Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health

EMF Protection

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! Read more here...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Overview


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Electromagnetic Radiation

The electromagnetic spectrum categorizes types of radiation according to wavelength, with the shortest wavelengths being cosmic rays, and in increasing wavelength, gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible rays, infrared rays, microwave rays, radio waves, and television waves. The environment contains a low level of constant background radiation, mostly from the radioactive decay of minerals and radioactive gases such as radon and thoron. Some background radiation, known as cosmic radiation, comes from space. The sun emits solar radiation consisting of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and infrared waves spanning the entire spectrum of electromagnetic wavelengths from radio waves to X-rays. The sun also emits high-energy particles such as electrons, especially from solar flares. X-rays, because of their extremely short wavelength, are able to penetrate soft tissue and some sands and soils and reflect off internal denser material such as bones or rocks. This property has made...

Characteristics Of Electromagnetic Radiation

Radiation from different wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum has very different characteristics and uses. Ultraviolet radiation has wavelengths shorter than visible light and longer than X-rays, falling between 400 and 10 nm, and has energies between 3 and 124 electron volts. Ultraviolet radiation is emitted by the sun and is a highly energetic ionizing radiation that can induce chemical reactions, may cause some substances to glow or fluoresce, and can cause sunburn on human skin. The ultraviolet radiation from the sun is poisonous to most living organisms but is absorbed by the atmospheric ozone layer, preventing significant damage to life on Earth. If the ozone layer is depleted, ultraviolet radiation will cause significant damage to life on the surface of the Earth. During the early history of the Earth, no ozone layer existed, so the surface was constantly drenched in ultraviolet radiation. This may have prevented life from inhabiting the surface until a few billion years...

Types Of Electromagnetic Radiation

The electromagnetic spectrum is usually divided into several different regions according to wavelength, with the most common classification scheme including radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. The electromagnetic spectrum Ultraviolet radiation has wavelengths shorter than visible light and longer than X-rays, falling between 400 and 10 nm, and has energies between 3 and 124 electron volts. Ultraviolet radiation is emitted by the sun and is a highly energetic ionizing radiation that can induce chemical reactions, may cause some substances to glow or fluoresce, and can cause sunburn on human skin. The ultraviolet radiation from the sun is poisonous to most living organisms but is CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADiATiON

Ionizing And Nonionizing Radiation

Ionizing radiation includes any radiation process in which individual quanta of energy are capable of ionizing atoms or molecules within the material that absorbs the radiation. Ionizing radiation is produced by the natural radioactive decay of rocks and radioactive materials, by cosmic rays, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and by similar processes that occur in nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, X-ray equipment, and high-energy physics experiments. Ionizing radiation can cause chemical changes to the material and can damage biological tissues as well as rock and structural materials. Nonionizing radiation is any type of radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum to ionize atoms or molecules. In most cases nonionizing radiation consists of the lower-energy parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared light, and visible light. These lower-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation do not ionize or damage tissue but...

Into deepest time Faint Young Sun and habitability of the Earth

All of this atmospheric evolution takes place against a backdrop of a gradually brightening Sun. The energy produced within a star leaves the star almost exclusively in the form of electromagnetic radiation - loosely speaking, light of all wavelengths. The net power output is called the luminosity, and is measured in Watts (a measure of energy per unit time), just as if the star were a light bulb. Stars like the Sun get their energy by fusing hydrogen into helium, and as time goes on the proportion of helium in the Sun increases, thus increasing the mean molecular weight of the Sun. This in turn means that the core of the Sun needs to contract and heat up in order to maintain the pressure required to balance gravity. The increased density and temperature increases the rate of fusion more than the reduced availability of hydrogen reduces it, so the rate of production of energy - and hence the Solar luminosity - increases with time. The resulting evolution of luminosity over time rests...

Introductory concepts

The atmosphere is a compressible fluid, and the description of such a form of matter is usually unfamiliar to students who are just completing calculus and classical mechanics as part of a standard university physics course. To complicate matters the atmosphere is composed of not just a single ingredient, but several ingredients, including different (mostly nonreactive) gases and particles in suspension (aerosols). Some of the ingredients change phase (primarily water) and there is an accompanying exchange of energy with the environment. The atmosphere also interacts with its lower boundary which acts as a source (and sink) of friction, thermal energy, water vapor, and various chemical species. Electromagnetic radiation enters and leaves the atmosphere and in so doing it warms and cools layers of air, interacting selectively with different constituents in different wavelength bands.

Cleaner Production

The raw steel is fed in automatically. The process can be operated continuously or in batches, depending on the material to be coated. The surface preparation is performed by controlled shot blasting (Figure 1.4). The steel is heated by induction and enters the coating chamber through a window profiled to match the cross-section of the steel. The zinc is melted in an inert atmosphere by an electric furnace and flows into the galvanizing unit. The liquid zinc is held in suspension by an electromagnetic field. The speed of the production line is controlled by computer. Measuring the thickness of the coating using electromagnetic methods allows precise control of the process.14 The technology that enabled the cleaner production included induction heating to melt the zinc, the use of an electromagnetic field to control the distribution of the molten zinc, and computer control of the process.

Brightness and Color Temperature

Suppose we have an instrument that can measure radiant power over some range of frequencies anywhere in the electromagnetic spectrum. For simplicity we assume a narrow field of view for the instrument, but this is not necessary. If we were to point the instrument in a particular direction at a source of radiation, which could, but need not, be a measurably emitting body, the instrument would dutifully measure a radiant power. Now we can ask, What temperature must a blackbody have in order for the instrument reading to be the same This temperature is called the brightness temperature of the source, not to be confused with the ordinary (or thermodynamic) temperature. Even if the radiation measured is mostly or entirely emitted (as opposed to reflected) by a body, its brightness temperature is not the same as its temperature unless we happen to choose a frequency range over which the emissivity of the body is almost 1.

Chronology Of Developments

Remote sensing detects and measures the characteristics of a target without being in physical touch with it. Information about the object is derived through electromagnetic energy. Aircraft and satellites are the main platforms for remote-sensing observations. Aerial photographs are the original form of remote sensing and remain the most widely used method. Infrared thermometry provides a way to determine the surface temperatures of plants and animals. Precise handheld infrared thermometers are commercially available to provide these measurements. The technology allows the measurement of the surface temperature with a resolution of a few square centimeters.

Effect of the Environment on Solar UV

As described above, environmental effects resulting from UV radiation exposure do exist however, several effects are also produced by the environmental components on the solar UV flux during its passage through the atmosphere. The presence of numerous substances, components (e.g., NO2, SO2), and aerosol particles due to fire, air pollution, dust, etc. (Fig. 4.9), modifies UV diffusion and scattering, creating measurement, sampling, and modeling problems.

Information and Protection Programs

The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are the most influential international institutions in this field of research. A visit to their web-portal is an educational experience. Other national portals are also available as additional sources of valuable information. Another very informative source is the WHO INTERSUN Programme (WHO, 2008b), created as a result of Agenda 21 actions (UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 3 -14, 1992). Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally, and locally by various organizations within the United Nations system, governments, and major groups involved in every area of human impacts on the environment. In addition, there are numerous publications available as relevant sources of information (e.g., Global Solar UV Index A...

Miscellaneous Flow Meters

According to Faraday's law, when a conductor passes through an electromagnetic field, an electromotive force is induced in the conductor that is proportional to the velocity of the conductor. In the actual application of this law in the measurement of the flow of water or wastewater, the salts contained in the stream flow serve as the conductor. The meter is inserted into the pipe containing the flow just as any coupling would be inserted. This meter contains a coil of wire placed around and outside it.

Partially absorbing atmospheres

A blackbody has unit emissivity at all frequencies and directions. A blackbody also has unit absorptivity, which is just a restatement of the condition that blackbodies interact strongly with the radiation field. For a non-black body, we can define the absorptivity a(v, n) by shining light at a given frequency and direction at the body and measuring how much is reflected and how much comes out the other side. Specifically, suppose that we shine a beam of electromagnetic energy with direction n, frequency v and flux Finc at the test object. Then we measure the additional energy flux coming out of the object once this beam is turned on. This outgoing flux may come out in many different directions, because of scattering of the incident beam in exotic cases, even the frequency could differ from the incident radiation. Let T and R be the transmitted and reflected energy flux, integrated over all angles and frequencies. Then, the absorptivity is defined by taking the ratio of the flux of...

Molecules and Particles Similarities and Differences

As far as absorption (or scattering) is concerned a molecule is a particle of zero dimensions. Although molecules do indeed have extension in space they are fuzzy. In any interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, the relevant measuring stick is the wavelength, against which molecules are quite small, even for wavelengths well into the ultraviolet. The separate parts of molecules therefore radiate in unison. A corollary of this is that absorption by molecules and by small (compared with the wavelength) particles ought to be similar. And indeed they are, with some notable exceptions. The absorption spectrum of water vapor at infrared frequencies exhibits many narrow, closely spaced rotational lines (Fig. 2.12), whereas these lines vanish completely in bulk water, which we interpreted as collisional broadening taken to its extreme, and hence vanish from the absorption spectra of water droplets of all sizes. Although vibrational bands are broadened and shifted in going from...

Iihealth Hazard Recognition

Of utmost importance in recognizing occupational disease is the identification of all agents present in the workplace that, alone or with other materials, are capable of causing adverse health effects. Agents are divided into two broad categories physical and chemical. Common agents include noise, solvents, heavy metals, and temperature extremes. The list of harmful agents also includes ionizing radiation, infectious agents, and musculoskeletal stressors. At a typical hazardous waste site a single physical agent, such as vibration, may not pose a significant risk however, in combination with other stressors it may have an additive or synergistic effect. For instance, workers required to wear personal protective equipment may be more susceptible to heat illnesses, rashes, and allergies.

Scattering An Overview

Although palpable matter may appear continuous and often is electrically neutral, it is composed of discrete electric charges. Light is an oscillating electromagnetic field, which can excite these charges to oscillate. Oscillating charges radiate electromagnetic waves, a fundamental property of such charges with its origins in the finite speed of light. These radiated electromagnetic waves are scattered waves, excited by a source external to the scatterer. Incident waves from the source excite secondary waves from the scatterer, and the superposition of all these waves is what is observed. The secondary waves are said to be elastically scattered if their frequency is that of the source (coherently scattered also is used). The empirical approach arrives at these laws as purely geometrical statements about what is observed, and a discreet silence is maintained about underlying causes (always a safe course). The second approach is by way of continuum electromagnetic theory reflected and...

Distinction between a Theory and an Equation

This theory give correct results (sometimes) Consider first an opaque screen with no slits and illuminated on one side. No light is transmitted. Why If you accept the superposition principle for electromagnetic waves, you cannot believe that the incident wave is destroyed. It exists everywhere just as it did without the screen in place. But the screen gives rise to secondary waves excited by the primary (incident) wave, and the superposition (interference) of all these waves is what is observed. With the screen in place, interference is destructive everywhere behind it no net wave is transmitted. If it bothers you that the incident wave still exists in the space on the dark side of the screen, consider a standard problem in electrostatics. A conducting shell is placed in an external electric field. Inside the shell the total field is zero (electric shielding). Why The external field induces a charge distribution on the outer surface of the shell (with zero total charge), within which...

Measurements on Plants

UVB radiation can be damaging to plant physiology and plant growth (Teramura and Sullivan, 1994), but solar visible radiation is important to the photosynthesis process in plants. This radiation (400 nm - 700 nm) is referred to as photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR). Both PAR and UV radiation within the solar spectrum have to be accounted for as the plant response to UVB depends on solar visible radiation exposure (Caldwell et al., 1995). PAR can have a direct influence on plant response to UVB radiation. Plant response to UVB radiation during growth can be a function of PAR levels. There may be an observed reduction in plant growth and mass with reduced PAR and increasing UV radiation, and different plant species may not respond in the same way. Rather than relying on large equipment that is too bulky for measuring solar spectral irradiance or broadband UV within a plant canopy, a combination of dosimeters can be used to evaluate the UVB and PAR incident on a plant canopy. A...

Review of geospatial technologies

GIS and RS spatial data structures can be categorized into vector and raster data types. Vector data are comprised of points, lines, and polygons while raster data is comprised of grid cells. In general, vector data are the data of choice for accurate mapping purposes and raster data are the data of choice for mathematical and probabilistic analyses. Integration of GIS and RS can occur on a variety of levels, but an obvious unifying characteristic of both disciplines is raster spatial data. Raster GIS data is generally created by the tessellation of geographic space via interpolation of points to a statistical grid surface or by simply subdividing geographic space into a regular grid. Figure 1 illustrates a polygon that has been tessellated into a square grid to create a raster data type. Remotely sensed data is often the product of information about reflected portions of the electromagnetic spectrum captured on a charge coupled device. The size of pixels generated via a digital to...

Measuring Instruments

Direct-reading instruments have been developed as early warning devices for use at various industrial sites, where a leak or an accident could release a high concentration or high dose of a known chemical or known radiation into the environment. They provide information on flammable, or explosive atmospheres, oxygen deficiency, certain gases and vapors, or ionizing radiation, at the time of measuring, enabling rapid decision making by the plant managers. Direct-reading instruments, which can be either batch monitoring systems or continuous monitoring systems, are the primary tools of initial site characterization. The readers are referred to Chapter 1 entitled Onsite Monitoring and Analyses of Industrial Pollutants for more information on several common direct-reading field instruments and their conditions and or hazardous substances they measure.

Governance of infrastructure transformation

'As cultural artefacts, they technologies reflect the past as well as the present. Attempting to reform technology without systematically taking into account the shaping context and the intricacies of internal dynamics may well be futile. If only the technical components of systems are changed, they may snap back into their earlier shape like charged particles in a strong electromagnetic field. The field also

Effects of Solar UV on Human Health and Epidemiology

There are also benefits to UV- radiation exposure, including the production and regulation of vitamin D (Holick, 1999), that claims to reduce the risk for many non-cutaneous cancers (Garland et al., 1985 Gorham et al., 1989 Garland et al., 2002 Grant, 2002a, b, c Grant, 2003). Table 12.1 lists common cancers with their United States population risk in the order of U.S. mortality.

Factors controlling UV injury

Aquatic organisms have adapted to certain levels of UV-B and exhibit different levels of tolerance to UV-B. Species naturally adapted to high levels of solar radiation exposure would be more tolerant to high levels of UV-B than species not naturally adapted to high levels, especially in clear, shallow water. The presence of shading structures, including vegetation in riparian and littoral zones, is important. There should be sufficient numbers of trees along a stream bank or pond edge to provide sufficient canopy shading over the water column. Floating and submerged aquatic vegetation also provides protection from solar UV-B. Dewatering of the water column by irrigation or other diversion, or channelization results in erosion of stream banks and excess deposition in side channels can result in overexposure of organisms to solar UV-B. Aquatic organisms can also be exposed to sudden and intense levels of UV-B when they inhabit water that is turbid a large part of the year and then...

Polarization The Hidden Variable

In previous chapters we noted in passing that electromagnetic waves are vector waves but were able to sidestep this and make physical arguments based on scalar waves. For example, the simple phase difference arguments in Chapter 3, so helpful for understanding scattering by particles, are essentially independent of the vector nature of electromagnetic waves. To understand polarization, however, requires us to face this head on.

Radiation Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet radiation was discovered as a result of the observation that silver salts darken on exposure to sunlight. In 1801, the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter first observed that invisible electromagnetic radiation was responsible for this darkening. These rays eventually became known collectively as UV, so named as this radiation is immediately beyond violet in the electromagnetic spectrum. This implies that UV is more energetic than the visible light. Conventionally, UV radiation is broken down into further subdivisions as shown in Table 1

Numerical Modeling of Tropical Storms

Turbulence affects, among many other things, the rate at which surface energy and moisture enter the atmosphere. For example, it is a well-known fact that hurricanes are strengthened by the thermal energy and water vapor from the surface of warm oceans and they rapidly decay if either of these sources is cut off. The parameterization of turbulence in NWP models is usually divided into two parts horizontal and vertical. In general, the horizontal diffusion is defined as a function of the deformation of momentum, while the vertical diffusion is implemented using a multi-level planetary boundary layer model. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is also generally treated separately as the viscous sub-layer, the surface layer, and the transition layer in which the surface layer provides the necessary link for the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes that are very important in TC development (cf. Fig. 2).

General Management and Disposal of Universal Wastes

Universal waste lamp Lamp, also referred to as universal waste lamp is defined as the bulb or tube portion of an electric lighting device. A lamp is specifically designed to produce radiant energy, most often in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Examples of common universal waste electric lamps include, but are not limited to, fluorescent, high-intensity discharge, neon, mercury vapor, high-pressure sodium, and metal halide lamps.

Summary and Conclusions

Plant tolerance to UV-B exposure involves many different strategies including radiation avoidance, changes in leaf structure, enhanced production of UV-B absorbing pigments, enhanced production of photosynthetic pigments, and dimer repair (Caldwell et al., 1983 Day et al., 1992 Vogelmann, 1993). The 2004 greenhouse and field experiments showed that the production of secondary compounds in the presence of UV radiation differed between Essex and Williams 82 cultivars. Williams 82 showed no significant increase in UV-B absorbing compounds after 18 hours of UV-B radiation exposure. Essex, on the other hand, accumulated UV-B absorbing compounds while UV-B exposed Williams accumulated chlorophyll a and carotenoids compared to control plants. The lack of UV exposure effects on pigments in some plants was related to higher UV-B screening compounds (Day et al., 1992 Sullivan et al., 2000). This may explain why UV-B did not significantly alter photosynthetic pigment concentrations in Essex.

Sunspots Flares And The Solar Cycle

The Sun produces a steady stream of electromagnetic radiation from the photosphere, essentially unchanging with time. Superimposed on this steady, quiet process are several dynamic, active, or changing events and cycles that show the Sun also has some unpredictable and explosive behavioral traits. These features are not significant in terms of total solar energy output but do influence the electromagnetic radiation received on Earth. They include sunspots, solar flares, magnetic storms, the solar cycle, and changes in the solar corona.


Satellites allow the Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans to be observed from space. Similar to humans, satellites have sensors that serve as their eyes. Satellites can see better than humans, however, because their sensors can detect much more of the Sun's electromagnetic energy, that is, all the energy that comes from the Sun. This energy travels through space from the Sun to the Earth and is composed of several ranges of wavelengths. The Maya causeway (old remnants of trade routes used by the ancient Mayan culture) was detected through analysis of wavelengths in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Even though old paths may not be visible to the human eye, they appear different from vegetation in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Because they are discernable with imaging equipment, these ancient routes can be discovered, mapped, analyzed, and explored.

Scattering by molecules Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering theory is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) electromagnetic scattering theory which began life as a theory for scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from a small sphere with real index of refraction n. Small in this context means small compared to the wavelength of the light being scattered. The scattering calculation is quite simple in the Rayleigh limit because the incident electric field is nearly constant over the particle, which makes it simple to compute the induced electromagnetic field within the particle. In essence, the electric field of the incident wave causes charges within the particle to migrate so that positive charge accumulates on one side and negative charge on the other, leading to a dipole moment which oscillates with the same frequency as that of the incident wave. The index of refraction is in fact a measure of the polarizability of the medium -the proportionality between the strength of the electric field and the strength of the dipole...

Elementary models of radiation balance

Planck Curve Frequency Jupiter

There are many ways a planet can gain energy, but essentially only one way a planet can lose energy. Since a planet sits in the hard vaccuum of outer space,and its atmosphere is rather tightly bound by gravity, not much energy can be lost through heated matter streaming away from the planet. The only significant energy loss occurs through emission of electromagnetic radiation, It is a matter of familiar experience that a sufficiently hot body emits light - hence terms like red hot or white hot. Once it is recognized that light is just one form of electromagnetic radiation, it becomes a natural inference that a body with any temperature at all should emit some form of electromagnetic radiation, though not necessarily visible light. Thermodynamics provides the proper tool for addressing this question. Imagine a gas consisting of two kinds of molecules, labeled A and B. Suppose that the two species interact strongly with each other, so that they come into thermodynamic equilibrium and...

Photoprotective mechanisms

Protection of freshwater aquatic organisms from UV-induced injury is dependent on a variety of factors that can function as photoprotective mechanisms. When UVR breaches photoprotective mechanisms in sufficient amount, UV-induced injury will occur. Aquatic organisms vary in their tolerance to UV exposure. There is a likely interplay between the ecological niche occupied by an organism and its UV sensitivity. Throughout an organism's life stages, its habitats and habits will likely complement the organism's tolerance for UV. Nocturnal or crepuscular activity regimes would clearly limit UV exposure, as would the organism's selection of UV-limiting habitats. Fish species have adapted to certain levels of UV and probably exhibit different ranges of tolerance to solar UVR. Species naturally adapted to high levels of solar radiation exposure would be more tolerant of high UV-B levels than species adapted to low levels of solar radiation. Indeed, razorback suckers, a fish species naturally...

Scattering by an Isotropic Homogeneous Sphere

Atmospheric Isotropic Interruption

Briefly, the solution to the problem of scattering by an arbitrary homogeneous sphere illuminated by a plane wave can be obtained by expanding the incident, scattered, and internal electric and magnetic fields in series of vector spherical harmonics (general solutions to the equations of the electromagnetic field in spherical coordinates). The coefficients of these expansion functions are chosen so that the tangential components of the fields are continuous across the surface of the sphere. Thus this scattering problem is formally identical to reflection and refraction because of interfaces, although the sphere problem is considerably more complicated because the scattered and internal fields are not plane waves.

Scattering by particles

The Mie solution is a solution to Maxwell's electromagnetic equations which is asymptotic to a plane wave at large distances from the particle, and satisfies appropriate continuity conditions on the electromagnetic field at the particle boundary, where the index of refraction is discontinuous. Since Maxwell's equations are linear, the solution can be built up from more elementary solutions to the equations, and this is how Mie theory proceeds. It furnishes the solution in terms of When the particles are very strongly absorbing the behavior is somewhat different,as typified by the curve for n 1 in Fig. 5.7. In this case the absorption efficiency actually overshoots unity for particles somewhat smaller than a wavelength. The particle is able to sweep up and absorb radiation from an area larger than its cross-section, owing to the distortion of the electromagnetic field caused by the particle itself. On the other hand, as the particle is made larger, the absorption efficiency goes down...

Thermodynamics of a photon gas

Thermodynamics can be applied to a gas of photons, particles that mediate the electromagnetic field. In this section we will derive the Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Wien displacement law from thermodynamic arguments only.54 In Chapter 1 we used a kinematic argument to derive how the pressure in a gas can be written as an average of the momentum transfer in the direction of a wall over all particles that collide with the wall, see Eq. 1.11. For a photon gas this equation needs to be reinterpreted despite being massless, a photon does have momentum. We can derive an equivalent version of Eq. 1.11 where we replace M1U by Px, the momentum of the particle in the direction of the wall. We then find for the pressure p

The Lifetime Of A Greenhouse Gas In The Earths Atmosphere

The microscopic radiative efficiency of a greenhouse gas is determined by measuring absolute absorption coefficients for infra-red-active vibrations in the range ca. 400 2000 cm 1 and integrating over this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its meaning is unambiguous. The lifetime, however, is a term that can mean different things to different scientists, according to their discipline. It is, therefore, pertinent to describe exactly what is meant by the lifetime of a greenhouse gas (penultimate row of Table 2), and how these values are determined.

Subdisciplines Of Modern Astronomy

The field of observational astronomy is based on data received from electromagnetic radiation from Infrared astronomy works with infrared wavelengths (longer than the wavelength of red light) and is used primarily to study areas such as planets and circumstellar disks that are too cold to radiate in the visible wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. The longer infrared wavelengths are able to penetrate dust clouds, so infrared astronomy is also useful for observing processes such as star formation in molecular clouds and galactic cores blocked from observations in the visible wavelengths. Infrared astronomy observatories must be located in outer space or in high dry locations since the Earth's atmosphere is associated with significant infrared emissions. The study and analysis of celestial objects at X-ray wavelengths is known as X-ray astronomy. X-ray emitters include some binary star systems, pulsars, supernova remnants, elliptical galaxies, galaxy clusters, and active...

Classical versus Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Absorption

With this preamble, consider absorption of electromagnetic energy by a single isolated oscillator from the classical and quantum-mechanical points of view. According to the classical analysis in Section 2.6, the rate at which power is absorbed by an oscillator from a time-harmonic electromagnetic wave of given amplitude depends on its frequency w. Absorption is sharply peaked in a narrow range of frequencies, called an absorption line (or band), centered on the natural frequency of the oscillator. The width of the line is a consequence of damping of the oscillator. Now consider the same process from a quantum-mechanical point of view. The incident monochromatic electromagnetic wave is considered to be a stream of photons, each with energy frw. Absorption of electromagnetic energy is a consequence of absorption of photons. If the oscillator absorbs a photon, the energy of the oscillator must increase. But this increase can be only one of a set of discrete values. Unless the energy of...

Impact of Solar UV on Human Health

Prolonged human exposure to solar UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, in the eyes, and on the immune system. Sunburn (erythema) is the best-known acute effect of excessive UV radiation exposure (Lindfors and Vuilleumier, 2005). Over the longer term, UV radiation induces degenerative changes in skin cells, fibrous tissue, and blood vessels leading to premature skin aging, photodermatoses, and actinic keratoses. Another long-term effect is an inflammatory reaction of the eye. In the most serious cases, skin cancer and cataracts can occur (De Gruijl et al., 2003). The relationship between the exposure to UV radiation and the level of disease is shown in Figs. 4.14 and 4.15.

Origin Of The Greenhouse Effect Primary And Secondary Effects

The earth is a planet in dynamic equilibrium, in that it continually absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation. It receives ultra-violet and visible radiation from the sun, it emits infra-red radiation and energy balance says that 'energy in' must equal 'energy out' for the temperature of the planet to be constant. This equality can be used to determine what the average temperature of the planet should be. Both the sun and the earth are black-body emitters of electromagnetic radiation. That is, they are masses capable of emitting and absorbing all frequencies (or wavelengths) of electromagnetic radiation uniformly. The distribution curve of emitted energy per unit time per unit area versus wavelength for a black body was worked out by Planck in the first part of the twentieth century, and is shown pictorially in Fig. 1. Without mathematical detail, two points are relevant. First, the total energy emitted per unit time integrated over all wavelengths is proportional to (T K)4....

A simple radiation model

A blackbody is a body that absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation with perfect efficiency. Thus, all the where Apeak is the wavelength at peak intensity, b is a constant, and T is the temperature. For T in Kelvin and mpeak in meters, b 2.898 X 10-3 mK. From equation 1.5, it is evident that not only does the sun emit more radiation than Earth, it also emits it at a shorter wavelength. With T 6,000 K, as for the sun, we find Apeak 0.483 X 10-6m or about 0.5 nm. Electromagnetic radiation at this wavelength is visible that is (no surprise), the peak of the sun's radiation is in the form of visible light. (This fact is no surprise because eyes have evolved to become sensitive to the wavelength of the radiation that comes from the sun.) On the other hand, the radiation that Earth emits (at 255 K) occurs at Apeak 1.1 X 10-5m, which is infrared radiation, also called longwave radiation. The importance of this difference lies in the fact that the molecules in Earth's atmosphere are able...

Nature And Laws Of Radiation

The behavior of electromagnetic radiation may be summed up in the following simplified statements The wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is given by the equation Electromagnetic radiation consists of the flow of quanta or particles, and the energy content (E) of each quantum is proportional to the frequency given by the equation For the sun the wavelength of the maximum emission is near 0.5 j,m and is in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Wave and Particle Languages

We may discuss electromagnetic radiation using two languages wave or particle (photon) language. As with all languages, we sometimes can express ideas more succinctly or clearly in the one language than in the other. We use both, separately and sometimes together in the same breath. We need fluency in both. Much ado has been made over this supposedly lamentable duality of electromagnetic radiation. But no law requires physical reality to be described by a single language. We may hope for such a language, but Nature often is indifferent to our hopes. Moreover, we accept without protest or hand-wringing the duality of sound. We describe sound waves in air as continuous while at the same time recognizing that air, and hence sound, is composed of discrete particles (molecules) in motion. All electromagnetic waves propagate in free space (which does not strictly exist) with the same speed c, about 3 x 108 ms1. A plane harmonic wave in free space can just as well be characterized by its...

Treatment Options Available To Us

Electromagnetic Waves (EM) - Electromagnetic radiation is the propagation of energy through space by means of electric and magnetic fields that vary in time. Electromagnetic radiation may be specified in terms of frequency, vacuum wavelength, or photon energy. For water purification, EM waves up to the low end of the UV band will result in heating the water. (This includes infrared as well as most lasers.) In the visible range, some photochemical reactions such as dissociation and increased ionization may take place. At the higher frequencies, it Photoemission - Electromagnetic radiation of energy can cause photoemission of electrons whose maximum energy is equal to or larger than the difference between the photon energy and the work function of the material.

The General Radiation Field

Light is a superposition of electromagnetic waves, intertwined electric fields E and magnetic fields H. Because these fields are vectors, so are electromagnetic waves. They satisfy vector wave equations similar to the scalar wave equation derived in Section 3.3 for the vibrating string. We usually are most interested in the rate at which radiant energy is transported by electromagnetic waves. The electric and magnetic fields determine this transport rate by way of the Poynting vector equal to the difference in energy fluxes at its end points. Similarly, Eq. (4.1) is obtained by determining the time rate of change of electric and magnetic energy within a bounded volume and noting that this is equal to the integral of the Poynting vector over the bounding surface. The energy flux vector for the string, Eq. (3.27), is the product of two functions. Similarly, the energy flux vector for the electromagnetic field, Eq. (4.1), is the (vector) product of two fields. The scalar quantity Eq....

Resource Necessities In Nonproductive Habitats

In marginal areas low temperatures and short growing seasons can limit plant growth, which raises the question as to whether thermal energy and time should be considered as essential resources. Heat is electromagnetic radiation, and like light can be absorbed by plant tissues. The extent to which plants can absorb or dissipate thermal energy can be maximized or minimized through phenotypic plasticity in relation to shoot morphology, pigmentation, and orientation (Fig. 3.3). Nevertheless, heat is not a resource for which plants normally compete. It is, however, one of the most decisive environmental factors influencing resource acquisition.

Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Terrestrial Carbon Inventory

Different remote sensing sensors are receptive to energy from diverse parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as visible, near-infrared, infrared or thermal. Optical satellite images Complete national or regional land-use and land-cover analyses may be facilitated by satellite images. This section describes passive satellite data in the visible and near-infrared spectra. Passive sensors rely on reflectance of solar energy from the surface back to the sensor or detector. This energy is captured in the visible, near- and middle-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ( 0.4-2.5 im). Digital multispectral remote sensing data record spectral information in a number of wavelengths referred to as bands. Information up to 10 bands per pixel or unit of land can be recorded. Hyperspectral data, consisting of 100-200 bands of information, are available but require special processing methods (see, e.g. Tamas and Lenart 2006). Green vegetation exhibits a unique signature characterized...

Absorption Cross Section

We expect the absorption coefficient of a gas to depend on the concentration of its molecules. After all, the inverse of the absorption coefficient is the absorption length, and it would hardly make sense if a gas at one concentration had the same absorption length as the same gas at a higher concentration. The term concentration instead of density is used here to emphasize that absorption of electromagnetic radiation is not fundamentally dependent on mass. Electromagnetic waves exert forces on charges, not masses, which just go along for the ride. When you use the unqualified term density, make sure that you are clear whether you mean mass density (mass per unit volume) or number density (molecules per unit volume). We use number density and concentration to mean more or less the same thing.

Absorption Of Light

To put these energies and wavelengths in perspective, Table 3.2 gives some typical wavelengths, frequencies, wavenumbers, and energies of various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The region of most direct interest in tropospheric photochemistry ranges from the visible at 700 nm to the near-ultraviolet at 290 nm, the short-wavelength cutoff of the stratospheric ozone layer. The corresponding energies Eq. (M) , 170.9 and 412.4 kJ einstein1 (or 40.8 and 98.6 Other spectral regions are also important because the detection and quantification of small concentrations of labile molecular, free radical, and atomic species of tropospheric interest both in laboratory studies and in ambient air are based on a variety of spectroscopic techniques that cover a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. For example, the relevant region for infrared spectroscopy of stable molecules is generally from - 500 to 4000 cm1 (20-2.5 yum), whereas the detection of atoms and free radicals by resonance...

About Extreme Ultraviolet

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) consists of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.12 pm and 0.01 pm. EUV makes up only a tiny part of the spectrum of stars with photospheric temperatures under 10000 K - main sequence stars of spectral class B,A,F,G,K and M. (Recall that our Sun is a class G star). It nonetheless fuels the chemistry and physics of the outer atmosphere. EUV photons have sufficient energy to break up otherwise stable atmospheric compounds, allowing their components to combine into less stable forms that would not otherwise exist in appreciable quantities in the atmosphere. Further, because EUV photons are energetic enough to penetrate and interact with the electron clouds of atoms and molecules, the absorption cross section is so high that significant heating rates can be sustained despite the low EUV flux. This is not the case for the more abundant visible or near-ultraviolet photons, to which the tenuous outer atmosphere is largely transparent. For this...

Physiological Responses of Higher Plants to UVB Radiation

Seven percent of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun is in the range of 200-400 nm. As it passes through the atmosphere, the total flux transmitted is greatly reduced, and the composition of the UV radiation is modified. Short-wave UV-C radiation (200-280 nm) is completely absorbed by atmospheric gases. UV-B radiation is often defined as 280-320 nm. However, the legal definition provided by the International Commission on Illumination sets the UV-B radiation range as 280-315 nm. UV-B radiation is maximally absorbed by stratospheric ozone and thus, only a very small proportion is transmitted to the Earth's surface, whereas UV-A radiation (315-400 nm) is hardly absorbed by ozone. In the past 50 years, the concentration of ozone has decreased by about 5 , mainly due to anthropogenic pollutants, such as chlorofluorocarbons, releasing Cl atoms that catalytically remove ozone molecules from the atmosphere. The surface concentration of ozone has risen from less than 10 ppb...

Types Of Satellite Imagery

Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanners produce images representing four different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The four bands are designated band 4 for the green spectral region (0.5 to 0.6 microns) band 5 for the red spectral region (0.6 to 0.7 microns) band 6 for the near-infrared region (0.7 to 0.8 microns) and band 7 for another near-infrared region (0.8 to 1.1 microns). Part of the electromagnetic spectrum, showing relationship between wavelength, frequency, and nomenclature for electromagnetic radiation with different characteristics Radar is an active form of remote sensing, where the system provides a source of electromagnetic energy to illuminate the terrain. The energy returned from the terrain is detected by the same system and is recorded as a digital signal that is converted into images. Radar systems can be operated independently of light conditions and can penetrate cloud cover. A special characteristic of radar is the ability to illuminate the terrain from an...

Highresolutionmultispectral data

Several polar orbiting satellite sensors have multiple spectral bands located in the visible (0.4-0.7 pm), near-infrared (0.7-1.1 pm), and shortwave infrared (1.1-3.0 pm) as well as the thermal infrared (3.0-100 pm) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors typically have very high spatial resolution compared to the actual snow products derived from sensors such as AVHRR described

Sources Of Genetic Diversity In Crops

In addition to these sources of genetic diversity, new DNA sequences can be created or introduced into crop species. For example, mutations are a source of new diversity and can be induced by chemical mutagens or ionizing radiation. And with modern genetic engineering techniques, all organisms, at least in theory, can contain potentially useful genes which could be transferred between crops and induced to express themselves. These new genes then become integrated into the plant genome and are passed from generation to generation.

Optical thickness and the Schwarzschild equations

Although the radiation field varies in space only as a function of pressure, p, its intensity depends also on direction. Let I(p, n, v) be the flux density of electromagnetic radiation propagating in direction n, measured at point p. This density is just like the Planck function B(v, T), except that we allow it to depend on direction and position. The technical term for this flux density is spectral irradiance. Now we suppose that the radiation propagates through a thin layer of atmosphere of thickness Jp as measured by pressure. The absorption of energy at frequency v is proportional to the number of molecules of absorber encountered assuming the mixing ratio of the absorber to be constant within the layer for small Jp, the number of molecules encountered will be proportional to Jp, in accord with the hydrostatic law. By Kirchoff's law, the absorptivity and emissivity of the layer are the same we'll call the value Jtv, and keep in mind that in general it will be a function of v. Let...

Remote Sensors And Instruments

A remote-sensing instrument that transmits its own electromagnetic radiation to detect an object or to scan an area for observation and receives the reflected or backscattered radiation is called an active instrument. Examples are radars, scatterometers, and lidars. Radar (radio detection and ranging) Radar uses a transmitter operating at either radio or microwave frequencies to emit electromagnetic radiation and a directional antenna or receiver to measure the reflection or backscattering of radiation from distant objects. Distance to the object can be determined because electromagnetic radiation propagates at the speed of light. Radiometer This instrument quantitatively measures the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in some bands of wavelengths in the spectrum. Usually a radiometer is further identified by the portion of the spectrum it covers, for example, visible, infrared, or microwave.

Atmospheric Absorption of solar Radiation

Solar radiation is radiant energy emitted by the Sun. The process begins at the Sun's core, where hydrogen atoms are fused to helium atoms via nuclear fusion. For each second of nuclear fusion, the Sun converts 700 million tons of hydrogen into 695 million tons of helium, with 5 million tons of electromagnetic energy radiating out into space.

Quantitative analysis of the ACIA reports

The program allows for looking at the context of each word usage, which would allow a more careful comparison. This feature was mainly used to check the major uses of words with possibly ambiguous meaning (e.g. radiation referring to UV radiation, solar radiation or ionizing radiation) and to further scrutinize odd results.

Thermal radiation and Kirchhoffs law

All bodies emit electromagnetic radiation, thermal radiation, by virtue of their temperature. Before deriving its detailed characteristics, we will first explore some of the basic features of this radiation. A useful picture to keep in mind is that in quantum mechanics, electromagnetic radiation is mediated by massless particles called photons. Many properties of the radiation field can be understood by interpreting it as a photon gas.

Thermalphysical processes in freezing and thawing ground

Thermal radiation represents the process of emission of electromagnetic waves (radiant energy) by a heated body into the environment. The wave length corresponding to the highest value of emission by an absolutely black body is inversely related to its absolute temperature. The portion of heat transferred by radiation within the ground usually comprises less than a few percent of the value of the total heat flux.


By using satellite ozone and reflectivity measurements as input to a column radiative transfer model, we have derived near-global climatologies of UV radiation at earth's surface, weighted for UV-A, UV-B, human erythema induction, pre-vitamin D3 synthesis, and non-melanoma carcinogenesis. These climatologies are potentially of direct utility to epidemiological studies of the effects of UV exposure, especially if geographical gradients are of interest. For example, the induction of non-melanoma skin cancers is thought to be associated with long-term cumulative exposure to UV radiation, while melanoma mutational subtypes are associated with UV radiation exposure at different life stages (e.g., Thomas et al., 2007). The weighted UV distributions described in this chapter are available for free download from the NCAR Community Data Portal (http cdp.ucar.edu). To find the datasets, navigate the browse menu through the directory structure ACD > ACD Models > TUV > Erythemal UV. A...

The Seasonal Cycle

In most regions where ice occurs, the formation is seasonal in nature. An initial ice cover forms some time after the average daily air temperature falls below the freezing point. The ice cover thickens through the winter period and melts and decays as temperatures warm in the spring. During the formation and thickening periods, energy flows out of the ice cover, and, during the decay period, energy flows into the ice cover. This flow of energy consists of two basic modes of energy exchange the radiation of long-wavelength and short-wavelength electromagnetic energy (i.e., infrared and ultraviolet light) and the transfer of heat energy associated with evaporation and

Spatial Data Types

The raster data type (Fig. 1), also called grid or image data in which all remote sensing data come, differs greatly from vector map data. Each image (whether analogously acquired and subsequently scanned, directly digitally acquired, or computer-generated) is composed of x-columns times y-rows with square pixels (or cells) as the smallest unit. Each pixel is characterized by a certain spatial resolution (the spatial extent of a pixel side), typically ranging from 1 to 1,000 m, and an intensity (z-value). The radiometric resolution refers to the number of different intensities distinguished by a sensor, typically ranging from 8 bits (256) to 32 bits (4.3 x 109). In modern remote sensing platforms, different parts (called bands) of the incident electromagnetic spectrum are often recorded by different sensors in an array. In this case, a given scene (an image with a given length and width, the latter also termed swath, determined by the focal length and flight altitude) consists of...


Radiation is the direct transfer of heat energy. Energy travels by electromagnetic waves from the Sun to the Earth. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy associated with it, such as UV radiation. Con- versely, the longer the wavelength, the lower the energy associated with it, such as radio waves and microwaves. The majority of radiation from the Sun is in the visible and near-visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic radiation is what can be reflected, scattered, redirected, and absorbed once it reaches the Earth's atmosphere.


This review has highlighted some of the recent results of investigations into the ecological photochemistry of CDOM. While much information continues to accumulate on this subject, several issues remain. One issue is the relative contribution of CDOM photomineralization to atmospheric C02 flux out of natural waters. Another issue is the role of CDOM photodegradation in the transport of terrestrial C to the coastal ocean and its effectiveness relative to microbial degradation. Furthermore, it is unknown how the importance of CDOM photodegradation in controlling water column transparency varies among different types of natural waters and with latitude. While action spectra and SWFs are useful, we do not know if a general model can be used for all types of CDOM - we need more information on factors that affect spectral weights. For example, does prior solar radiation exposure affect the calculation of spectral weights 132 How do spectral weights calculated for marine vs. fresh water...

Acoustic Waves

Although our primary interest is (vector) electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in fluids are scalar waves and hence simpler. For this reason we often draw analogies between acoustic and electromagnetic waves. Although the two are similar, they are also different, most notably in the way they usually are detected, including by humans. Detectors of light, such as our eyes and photomultiplier tubes, are power detectors the detected signal is the time-averaged power because of the very short period (inverse frequency) of light waves relative to the detector response. But the instantaneous amplitude of sound waves is detected by the human ear.


Radiation is energy transfer due to the oscillations of electromagnetic fields or photons that have properties of both particles and waves. The properties of radiation are defined by its wavelength (X), which represents a distance between two successive wave crests. Atmospheric science is usually concerned with wavelengths that fall into ultraviolet, visible, and infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. All objects radiate energy, as long as their temperature is higher than absolute zero. The Stefan-Boltzmann law defines the total emitted energy in terms of a power law based on the object's surface temperature. Furthermore,

Galactic Evolution

As the universe expanded, these merged galaxies grew into the large-scale clusters and voids that now occupy the universe. Much of the evidence for such a history of galaxy formation comes from observations of the most distant objects in the universe, whose light and other electromagnetic radiation that reaches Earth now was generated billions of years ago when the universe was young. It seems that the further back in time one observes, the smaller and less organized individual galaxies appear. Furthermore, there are many examples of galaxies merging, and many stages are observed of irregular galaxies merging to form more complex systems.

[s20 s20Sm0d0 [

The extinction cross-section per particle, aext, computed by Mie theory needs some care. The extinction (scattering plus absorption) of an EM wave by an infinitesimal layer, dz, of a medium is given, according to Mie theory (see van de Hulst), by the reduction in the magnitude of the electric-field components

Nuclear Radiations

The three types of nuclear radiation have different effects on the human body. Alpha-particles are nuclei of helium and since they are doubly charged they lose energy rapidly and ionise strongly, and are very destructive. Their short range means that they are harmful only if the radioactive material is inside the body. The beta rays are energetic electrons and the gamma rays are short wavelength electromagnetic radiation. They can both penetrate far inside the human body. In addition to this natural radiation, we are exposed to radiation from medical diagnosis using X-rays, medical treatment, atomic bomb tests and the nuclear industry. Estimates of the radiation exposure in the United Kingdom due to all these sources are given in Table 4.1. This for medical purposes is quite high but in the long term what is important is As shown in Table 4.2, nearly half the radiation exposure due to the natural background is attributable to radon. This is a radioactive gas formed by the radioactive...

Global Warming

Carbon dioxide's importance in greenhouse effect is based on its ability to absorb much of the electromagnetic radiation below the visible light wavelength, trapping heat radiation that attempts to escape from the Earth, thereby causing an increase in the Earth's temperature. It is reported that doubling of CO2 produces a temperature rise between 2.7-9 degrees F (1.5-5 degrees C), leading to a warming of between 0.9-3 degrees F (0.5-1.7 degrees C). Also, it has been established that CO2 has significant effect in increasing the global surface temperature of the Earth's atmosphere, and of the GHGs (excluding water vapor), it is the most powerful, with a radiative forcing of 1.5 W m.2.

Based Measurements

Abstract This study describes the patterns of variation in ultraviolet (UV) exposure across time and space, using two continental scale datasets on UV radiation, and conducts a comparative analysis of two sources of noontime UV-B exposure data across the continental U.S. One dataset was collected from 37 ground-based stations equipped with broadband UV-B-1 Pyranometers across North America whereas the other dataset was of synchronous satellite data collected from the Nimbus-7 TOMS sensor. Comparisons of these datasets confirmed agreement between the ground-based measurements and the TOMS satellite estimates with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.95 for daily and monthly Ultraviolet Index (UV-I) time series (i.e., a common metric of UV radiation exposure), respectively. The UV-I value observed by the TOMS sensor is generally greater than that of the USDA ground-based measurements, and the relative error of daily change is, on average, between 5 and 12 . With these two datasets...


This is the creation of electromagnetic radiation generally produced as a result of the interactions between the molecules or atoms in the atmosphere with very high energy photons from very short wavelength radiation. These interactions raise either the molecular or atomic state of the gas or particulate matter above its normal ground state and as a result, the gas or particle can emit a longer wavelength of radiation. This emitted radiation is the result of the gas or particle reverting back to its original ground state.

Damage to the eye

The external epithelial layer of the eye, the cornea and conjunctiva, absorbs virtually all ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of less than 290 nm. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to cause damage to the eye's outer tissue. The condition most directly linked to ultraviolet radiation exposure is corneal photokeratitis (snow blindness). This is caused by acute exposure and is the ocular equivalent of sunburn. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation is linked to conditions such as pterygium (145). The role of ultraviolet B in cataract formation is complex and unclear. Some cataract subtypes are associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, but others are not.

Radiation Infrared

Molecules possessing a dipole, which can be altered by bending and stretching, absorb radiation. Atmospheric components that fill this requirement include CO2, CH4, H2O and CFC's, for example, the asymmetric stretch of CO2. These gases are collectively known as greenhouse gases. Radiation from the sun is received at the Earth's surface, mainly in the UV and visible region, with other frequencies cut out by the atmosphere and electromagnetic field.

Sulphur hexafluoride

Sunlight is the primary source of energy to the Earth. It provides infrared, visible, and ultraviolet (UV) electromagnetic radiation with different wavelengths. Small sections of the wavelengths that are visible to the human eye are reflected as rainbow colors. Sunlight may be recorded using a sunshine recorder. Electromagnetic waves are waves that are capable of transporting energy through the vacuum of outer space and that exist with an enormous continuous range of frequencies known as the electromagnetic spectrum. The spectrum is divided into smaller spectra on the basis of interactions of electromagnetic waves with matter. Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy, providing infrared, visible, and ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation.


SuNLIGHT IS THE electromagnetic radiation given off by the sun. It is passed through the atmosphere to the Earth, where the solar radiation is reflected as daylight. Sunshine results when the solar radiation is not Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy, providing infrared, visible, and ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation.

Drive point

And two axes of tilt, which were sent, without wires, to a receiver just above the ice-till interface using a low-frequency magnetic field. We would have used a relatively high-frequency electromagnetic field, which might have avoided the need for a down-hole receiver, except for the difficulty of transmitting through the heavy metal cases, which we thought might be necessary for survival of the probes in active till. The question of whether plastic casings would survive in such conditions remains open. At any rate, the wireless capability avoided the difficulty of operating a heavy moving hammer in the presence of signal cables, and was essential in our judgement. The probes were designed to transmit data once a day for a year. Data reception was intermittent owing to relatively straightforward electronic problems that could not be fixed in our single season of testing (beginning in April 2002). More details are given by Harrison et al. (2004).

Scattering light

All matter scatters electromagnetic radiation. Small particles appear to be the most effective form for climate engineering. The goal is to maximize matterradiation interaction favouring forms of the greatest electromagnetic cross section for sunlight. Thus, the particles of greatest interest would be those with dimensions of the order of the wavelength of the optical radiation to be scattered, as such particles tend to scatter radiation with the highest specific efficiency and minimal mass usage. The characteristics of the scattering are specified by the microscopic physics that determines the (complex) polarizability of the material for the wave frequency of interest, and by the material's geometry that deploys this augmented polarizability over that of the underlying vacuum over some portion of three space (Landau & Lifshitz 1984). The choice of particle parameters, primarily size, shape and composition, and the location of their emplacement would likely be based on...

Waves Planetary

The Himalayas and other land features create the planetary atmospheric waves that serve to decrease the formation of an ozone hole at the northern pole and therefore limit solar ultraviolet radiation exposure in the Arctic. Climate change could open ozone holes in the Arctic in the spring of 1997, weak planetary waves created conditions that formed a small ozone hole over the Arctic. The chemistry of ozone destruction requires very cold air temperatures in the stratosphere, and because of planetary wave action, the Arctic stratosphere stays warmer than the Antarctic stratosphere.

Remote Sensing

Remote sensing is defined as the science of obtaining and interpreting information from a distance, using sensors that are not in physical contact with the object being observed. Animals (including people) use remote sensing via a variety of body components to obtain information about their environment. The eyes detect electromagnetic energy in the form of visible light. The ears detect acoustic (sound) energy, and the nose contains sensitive chemical receptors that respond to minute amounts of airborne chemicals given off by the materials in our surroundings. Some research suggests migrating birds can sense variations in the earth's magnetic field, which helps explain their remarkable navigational ability. At its broadest, the science of remote sensing includes aerial, satellite, and spacecraft observations of the surfaces and atmospheres of the planets in our solar system, although the earth is obviously the most frequent target of study. The term remote sensing is customarily...

Snow Hydrology

Model From Synthetic Soil

Snow is a form of precipitation in hydrology it is treated somewhat differently because of the lag between when it falls and when it produces runoff and groundwater recharge, and is involved in other hydrologic processes. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for obtaining snow data for predicting snowmelt runoff as well as climate studies. Nearly all regions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide useful information about the snowpack. Depending on the need, one may like to know the areal extent of the snow, its water equivalent, or the condition or grain size, density, and presence of liquid water within the snowpack. Although no single region of the spectrum provides all these properties, techniques have been developed to provide all of the properties to some degree or other.


Physics refresher Solar radiation consists of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation has a dual wave-particle nature. This means that electromagnetic radiation exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties. In its wave form electromagnetic radiation can be thought of as a group of superimposed waves sometimes referred to as an ensemble propagating in vacuum with the speed of light c 2.998 x 108 m s-1 independent of wavelength. Each wave in this ensemble can be treated as a simple sinusoidal function (see Figure 8.1) with a certain wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. The wavelength, X, is the distance between two successive peaks of the wave. The units of X are meters. The frequency of a wave, f, is the number of cycles that pass an observer in a second. The unit of frequency is the hertz (1 Hz is one oscillation per second). The product of wavelength and frequency for an individual wave is equal to the speed of light (speed is distance divided by time) c X x f. From...

Longwave Radiation

Longwave radiation is also known as infrared, thermal, or terrestrial radiation. It is electromagnetic energy in the spectral band from roughly 3 to 100 mm. Earth surface temperatures produce emissions in this range, with peak terrestrial radiation occurring at a wavelength of about 10 mm. Spectrally integrated longwave radiation can be estimated from the Stefan-Boltzmann equation, Ql eoT4, where e is the thermal emissivity, o is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 X 10-8 W m-2 K-4, and T is the absolute temperature of the emitting surface. By definition, e is the ratio of emitted longwave radiation to that which would be emitted by a perfect blackbody (a perfect emitter or absorber) e 1 for a perfect blackbody.

The nature of light

Picture Branches Optics

Electromagnetic energy occurs in indivisible units referred to as quanta or photons. Thus a beam of sunlight in air consists of a continual stream of photons travelling at 3 x 108ms_1. The actual numbers of quanta involved are very large. In full summer sunlight. for example, 1m2 of horizontal surface receives about 1021 quanta of visible light per second. Despite its particulate nature, electromagnetic radiation behaves in some circumstances as though it has a wave nature. Every photon has a wavelength, 1, and a frequency, n. These are related in accordance with


In general, the term albedo denotes the fraction of incident radiation reflected by a particle or surface. The shortwave (i.e., in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum where the Sun's radiation is concentrated) albedo of the Earth as a whole, and temporal and spatial variations in this quantity, are of fundamental importance in the global climate system. The planetary albedo is defined as the ratio of the total shortwave radiation reflected back into space to the total incident shortwave radiation for the Earth this figure is about 30 , implying that about 70 of the incident energy in sunlight is absorbed by the Earth. This absorbed radiation is balanced by longwave (thermal infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth by virtue of its temperature. If the Earth had no atmosphere, the spatially and temporally averaged equilibrium temperature reached by its surface would be about -18 C. The presence of the atmosphere raises this average temperature, through the action of the...

Volcano Monitoring

Satellite images are now commonly used to map volcanic deposits and features and to monitor eruptions. There is now a wide range in types of features satellites can measure and monitor, including a large range of the visible and other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Changes in the volcanic surface, growth of domes, and opening and closure of fissures on the volcano can be observed from satellites. Some satellites use radar technology that is able to see through clouds and some ash, and thus are particularly helpful for monitoring volcanoes in remote areas, in bad weather, at night, and during eruptions. A technique called radar interferometry can measure ground deformation at the sub-inch (cm) scale, showing bulges and swelling related to buildup of magma beneath the volcano. Some satellites can measure and monitor the temperature of the surface, and others can watch eruption plumes, ash clouds, and other atmospheric effects on a global scale.


Think of the interaction in semiclassical terms. The reason is that the wavelength of infrared is on the order of 10 pm, which is two to three orders of magnitude larger than the size of the molecules we will be considering. Thus, one can think of the infrared light as providing a large scale fluctuating electric and magnetic field which alters the environment in which the molecule finds itself, and exerts a force on the constituent parts of the molecule. This force displaces the nuclei and electron cloud, and excites vibration or rotation. Conversely, a vibrating or rotating molecule creates a moving charge distribution, which classically radiates an electromagnetic wave. While one must fully take into account quantum effects in describing molecular motion, one need not for our purposes confront the much harder problem of quantizing the electromagnetic field as well (the problem of quantum field theory). The only way in which we make use of the quantum nature of the electromagnetic...

Solar Radiation

The spectrum of the Sun's solar radiation is similar to that of a black body with a temperature of 5,800 K. Roughly half of it lies within the range of the visible shortwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The other half resides mostly in the near infrared portion, just beyond the visible wavelengths. A small amount lies in the ultraviolet range. The incoming solar radiation travels as wavelengths at the speed of light. Over a year, the average solar radiation arriving at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is about 1,366 W m2 and the radiant power is distributed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Although the Sun's radiant power is distributed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, most of it is centered in the visible portion of the spectrum. When the Sun's rays enter the atmosphere, they are attenuated or weakened so that they are roughly 1,000 W m2 for a surface that is perpendicular to the Sun's rays at sea level on a clear day.

Acoustic Tomography

The ocean is largely transparent to sound, but opaque to electromagnetic radiation. Underwater sound is therefore a powerful tool for remote sensing of the ocean interior. This technique is used in Ocean Acoustic Tomography. It is used to measure temperatures and currents over large regions of the ocean (Munk et al. 1995). On ocean basin scales, this technique is also known as acoustic thermometry. The technique relies on precisely measuring the time it takes sound signals to travel between two instruments, acoustic source and a receiver, by distance within the range of 100-5,000 km. If the locations of the instruments are known precisely, the measurement of time-of-flight can be used to infer the speed of sound, averaged over the acoustic path. Changes in the speed of sound are primarily caused by changes in the temperature of the ocean hence the measurement of the travel times is equivalent to a measurement of temperature. A 1 C change in temperature corresponds to about 4 m s...


Acoustic Radiation Ocean Instruments

4Cosmic radiation (cosmic rays) is a naturally occurring ionizing radiation coming outside the Earth and filtering through atmosphere. A significant amount of these high-energy particles is discharged by the Sun. Scientists have argued that cosmic radiation can cause the changes in weather, e.g., can cause clouds to form in the upper atmosphere. The cosmic radiation shows an inverse relationship with the sunspot cycle. The reason is that the Sun's magnetic field is stronger during sunspot maximum and shields the Earth from cosmic rays.

Shortwave Radiation

Shortwave radiation is the main driver of snow and ice melt in most environments. Incoming solar radiation is absorbed and scattered as it traverses the gauntlet of atmospheric gases and aerosols (suspended particles such as water droplets, ice crystals, and dust). The processes of absorption and scattering depend on the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation and the size of the obstacle (gas or aerosol). Similarly, backscatter (reflection) from ice crystals is also wavelength dependent, as discussed in chapter 2. This complexity is commonly neglected in cryosphere studies, however, and the shortwave radiation and albedo in (3.1) are defined based on an integrated broadband spectrum, from about 0.2 to 2.5 mm. Alternatively, shortwave radiation can be modeled in two or three wavelength bands, for instance ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared frequencies. This is becoming

Radiation short Wave

Radiation traveling IN waves shorter than one micrometer ( im) is characterized as short wave, and includes gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and visible light. Climatologically, short wave radiation commonly refers to the incoming radiation from the sun. There is an inverse relationship between the temperature of an object and the wavelengths at which it primarily emits. Because the sun is a hot object (approximately 5800 K), it emits radiation at short wavelengths. Since shorter wavelengths carry more energy than longer ones, they are more intense. Most of the short wave emitted by the sun is in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which spans from 0.4 im (violet) to 0.7 im (red). The sun's wavelength of maximum emission is found at 0.5 im.

Radiation Long Wave

Long WAvE (or longwave) radiation is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted at spectral wavelengths generally greater than one micrometer ( im). Types of long wave radiation include infrared, microwave, and radio waves. Emittance of radiation is a function of temperature, and objects giving off long wave radiation are colder than those radiating at short wavelengths. For example, the sun (approximately 5800 K) radiates primarily in the short wave part of the spectrum (especially visible light from 0.4 to 0.7 micrometers), whereas the Earth (approximately 290 K) emits radiation at much larger wavelengths. Climatologically, long wave radiation generally refers to radiation emitted by the Earth-atmosphere system (also called terrestrial radiation), largely at wavelengths of 5-15 im. Long wave radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere falls primarily within the thermal infrared (below the red) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It can be sensed through the...

Precession Nutation

Precession Nutation

Weather events in the atmosphere are driven by heat and energy transfer. Latent heat, the amount of energy in the form of heat that is absorbed or released by a substance during a change in state such as from a liquid to a solid, is an important source of atmospheric energy. Heat transfer by convection is also important in the atmosphere, as moving air transfers energy from one region to another. Radiation, or the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves, is a third important source of energy in the atmosphere. The Sun emits energy as shortwave radiation that the Earth absorbs and subsequently emits as long wavelength infrared radiation. Water vapor and carbon dioxide can absorb energy at these wavelengths, warming the atmosphere. The atmosphere warms since it allows the Sun's short wavelength radiation through, but then traps the energy absorbed from the long wavelengths emitted from the Earth. The Earth then cools by radiation, which operates most efficiently on clear nights when...

Princeton university

Atmospheric Radiative Transfer The structure and composition of terrestrial atmospheres. The fundamental aspects of electromagnetic radiation, absorption and emission by atmospheric gases, optical extinction by particles, the roles of atmospheric species in the Earth's radiative energy balance, the perturbation of climate due to natural and anthropogenic causes, and satellite observations of climate systems are also studied.


And is responsible for the temperature of the stratosphere. Radiative processes in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum also play an important role. Because, in the stratosphere, chemistry, dynamics, and radiative processes operate under very different conditions than in the troposphere, the stratosphere is susceptible to climatic forcings in a different way than the troposphere. As a consequence, stratospheric processes play an important role for climate variability and change.

Electron Beam

The idea of using ionizing radiation to disinfect water is not new. Ionizing radiations can be produced by various radioactive sources (radioisotopes), by X-ray and particle emissions from accelerators, and by high-energy electrons. The advances in reliable, relatively low-cost devices for producing high-energy electrons are more significant.

Notes and References

Methane comes from fossil fuel and biomass burning, natural gas management, animal husbandry, rice cultivation, and waste management (S. Houweling, T. Rockmann, I. Aben, F. Keppler, M. Krol, J. F. Meirink, E. J. Dlugokencky, and C. Frankenberg, Atmospheric constraints on global emissions of methane from plants Geophysical Research Letters 33 L15821, 2006, doi 10.1029 2006GL026162 ). The atmospheric concentration of methane rose sharply through the late 1970s before leveling off at about two-and-a-half times its estimated pre-industrial concentration. Methane levels have risen slightly in each of the past few years (E. J. Dlugokencky, L. Bruhwiler, J. W. C. White, L. K. Emmons, P. C. Novelli, S. A. Montzka, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, A. M. Crotwell, J. B. Miller, and L. V. Gatti, Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4 burden Geophysical Research Letters 36 L18803, 2009 ) but the reasons for the changes are not completely clear. Nitrous oxide...

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