Homemade Electric Vehicle

Electric Car Craze

Electric Car Craze

Electric Cars Are A Savior From Pollution And Can Be A Laudable Investment For You. Find Out How Electric Car Conversion Shrinks Your Driving Expenses.

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Gas2electricity Convert Your Gas Car To Electric Power

This easy-to-read ebook takes you step-by-step through every single element of planning, implementing and succeeding with your own EV conversion. That means saving time and money on researching answers to questions such as: What battery voltages should you use? What are the advantages or disadvantages of using a big car? What performance will you get out of a low voltage system? How many batteries will you need for your required distance? How do I make an Electric Car that goes fast? Simple & effective tips to help you choose an ideal donor car You have a world full of car makes and models to choose from! So what makes a good donor car? I reveal simple strategies anyone can use to choose the best car for your own specific needs. How to choose a donor car based on aerodynamics This can play a large part in your final range. Having good aerodynamics can improve your car's range by up to 30% more in some cases. So what do you look for? Essential Donor Car Checklist If you've found a potential donor car for your conversion, you need to check a few essentials. You will learn exactly what to look for and what to avoid.(this checklist alone could save you hundreds of dollars). It's important to make sure you choose a car that you want to convert! It's all very well converting the perfect vehicle to electric, but it should be a car you like the look of and want to be seen in!

Gas2electricity Convert Your Gas Car To Electric Power Summary

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Electric Car Conversion Made Easy

Electric Conversion Made Easy is an easy-to-read ebook takes you step-by-step through every single element of planning, implementing and succeeding with your own EV conversion. That means saving time and money on researching answers to questions such as: What battery voltages should you use? What are the advantages or disadvantages of using a big car? What performance will you get out of a low voltage system? How many batteries will you need for your required distance? What about hilly driving? How do I cut costs? What are the rules? How do I make an Electric Car that goes fast? Inside you'll find answers to questions such as: What battery voltages should you use? What are the advantages or disadvantages of using a big car? What performance will you get out of a low voltage system? How many batteries will you need for your required distance? What about hilly driving? How do I cut costs? What are the rules? How do I make an Electric Car that goes fast?

Electric Car Conversion Made Easy Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Gavin Shoebridge
Official Website: www.evsecrets.com
Price: $57.00

Hybrid And Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles that were popular at the turn of the 20th century are making a comeback in the 21st century. Two entrants come from Tesla Motors, the Roadster, a high-end sport car for the elite buyer, and Think, with their City car, a working everyday runabout. Think is working to fulfill a vision of producing a carbon-neutral vehicle. The Think City has a range of 112 mi. (180 km.) on a single charge, regulated at a maximum speed of 62 mi. (100 km.) per hour. It is ideal for local driving, easily exceeding the typical 50 mi. (80 km.) a day that most people drive. Associated with an aspect of sustainability is the vehicle's battery, the major expense in any electric vehicle. It is expected that battery-leasing companies will appear to make vehicles like the Think City affordable to a wider audience. Utility operators can use batteries no longer suitable for transportation, but still retaining a useful charge, in their power facil ities to store excess energy produced by...

Transportation 1241 Electric Vehicles

Large-scale production and use of all-electric vehicles have environmental implications in two key areas. The first is the increased consumption of electricity, leading to environmental issues noted above for electric power generation. Although a recent study indicated that the existing power generation system can accommodate significant penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the study also pointed out that Higher system loading could impact the overall system reliability when the entire infrastructure is used near its maximum capability for long periods 68 . The study also noted that, if significant numbers of vehicles were being charged during load valleys, the impact on the generating system could be to emphasize more base-load type generation as opposed to the smaller units installed to meet peak demands. This could result in overall greater energy and environmental efficiencies although the report also noted that maintenance scheduling could be more difficult in...

Electric Vehicles

Electric passenger vehicles powered by batteries have been reintroduced in the United States. Although there are no tailpipe emissions associated with electric vehicles, charging the batteries requires power with which there are associated emissions. However, emissions from large sources are relatively easier to control than from millions of individual automobiles. In addition, the emissions of VOCs and CO from power plants are generally low, while those of NO,, S02, and particles depend on the type of fuel used. Natural gas-fired power plants generally have relatively low S02 and particle emissions, whereas coal-fired power plants have higher emissions of these pollutants and of NO,. Studies by Austin described by Cadle et al. (1996) suggest that the use of electric vehicles would result in lower total emissions of NO, in the western United States, where gas is used at power plants, but higher emissions in the east, where coal is used. Larger PM10 and S02 emissions were projected...

Benefits And Drawbacks

Driving the strong political backing for ethanol are energy security concerns, agricultural interests, and environmentalists. In the future, a drive for better efficiency could force ethanol to compete with electric cars and fuel cells, as well as gasoline. The trend for fuel seems to be shifting toward ethanol. In India, the

Hydrogenpowered Vehicles

Chemical battery breakthroughs are needed to improve energy storage capacity and length of storage times, which are critical for hybrid vehicles to make the transition to PHEVs. Superior battery performance is also needed as electric vehicles begin to reappear after a more than 100-year absence. Continued investment in a hydrogen infrastructure that weans humanity from fossil fuel sources is a worthy long-term goal that can pay big dividends for the patient investor. Furthermore, simply increasing fuel economy on existing vehicles can save millions of gallons of oil each year in the short term. This can be done without future hydrogen vehicles or all-electric vehicles making any contribution. Market pressure is making these types of investments happen faster than government regulations. General Motors lost its position of market dominance by ignoring customer demands for gas-electric hybrids or evolving its early generation electric vehicle. No government bailouts are expected for...

Coal and Biomass Availability

If we use biomass as a component in a CO2 management strategy, it should be used where it provides the lowest cost per tonne of CO2 avoided. As shown above, the cost per tonne CO2 avoided is much lower for liquid transportation fuels production than for power generation. In addition, if we look at the demand side of transportation (vehicle options), the most cost effective option is the hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) 48 . The HEV is about 20 less costly on an annualized basis vs. a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and about 20 less costly than a 2030 normally aspirated spark-ignition vehicle 48 . If we now look at the supply-side options, the cost per tonne of CO2 is lowest for the use of liquid fuel from biomass in an HEV compared to PHEVs or BEVs using electricity from biomass with CCS.

Environment as a Competitive Market Force

Transportation industry is a good example for this. Environmental concerns, issues and regulations are impacting the business strategies and investment decisions of major corporations world-wide. For example, while global warming was not given much attention in the early and mid-1990s, companies in the energy and automotive industries are now integrating the issue into their core businesses and long-term strategies. Pressures to reduce local air pollution are also increasing. For example, the US requires the use of reformulated fuels in certain polluted regions, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a 97 per cent reduction in the average sulphur content in diesel fuel. These and other environmental issues and tighter standards are driving companies, such as Ford, BP Amoco, Toyota, Honda and Royal Dutch Shell to develop and invest in new low emission, low carbon fuels and technologies. In the automotive equipment market, new technologies include improved catalysts...

Mobile Source Mitigation Opportunities

Abstract The objective of this chapter is to review this history, focusing initially on the historical growth patterns and the resulting environmental consequences then on the current control efforts around the world and finally on the emerging efforts to transform vehicles and fuels to accommodate increased vehicle use while minimizing impacts on the environment. Progress in mitigating emissions of criteria air pollutants has been impressive, especially in the developed world. The situation with regard to climate change is particularly challenging. Transportation is already a large contributor to the problem and is a rapidly growing sector. Modest programs to reduce fuel consumption or greenhouse gas emissions from light duty vehicles are being phased in and California and the EU have initiated efforts to reduce the carbon content of vehicle fuels. But much more will need to be done with a likely shift to battery electric vehicles fueled by green electrons or fuel cell vehicles...

Advanced Vehicle Technologies

Advanced vehicle technologies including battery electric cars, hybrids, plug in hybrids and fuel cells are mandated in California and strongly encouraged in Japan with the result that significant advances are occurring 20 over 300,000 hybrid vehicles were sold around the world in 2006.

Noneconomic considerations

A carbon neutral fuel is of little use unless consumers purchase vehicles designed to use those fuels. Currently, the consumer and commercial vehicle fleet is dominated by hydrocarbon-based internal combustion engines. The large volume of vehicle sales, 20 million annually in the USA, has led to economies of scale in production that make introducing a new vehicle type more expensive. Some hydrogen vehicles are available but the cost is two orders of magnitude higher than conventional vehicles (Mayersohn 2007). Additionally, electric vehicles are at least one order of magnitude more expensive than gasoline-powered cars (Tesla Motors 2008, While electric vehicles require a different infrastructure, the expected price of electricity with CCS, which ranges from 0.05 to 0.07 (kW h)-1 ( 14-20 GJ-1 IPCC 2005), can be compared with the fuel costs in Figure 7.2. Additionally, the consumer has come to expect certain attributes in a vehicle, including range and interior space, which may drive up...

Different approaches for different technologies

Decision-making processes by these investors vary widely and are constrained by different limitations and barriers. Power companies carry out detailed financial appraisals with the help of consultants. Citizens consider cost alongside many other factors, and do not make investments in energy efficiency or micro-generation for entirely 'rational' reasons (Watson et al., 2006). Furthermore, their choices are often restricted by existing 'locked-in' infrastructures. For example, switching to an electric car would not just depend on whether the car itself is affordable, but also whether the infrastructure exists to charge it up. Upfront cost is a particularly important barrier to investment by householders (Oxera, 2006) - something that a carbon price will do little to alleviate. Energy efficiency in industry has its own specific set of barriers (Sorrell, 2004). Therefore, these different investment contexts - the home, the community, the large-scale power market or the transport industry...

Consequences Of Economic Activities

Technologies (for example, solar and electric cars), and discovering new efficiencies in human economic activities. If the climate shifts even slightly from its averages, Michigan will face changes in crop yield, changes in pests population, a shift in forest composition and health, a loss of bird diversity, a change in local mammal populations (such as raccoons, skunks, white-tailed deer, and moose), a change in the distribution of fishes spread of invasive species, release of nutrients and contaminants, change in groundwater recharge, and a change in lake levels.

Box 41 Building a Smarter Grid

Yet the digital age, which has increased demand for electricity and highly reliable power systems, is now allowing the transition to a faster, smarter grid that can provide better-quality power with two-way communication, balancing supply and demand in real time, smoothing out demand peaks, and making customers active participants in the production as well as consumption of electricity.The smart grid allows more-efficient use of existing power capacity and ofT& D infrastructure by reducing line losses through the use of more local, distributed generation. As the share of generation from variable renewable resources increases, a smart grid can better handle fluctuations in power when the wind ebbs or clouds hide the sun. It will also allow electric vehicles to store power for transport use or to sell back to the grid when needed.

Introduction The importance of state and regional action

Characteristics, vulnerabilities and strengths of their citizens and regions. Moreover, states and regions have responsibilities that differ from the national level. They are often responsible for environment, resource and energy policy and the use of public lands, as well as public transport, waste management and access to water. They establish and or implement codes and standards for buildings, appliances and vehicles. They set taxation and subsidy policies for business and agriculture and they have a variety of regulatory and infrastructure arrangements with municipal governments. This means that the decisions taken by states and regions can actually shift the marketplace towards low-carbon solutions such as energy efficiency, sun, wind and geothermal power - and, in the case of emission standards - new vehicle technologies such as plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles.

Plugin Hybrid Vehicles

The environmental issues associated with plug-in hybrid vehicles are the same as those associated with all-electric vehicles, plus the issues associated with internal combustion engines. It is likely, however, that the issues surrounding metals used in batteries would likely be somewhat reduced, given that the batteries for hybrids would be smaller. In addition, the air pollutant emissions would likely be reduced as well compared to a conventional internal combustion engine, given that the engines for hybrid vehicles are designed to be smaller and operate within a narrower and more efficient range. Even so, significant penetration of plug-in hybrid vehicles could result in upstream impacts associated with metal mining and refining, and downstream impacts associated with battery recovery, similar to those associated with all-electric vehicles.

Comments on climate engineering in a broader context

Let us consider the counterfactual situation in which we already had zero-CO2-emissions energy economy. For example, assume that we were already using some combination of nuclear fission, renewables, carbon with capture and storage, electric vehicles, etc. Nobody knows what such total emission abatement would really cost, but let us assume for the present discussion that, with reasonably optimized research, development and deployment, a CO2-neutral energy system would cost all of us an additional 2 per cent of our income, worldwide and for ever. Now, let us assume that somebody proposed that we could increase our income by 2 per cent, but that we would thereby heat up the planet's surface, acidify the ocean, risk melting major ice sheets, shift precipitation patterns and so on. Would we trade that added environmental damage and risk of damage for 2 per cent more income globally and for ever If we would not want to 'sell out' such a carbonneutral energy system if we already had one,...

Integrating EVs and PHEVs into the electric grid longterm projections of electricity demand and CO2 emissions

Worldwide CO2-emissions constraints could stimulate the rapid development of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as a much cleaner means of transportation than standard vehicles. This paper provides new findings on this topic based on IEA projections for the year 2050. Questions covered include how much grid-electricity demand the use of PHEVs would create globally and by region, and how PHEV battery electric range affects the percentage of driving on electricity and net CO2-emission reductions. Although PHEVs, along with EVs, would increase global electricity demand by 2050, the net reduction in CO2 emissions is clearly positive, owing to 43 vehicle efficiency and avoided gasoline diesel use. In the IEA BLUE Map scenario, the IEA anticipates great numbers of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use around the world by 2050 (IEA, 2010). This is part of a broader scenario to achieve very low carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from transport through...

Recycling Prospects For Future Advanced Battery Systems Sodium Sulfur NaS

Much of the effort to develop the Na S battery was aimed at its use in electric vehicles. Current applications of this advanced battery system are now mainly in the stationary battery area, but feasibility studies were done on the recycling of this system before the EV development efforts were suspended. Sodium sulfur batteries contain reactive and corrosive materials, but not toxic ones. By treatment of the battery waste, the reactivity problems can be removed.

Vehicle Energy Storage Systems

This section will focus on advanced battery technologies with potential to be fully developed and available for use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Full Performance Battery Electric Vehicles (FPBEVs) and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) within the next 5-10 years.

Hydrogen Transportation Technology

It will be easiest for hydrogen to displace natural gas in the light-duty vehicle fleet first. Passenger vehicles are idle 90 + of the time, with fuel costs accounting for 5-10 of ownership costs. The development of hybrid electric cars and trucks and later fuel cell vehicles makes the prospect of achieving 80 mpg equivalent fuel economy over the entire vehicle fleet quite likely by 2020. This improved fuel economy is the single most important step in making hydrogen fueled vehicles viable, dramatically reducing refueling cost and the size, weight, and cost of onboard fuel storage.

Biodiesel and bioethanol

Electric vehicles More attention has recently been placed on electric vehicles. Depending upon the way in which the electricity to run them is produced they may well be in the longer run the most promising option for motorized vehicles. However, in a future electricity mix a considerable part will be produced from biomass, so even for electric vehicles there will be a substantial bioenergy component. A shift to both biogas and electric vehicles will have enormous economic and political consequences because such a shift will take the powerful oil companies completely out of fuel production and perhaps even out of fuel distribution. It is also not the optimal choice of most automobile companies who have all invested in other options. The biogas option would mean a dramatically increased role of farmers and natural gas companies, at the expense of the oil companies. The shift to electric vehicles would leave no role for oil companies at all. Don't be surprised if there is a substantial...

An Engineering Problem

Renewable energy resources, of course, exist in enormous quantities, but are generally dispersed. Places where a given renewable resource (e.g. solar, wind, geothermal) is most concentrated are generally not places where many people live. The problem of intermittency must also be addressed. In this regard the authors discuss briefly the problem of energy carriers in the form of hydrogen, superconductivity and electric vehicles. Short and Keegan conclude that the potential for terrestrially based renewable energy is huge, pointing to IPCC figures that show a potential some 21 times global energy use today.

Table of Contents

A third question is that of regional economic dislocation as developed nations, a significant fraction of which make up the EU, implement climate risk mitigation policies. The workshop focused on the implication for the oil and gas industries, which clearly represent the majority of economic activity in many states in the Middle East and northern Africa. Here, climate policy aligns with security policy, as many developed nations attempt to diminish their oil dependence. This is reflected in the strong emphasis growing on automotive efficiency, biofuels development, and revival of full or partial electric car concepts, all of which would serve to lower oil demand and to introduce elasticity into the transportation fuels market. One consequence is to have calls for reliability of supply by the oil-consuming countries answered by calls for reliability of demand by the oil-producing countries. The workshop addressed this issue through a distinguished panel including, among others,...

Etp 2010

As in many long-term projections, some main assumptions differ while Roadmap 2050 and Power Choices foresee a sustained growth in power demand, ETP 2010 BLUE Map scenario projects a rather modest 19 growth in electricity demand between 2007 and 2050, the result of massive efforts in end-use efficiency under the ETP 2010 Baseline scenario, electricity demand would grow by 57 , to 4 800 TWh. The difference is also explained by the growth in electricity demand from the transport scenario, driven by different technology assumptions in these three studies. Roadmap 2050 chooses a high penetration of 'pure' electric vehicles, whereas ETP 2010 assumes a larger contribution of so-called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which also run on fossil fuels. The Eurelectric Power Choices scenario also assumes a large penetration of electric vehicles by 2050, the total electricity demand from transport would be equivalent to half of Europe's electricity output today (Table 2).

Improving Efficiency

Many recent studies have pointed out opportunities to improve the efficiency of petroleum-fueled vehicles. In new vehicles, fuel consumption (and GHG emissions) per passenger-mile can be reduced by improving today's gasoline-fueled and diesel oil-fueled vehicles, by shifting to hybrid or electric vehicles, and by improving today's hybrid vehicles. The extent to which these changes result in reduced emissions will depend on consumer preferences regarding vehicle weight and power. Reductions in emissions intensity will depend crucially on consumers' willingness to opt for constant or reduced vehicle weight and power, so as not to offset efficiency improvements. America's Energy Future (NRC, 2009d) judged that considerable reductions in vehicle weight will be required to meet the newest U.S. fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. Energy efficiency improvements are also under way in commercial passenger aircraft, but they are not expected to be large enough to counter the...

Vehicle Integration

6.8.4.1 Full Performance Battery Electric Vehicle (FPBEV) Full Performance Battery Electric Vehicles are defined in this report as BEVs fully capable of high speed U.S. urban suburban freeway driving. 6.8.4.2 City Electric Vehicle (CEV) City Electric Vehicles are defined in this report as BEVs with limited acceleration and top speed (e.g. 50 60 mph) and thus not suitable for high speed U.S. urban suburban freeway driving, although at present they must meet all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) requirements. These performance limitations allow a smaller size battery and lower power electric drive system, so that the vehicle can have a lower manufacturing cost and thus be made more affordable to the customer. 6.8.4.3 Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Neighborhood Electric Vehicles are defined in this report as BEVs capable of top speeds between 20 and 25 mph that meet FMVSS 500 and are limited to roads with posted speeds of 35 mph or less. 6.8.4.4 Hybrid Electric Vehicle...

Conclusions

With regard to climate change the picture is much more bleak and the challenge more daunting. Transportation is already a large contributor to the problem and is a rapidly growing sector. Modest programs to reduce fuel consumption or greenhouse gas emissions from light duty vehicles are being phased in and California and the EU have initiated efforts to reduce the carbon content of vehicle fuels. Much more will need to be done with a likely shift to battery electric vehicles fueled by green electrons or fuel cell vehicles fueled by renewable hydrogen in future decades.

Background

Highest electrochemical potentials at 3.04 and 2.71V, respectively. This makes both appear to be great candidates as an anode material. Under this premise, much interest and emphasis was placed on the development and design of some of the earlier sodium sulfur batteries in military applications and electric vehicles. The sodium and sulfur couple was, in fact, very good but, in a practical battery, very poor. The downfall of the sodium based battery was the high heat generated (and necessary) for normal operation. The battery case breached in many situations releasing molten sodium and resulting in a flaming mass of burning metal. In a nutshell, sodium was found to be too reactive for any battery purpose other than very specialized low vibration, remote military applications.

Green transportation

ELECTRIC CARS AND HYBRIDS Electric cars are less polluting than normal cars, but they cannot travel far and take a long time to recharge. One solution is the hybrid, which has a small engine linked to a generator that charges a battery. This drives an electric motor that can boost the power of the engine through apower split device. Since the electrical power is used only when needed, the car produces less carbon dioxide than conventional cars.

Scenarios

Reduced fertility leads to a stabilizing global population in the middle of this century and a gradual decrease of global population between 2050 and 2100. Urbanization is halted or even reversed to more decentralized living supported by the information revolution. Affluence measured as the per capita gross regional product converges among world regions at a faster rate than in the BAU IPCC92 scenarios. The economy becomes more oriented to services and information exchange. As a consequence there is an increasing decline in the energy intensity and materials intensity of production. Renewable resources increasingly replace fossil fuels. The methane emissions from fossil sources will decrease compared to scenario P. The growing energy demand in the tropical regions and the high degree of energy efficiency measures makes electricity the most important energy carrier. Technology transfer from OECD countries to less developed regions is very successful in Q, and...

Alternate Fuels

Motor vehicles are major sources of air pollutants worldwide, and the number of vehicles is anticipated to continue growing (e.g., see Walsh, 1990). A major focus of control strategy development for mobile sources in recent years has been on the development of alternate fuels. These range from relatively minor changes in the traditional composition of gasoline, such as reformulated gasolines, to compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), alcohol fuels and their blends with gasoline, or hydrogen. There have also been significant developments in electric vehicles fueled either by batteries or fuel cells.

Hybrid propulsion

Hybrid propulsion is typically a transition technology. It helps to significantly improve the performance of the present vehicles, while leading the way for new propulsion systems 42 . It contributes to the acceleration of further progress in the area of electric batteries and should thus facilitate the development of electric cars.

Conclusion

Lithium batteries have developed over the past 30 years to become one of the most promising new battery systems. Primary and secondary lithium batteries have gained widespread use in communications, portable tools, military devices, and industry. The next five to ten years will continue to show heavy lithium battery growth in standard uses as well as development into new applications such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

Automobiles

The type of transportation employed has a major impact on the amount of carbon dioxide and pollutants produced. People can choose their mode of transportation and whether or not to be a part of a growing community that wants to reduce the effects of global warming by cutting back on tailpipe emissions. The internal combustion engine (ICE) is a poor choice of power source. It dissipates 80 percent of its energy as heat, even before it reaches the vehicle's rear axle. Two major approaches to reduce the threat of global warming have emerged in the automobile industry. The first approach encompasses both conservation and new technology. A proven idea is increasing vehicle efficiency at a greater rate than has been done to date. The automobile industry can also develop new vehicle technology beyond the gas-electric hybrids. Introduction of Pluggable Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Jeffrey Harti

Skyrocketing energy prices and concerns about energy security and climate change have sparked interest in alternatives to transport systems run on fossil fuels. In recent years, electric vehicles have emerged as the preferred alternative thanks to the environmental benefits of zero tailpipe emissions and the vehicles' ability to take power directly from the power grid. (See Table.) In the same way that a cell phone or computer runs on its battery when someone is on the go and is then plugged in when the person is at work or at home, an electric vehicle will run on battery power when someone is driving and can be plugged in at night or while the owner is at work to recharge, drawing about as much power from the grid as a dishwasher would. The main change will be no more trips to the gas station and extra money in drivers' pockets. At current U.S. electricity prices, running an electric vehicle would cost the equivalent of 75i a gallon (20i a liter).1 This ability to fuel electric...