ensuring that the production of livestock increased even in these conditions and that numbers were maintained ( USSR national affairs. ', 1979).

Box 174 Adaptation costs and benefits in the water management sector of South Africa

Highlighted Map Sus Saharah Africa

New studies carried out since the TAR show that adaptive capacity is influenced not only by economic development and technology, but also by social factors such as human capital and governance structures (Klein and Smith, 2003 Brooks and Adger 2005 Nffiss et al., 2005 Tompkins, 2005 Berkhout et al., 2006 Eriksen and Kelly, 2007). Furthermore, recent analysis argues that adaptive capacity is not a concern unique to regions with low levels of economic activity. Although economic development may provide greater access to technology and resources to invest in adaptation, high income per capita is considered neither a necessary nor a sufficient indicator of the capacity to adapt to climate change (Moss et al., 2001). Tol and Yohe (2007) show that some elements of adaptive capacity are not substitutable an economy will be as vulnerable as the 'weakest link' in its resources and adaptive capacity (for example with respect to natural disasters). Within both developed and developing countries,...

COF and Associated Institutional Synergies

The COF process brings together many regional and international scientists, policy and decision-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), public sector institutions and intermediaries of information communication, such as the media and extension. Participating institutions in the process are WMO, IRI, NGOs, NMH, donors (NOAA, USAID-OFDA, World Bank), universities, research institutions, UK Meteorological Office, the U.S. National Center for Environmental Prediction-Center for Climate Prediction (NCEP-CPC), Inter-American Institutions for Global Change Research (IAI) in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) and the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET). The bringing together of multidisciplinary groups such as policy makers and scientists in a forum process has contributed to useful dialogues, discussion of the forecast information, and creation of an effective feedback loop between the information producers and users. From the...

Current sensitivityvulnerability

Social systems are also vulnerable, especially to extreme events (e.g., Box 7.1). Storms and floods can damage homes and other shelters and disrupt social networks and means to sustain livelihoods and risks of such impacts shape structures for emergency preparedness, especially where impacted populations have a strong influence on policy-making. Climate is related to the quality of life in complex ways, including recreational patterns, and changes in temperature and humidity can change health care challenges and requirements (Chapter 8). For instance, it has been estimated that of the 131 million people affected by natural disasters in Asia in 2004, 97 were affected by weather-related disasters. Exposures in highly-populated coastal and riverine areas and small island nations have been especially significant (ADRC et al., 2005). Moreover, some references suggest relationships between weather and climate on the one hand and social stresses on the other, especially in urban areas where...

Reducing coastal risk

Hazard Park Model Hurricane Katrina

Has fallen on the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and its National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA has taken an important step towards protecting coastal property by providing incentives to build new structures above the projected elevation of storm surges and to strengthen existing structures against windstorm damage. However, there has been no direct consideration of horizontal shoreline movement, specifically coastal erosion, nor planning to accommodate the accelerating pace of sea level rise and the likelihood of more intense storms (with their higher winds and larger storm surges). The lack of coordinated federal programs and policies is abundantly evident as the coastal building boom continues.

Social Political and Economic Factors

Has assessed climate-infectious disease links and recommended development of climate-based predictive models for cholera, malaria, and several other infectious diseases (WHO, 2004) and many countries maintain or are developing early warning systems for natural hazards. Citing the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, as a wake-up call about the role that early warning systems could play in reducing the human and physical impacts of natural hazards, United Nations (UN) Secretary General Kofi Annan called for the development of a global early warning system for all natural hazards (UN, 2006). The UN Platform for the Promotion of Early Warning,7 initiated in 2004, is leading early warning actors toward this goal. Integration of epidemic prediction with such related efforts could speed the development of epidemic prediction systems and facilitate more comprehensive risk communication to communities facing extreme weather events and other natural hazards.

National center for Atmospheric Research NcAR

The core research of NCAR is based on the assumption that human activities are causing large-scale changes in the Earth system. The advances in scientific understanding, Earth system modeling, and computational and observational technology can shed new light on how the Earth system works. NCAR's activities contribute to the development of a predictive Earth system science that can help sustain Earth's habitabil-ity, improve environmental quality, safeguard human health, reduce the impacts of natural disasters, and increase economic productivity. This predictive Earth system becomes of particular importance in the face of global warming. The Climate and Global Dynamics Division of the Earth and Sun Systems Laboratory conducts broad-ranging research on all aspects of climate. The center explicitly connects global climate change, whether it involves more heat or more cold, more

Environmental Hydrology Summary

Drought is a complex, recurrent, and insidious natural hazard that has historically resulted in significant impacts in the Great Plains. Its impacts are far-reaching and may linger for months or even years beyond the termination of the event. The economic, social, and environmental impacts of drought result from complex interactions between physical and social systems, and they are difficult to quantify. Scientists and policymakers must understand the characteristics of drought and appreciate the magnitude and complexity of impacts in order for viable assessment and response strategies to be established. The aim of these strategies is to reduce societal vulnerability to periods of water shortages.

University of Birmingham

THE University OF Birmingham is an English university in the city of Birmingham. Founded in 1900 as a successor to Mason Science College, with origins dating back to the 1825 Birmingham Medical School, the University of Birmingham was arguably the first so-called red brick university. It currently has over 18,000 undergraduate and over 11,000 postgraduate students. The University of Birmingham has an international reputation for excellence in research and teaching in environmental science, engineering, and policy. There are currently around 150 academic staff actively investigating scientific, technical, and socioeconomic aspects across a broad range of environmental disciplines, including the management of freshwater resources, environmental restoration, sustainable use of natural materials, pollution control, waste management, management of natural hazards, and human health.

World Meteorological organization

Devised programs and services attempting to contribute to the preservation of the environment and the welfare of humanity. The National Meteorological and Hydrological Services have sought to protect life and property against natural disasters, to preserve the environment, and to encourage the economic and social well-being of all sectors of society in areas such as food security, water resources, and transport. The WMO supports cooperation to establish networks for meteorological, climatological, hydrologi-cal, and geophysical observations, as well as for the exchange, processing, and standardization of related data. It also provides technology transfer, training, and research and fosters collaboration between the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and its members. The organization sponsors the application of meteorology to public weather services, agriculture, aviation, shipping, the environment, water issues, and the mitigation of the effects of natural disasters.

Table of Contents

This assessment confirms and strengthens previous observations reported in the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) which show that characteristics such as limited size, proneness to natural hazards, and external shocks enhance the vulnerability of islands to climate change. In most cases they have low adaptive capacity, and adaptation costs are high relative to gross domestic product (GDP). 16.1, 16.5 While acknowledging their diversity, the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) also noted that small island states share many similarities (e.g., physical size, proneness to natural disasters and climate extremes, extreme openness of their economies, low adaptive capacity) that enhance their vulnerability and reduce their resilience to climate variability and change. Building upon the TAR, this chapter assesses recent scientific information on vulnerability to climate change and sea-level rise, adaptation to their effects, and implications of climate-related policies, including adaptation,...

An Inconvenient Truth

The first hour shows Gore explaining how the climate went out of control in just a few years. Graphs, photographs, data, short films, and anecdotes are shown. From the beginning, the film mentions a national disaster from 2005, Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, as a patent case of a tragedy that was not considered very important by the U.S. Government. At some point in the argument, these terrible events in New Orleans are presented as the direct consequence of the global warming. It also explains that the administration in Washington, D.C., does not seem to be fully aware of the danger of global warming to U.S citizens.

Government And Markets

A great deal, accordingly, depends on how and how well we repair and enhance the capacity of government to do what only governments can do. The market is the arena in which we say I and mine and in which we act mostly for near-term advantage. Government is one in which we come together to say we and ours, in order to protect and enhance our common interests immediately and over the long term. Markets seldom act for the enduring public good governments can and must. But a great deal of our commonwealth, common property, and capacity to act collectively has been squandered in the past four decades, diminishing our democratic heritage and reducing our capacity to respond collectively to the kinds of emergencies that will become more common in the future. The miserable performance of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the wake of Katrina and more recently the total failure of regulation that culminated in the bankruptcies of major financial institutions, for example, were the...

Drought Monitoring and Planning for Mitigation

Drought is a climatic hazard that occurs in almost every region of the world. It causes physical suffering, economic losses, and degradation of the environment. A drought is a creeping phenomenon, and it is very difficult to determine when a dry spell becomes a drought or when a severe drought becomes an exceptional drought. It is slower and less dramatic than other natural disasters, but its effects are long lasting and widespread.

Science To Support Adapting To Climate Change

West, have begun planning to address adaptation beyond infrastructure per se, including more efficient water markets. Although noninfrastructural strategies, such as improving emergency preparedness and response (above), have also been considered, in general there is insufficient concern with, or scientific understanding of, the underlying social-ecological vulnerabilities that cities and the people within them face (see Chapter 4). Many more ways to reduce vulnerability and enhance adaptive capacity may become available when the vulnerabilities of cities are better understood, particularly the vulnerability of subpopulations (e.g., the urban poor, minority groups, children, the elderly, or manual laborers Campbell-Lendrum and Corvalan, 2007) and the differences between large and smaller urban areas in different regions (e.g., Bartlett, 2008 Hardoy and Pandiella, 2009 Hess et al., 2008 Porfiriev, 2009 Thomalla et al., 2006). Urban areas adjacent to ecological reserves or bordering on...

Tropical storms tornadoes and strong winds

Like floods they are among the highest relative intensities of natural disasters, and wind calamities are often occurring in combination with floods (Viet 2002). However, floods are getting much more attention than winds in planning for coping with damage due to cyclones, due to higher vulnerability to floods in most instances, with forests as an exception (Viet 2002). ttis is in line with little attention for damage to buildings in wind disasters in Africa (e.g. Wisse and Stigter 2007), but Dhameja gives several pages in Sahni and Ariyaban-du (2003) of points that are of importance for constructions that may be exposed to cyclones.

Adapting to Climate Change in Cities

Cities face all the challenges that any other sector encounters in regard to adaptation, but research on urban adaptation has only recently begun in earnest. Attention to date has focused on infrastructure and strategies such as emergency preparedness and response. In addition, where resource stresses have already mounted, such as water shortages in the American West, local and regional entities have begun planning to address their vulnerability to climate change in the context of specific natural

Early warning systems for assessing agrometeorological risks

Use of improved climate and weather information and forecasts along with efficient early warning systems would contribute to the preparedness for extreme weather events. New technologies have brought about an accelerated increase in our knowledge of the climate system. Today the accuracy of forecasts of large-scale weather patterns for seven days in advance is the same as those for two days in advance only 25 years ago. tte accuracy of tropical cyclone track forecasts and the timeliness of warnings have been steadily improving in the past few years. When properly communicated and absorbed, early warnings may empower farmers and communities threatened by natural hazards to prepare themselves in sufficient time and in an appropriate manner so as to minimize the risk of the impending hazard. Technologically oriented early warning, integrated with field data on crop and livestock conditions, price movements, human welfare etc. is for example crucial for tracking drought, its onset, its...

Vulnerability ofthe Region

Main causes of vulnerability in the region are the fast and un-regulated urbanization, rural and urban poverty, deterioration of natural resources, inefficient public policies, and the delays and mistakes in infrastructure investments. In the region, there is little investment concerning mitigation of natural hazards and the response is mainly under emergency situations.

Emergency Response System

Tte establishment of early warning systems and associated preparedness and response systems in agricultural managements has been an important contributor to the progressive prevention and reduction of natural hazards in agricultural production. ttis is true for drought and famine-affected regions, as well as for developed countries where early warning systems, and preparedness, mitigation and risk transfer measures are generally well developed.

OnFarm Applications Against Risks

On-farm applications to cope with agrometeorological risks and uncertainties cannot be defined objectively without detailed description of all the external and internal driving forces, related events, direct and indirect impacts, consequential effects, available technology and resources, and farmer's implementation ability, governmental supporting system and national infrastructure. Nevertheless, it may be practiced through an ordinary farm management system when combined or linked together with an appropriate early warning system for natural hazards, if available, tte creation of data archives and information bases are essential to decision making as well as research on hazards and warning systems. Components of an early warning system include observation, detection, monitoring, assessment, forecasting, warning, projection and, valuation.

Federal Regulations and Laws

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA, also known as SARA Title III) requires certain companies to submit an annual report of the amount of listed toxic chemicals entering the environments. Source reduction and waste management information must be provided for the listed toxic chemicals.

High intensity rainfall and floods

As in many other cases of natural disasters, there are flood prone areas that nevertheless have to be used for agricultural production. Flood control and management are the starting points of any flood preparedness initiatives in development planning (e.g. Lohani and Acharya in Sahni and Ariyabandu 2003). tte most obvious improvements are large scale flood water detention or flood diversion attempts for agricultural purposes (Stigter et al. 2003a). It must also be clear that such calamities as for example happen in China around its Yangtze river with a not negligible frequency (Winchester 1996) can hardly be met with any production adaptation strategy although annual flooding can be agriculturally used (Stigter et al. 2003a). Flood resistant construction techniques are discussed by Dhameja in Sahni and Ariyabandu (2003) and Ariyabandu indicates in Sahni and Ariyabandu (2003) that a demand driven approach to address substantial issues in vulnerabilities of communities like that of...

Climate Scenario 3 Catastrophic Climate Change

This scenario provides the basis for chapter 6 in this volume, by Sharon E. Burke, on catastrophic consequences of climate change for national and international security through the end of the twenty-first century. On the basis of current scientific understanding, we assume that abrupt, global catastrophic climate events cannot plausibly occur in the next three decades, but could plausibly do so over the course of this century. To examine the consequences of such events, scenario 3 extends the rapid warming and attendant accelerated impacts associated with scenario 2 to the end of the twenty-first century, leading to assumed rapid loss of polar land ice, abrupt 2-meter (6.6-foot) sea level rise, and the collapse of the North Atlantic MOC. We therefore assume warming that is double the best estimate of modeled surface warming under emissions scenario A1B for the year 2100 (see table 3-1).

Military Operations

Climate change may also affect the U.S. military through new and changed missions. The military has substantial logistical, engineering, and medical capabilities that have been used to respond to emergencies both in the United States and abroad (for example, the 2005 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2008 Burma Myanmar typhoon, and the 2010 Haiti earthquake). Because climate change is expected to increase the severity and possibly the number of storms, floods, droughts, and other climate-related natural disasters in many parts of the world, military preparedness planning and the role of the military in responding to such disasters needs to be considered as part of adaptation planning (NRC, 2010e). Again, much of the research that will be needed to support analysis of military involvement in disaster support overlaps with that needed for impact and vulnerability studies in other sectors.

Many impacts can be avoided reduced or delayed by mitigation

Structural and nonstructural measures. Early-warning systems disaster preparedness planning effective postevent emergency relief Early-warning systems disaster preparedness planning effective postevent emergency relief Emergency preparedness, including early-warning systems More resilient infrastructure Financial risk management options for both developed and developing regions

Box 52 Gene bank for a warming world

The vast collection is intended as insurance against disaster so food production can be restarted anywhere should it be threatened by a regional or global catastrophe. When the depository was originally conceived in the early 1980s, the perceived threats came from nuclear war and geopolitical uncertainty. When the idea resurfaced in 2002, following the adoption by the UN of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, concerns about genetic resource loss from climate change brought new urgency and motivation to the concept.

Extreme weather risks

Several climate models forecast that the agriculture situation may improve in parts of Russia and China but some regions within both countries may suffer from production declines (United Nations Foundation and Sigma XI, 2007). The consequence of lower food production globally, combined with the disruption of climate-related natural disasters, has serious implications for national and regional security, which is dependent upon society's ability to maintain economic growth and social development. If these changes occur over long periods of time and vary from region to region, the world may have the ability to adapt to new economic development patterns. Sustained disruptions in major producing areas, however, will have global and local effects - and many of these could occur simultaneously (United Nations Foundation and Sigma XI, 2007). As the global economy's resilience to meet such challenges is predicated on maintenance of political and economic stability in the developed world,...

United States as First Responder

But it is not yet clear whether the tsunami response will be remembered in thirty years' time as defining or as an exceptional case. As the world looks to the United States for assistance with greater frequency, and when disaster strikes in places where the U.S. military could be greeted with some hostility, executing relief missions will become increasingly complex and dangerous. The roles of the U.S. Army and National Guard will also need to evolve. At present, National Guard troops are responsible for responding to domestic natural disasters when needed, yet their deployment overseas (for either military or relief operations) can leave the United States short of troops and equipment precisely when climate change will be causing more extreme weather events domestically. Furthermore, regular Army and Marine Corps troops may need to receive training in how to provide disaster relief in potentially hostile environments, perhaps as part of a post-Iraq focus on developing the skill sets...

Global Warming Climate Change and Hurricanes

Some areas of a rain deficit and accentuated problems of drought linked to climate change'' suggesting that there is an increasing link between global warming and natural disasters such as droughts and flooding.'' The policy position of the WMO was produced at its 6th International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones in November 2006 when it stated that ''The surfaces of most tropical oceans have warmed by 0.25-0.5 degree Celsius during the past several decades. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers the likely primary cause of the rise in global mean surface temperature in the past 50 years is the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations'' (U.S. NOAA 2006b).

The third stage Where are the patients

As people were eventually allowed to return to their homes, new challenges emerged to healthcare delivery. These challenges were more difficult to anticipate, and less outside assistance was provided in meeting them. The challenge to the healthcare system at this stage was primarily economic, from reduced patient volumes seen despite the reduction in the total number of hospitals. The average daily census of hospital beds in the region fell by 50 during the 4 month period after the storm, from 2,500 patients to 1,237 (Louisiana Pubic Health Institute, NOLA Dashboard , and U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2006). In a free market health care system, reduced patient volume directly translates into reduced revenue, and hospitals began reporting significant financial losses. Bond ratings were lowered, limiting hospitals' ability to borrow money. While the reduced patient volumes and financial losses are easy to document, they were harder to explain. Facing this same challenge in my...

RCRA and Its Relationship to Other Environmental Statutes

RCRA is only one of several regulatory programs in place to protect the environment. The RCRA regulations work closely with other environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act (CAA) Clean Water Act (CWA) the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

Assumptions Of Current Economic Models

Though it is difficult or even impossible to quantify the real monetary costs of affecting climate change, climate change will have great impact on society, population densities (out migration and in migration), agriculture, infrastructure, manufacturing, and intergovernmental relations. These effects will bear more intensely on the poor than those wealthy enough to adapt and prosper from climate change. The cost of doing nothing is high. This can be seen in the cost of catastrophic natural disasters that pale in comparison to the potential catastrophes that even the most conservative climate change models project. The total cost of catastrophic storm damage in the United States 1980-2005 is estimated to be in excess of 560 billion, with Hurricane Katrina alone causing between 150- 200 billion in economic damage. Worldwide natural catastrophes cost another 220 billion.

Conclusion links between climate change and sustainable development

Although future climate change seems to be marginally important when compared to other development issues (Davidson et al., 2003), it is clear that climate change and variability, and associated increased disaster risks, will seriously hamper future development. On an annual basis, for example, developing countries have already absorbed US 35 billion in direct losses from natural disasters (Mirza, 2003). However, these figures do not include livelihood assets and losses and overall emotional and other stresses that are often more difficult to assess. A challenge, therefore, is to shape and manage development that also builds resilience to shocks, including those related to climate change and variability (Davidson et al., 2003 Adger et al., 2004).

Box 175 Gender aspects of vulnerability and adaptive capacity

There is a body of research that argues that women are more vulnerable than men to weather-related disasters. The impacts of past weather-related hazards have been disaggregated to determine the differential effects on women and men. Such studies have been done, for example, for Hurricane Mitch in 1998 (Bradshaw, 2004) and for natural disasters more generally (Fordham, 2003). These differential impacts include numbers of deaths, and well-being in the post-event recovery period. The disproportionate amount of the burden endured by women during rehabilitation has been related to their roles in the reproductive sphere (Nelson et al., 2002). Children and elderly persons tend to be based in and around the home and so are often more likely to be affected by flooding events with speedy onset. Women are usually responsible for the additional care burden during the period of rehabilitation, whilst men generally return to their pre-disaster productive roles outside the home. Fordham (2003) has...

Towards an Integrated Adaptive Model

The envisaged models below are based on Figs. 11.1 and 11.3, the summaries in Tables 11.1 and 11.2, and discussions of the homeothermic imperative . As discussed in Auliciems (1981, 1983), and Auliciems and de Dear (1997), cognitive-affective-effective control is a main interface between the biological and technological response, and one that should be central to the field of natural hazards risk-management research as defined in Burton et al. (1978), and Whyte (1985), and to coping with natural disasters (Alexander 1993). Indeed, given the earlier listed impacts and adaptations in Table 11.2, and the urban metabolism analogy, it would be surprising if at least temperatures or their thermal equivalents did not feature prominently in most third order systems within the human domain, in addition to the specific attributes of the hazard under consideration. Summaries of the three orders are as follows.

Further Reading and Web Sites

Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1991. This is a moderately advanced textbook on the science of natural hazards. Federal Emergency Management Agency. FEMA is the nation's premier agency that deals with emergency management and preparation and issues warnings and evacuation orders when disasters appear imminent. National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA). NASA's Web site on Natural Hazards Earth scientists around the world use NASA satellite imagery to better understand the causes and effects of natural hazards including climate change. This site posts many public domain images to help people visualize where and when natural hazards occur and to help mitigate their effects. All images in this section are freely available to the public for re-use or re-publication. Available online. URL Accessed January 30, 2008. National Weather Service. The National Weather Service, FEMA, and the Red Cross maintain a Web site dedicated to describing how to...

Climate change An age of migration

A number of charities and think tanks have followed suit, claiming that 1 billion people could be forced to leave their homes over the next 50 years as the effects of climate change exacerbate an already serious 'migration crisis' (Christian Aid, 2007). 'Natural disasters, together with the effects of resource stripping, have displaced millions' (Conisbee and Simms, 2003). Although there are no conclusive global figures on the number of people who are at risk of displacement, Professor Norman Myers suggests that in 1995 there were at least 25 million people displaced for environmental reasons over and above the 27 million 'traditional refugees', and 'when global warming takes hold, there could be as many as 200 million people' (Myers, 2005).

How hurricanes n are named

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is tasked with the primary mission to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the nation from all hazards, including natural disasters. During disasters such as hurricanes, FEMA works with other organizations that are part of the nation's emergency management system, such as local emergency management agencies and the American Red Cross. They are involved in work dealing with storm surges and flooding. Computer models have been developed for coastal communities that can project various water saturation heights onto a coastal area for different hurricane categories. Computers can also simulate slow-moving and rapidly moving hurricanes in order to see the real-time potential effects of the storm. These types of computer simulations allow emergency planners to prepare evacuation and emergency preparedness plans.

Potential National Security Consequences of Climate Change

In a world that sees a 2-meter (6.6-foot) sea level rise with continued flooding ahead, it will take extraordinary effort for the United States, or indeed any country, to look beyond its own salvation. All of the ways in which human beings have responded to natural disasters in the past, which John R. McNeill describes in chapter 2, could come together in one conflagration rage at government's inability to deal with the abrupt and unpredictable crises religious fervor and perhaps even a dramatic rise in millennial end-of-days cults hostility and violence toward migrants and minority groups, at a time of demographic change and increased global migration and intra-and interstate conflict over resources, particularly food and freshwater.

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