Table 42a The provisioning of goods and services for estuaries

We have used a qualitative ranking scale from —3 to +3 to compare the relative importance of a given good or service ("Rank") within estuaries. Negative scores denote situations where sedimentary fauna can negatively influence a good or process (e.g., remobilizing pollutants into the environment). We have also estimated the relative importance of species, functional, and habitat diversity in the delivery of a given good or service ("Diversity Importance") using a relative scale from 0 to 3. These rankings are qualitative and largely based on inference rather than diversity studies per se. Where information was insufficient to allow assignment of a rank value, a question mark was entered in the table and a value of zero was used in sums.

Biotic Abiotic External Diversity Importance

Rank Contributors Regulators Interaction Species Functional Habitat

Provisioning Services Plants as food

Animals as food

Other biological products

Biochemical/medicine/models for human research

Fuels/energy

Fiber

C sequestration

Nonliving materials (geological effects)

Clean seawater

—3 to 3 fish, invertebrates, all zoo- and phyto-benthos, pathogens

2 microbes, natural products, invertebrate models

1 microbes, peat, mangroves

1 sponges, sea grasses, mangroves

1 microbes, peat

2 bioturbators, microbes, infauna, maerl, shellgravels

3 seagrasses, saltmarsh plants, biofiltration, bioturbators oxygen, circulation, substrate, nutrients oxygen, circulation, food, life history, substrate detritus sediment type temperature, chemical availability, sediment type temperature, time water flow, sediment type sediment type, redox hydrodynamic processes, sediment type hydrodynamic processes, redox, sediment type

Sediment formation: biodeposition

Nutrient cycling

Biological control: disease, invasive species resistance

-1 to 3 microbes, litho-

thamnia, biogenic sediments, vegetation, filter feeders, infauna

3 microbes, bio-

turbators, macro-fauna, fishes, phytobenthos

Detoxification, waste disposal

Climate regulation (C sequestration)

-3 to 3 microbes, zoo- & phytobenthos, bio-filters & bioturbators

1 bioturbators, microbes, infauna, mobile fauna

Food web support processes entire benthos

Atmosphere composition microbes, kelps, wetlands

Flood and erosion control Redox processes vascular plants, biostabilizers bioturbators, microbes hydrodynamic sinking of 12 3

processes, fresh- particulates water & land runoff, sediment type hydrodynamic resuspension 3 3 3

processes, temperature oxygen, eutrophi-cation, sedimentation, salinity circulation, resuspension, sedimentation hydrodynamic terrestrial &

processes, upwelling, pelagic input resuspension, sedimentation hydrodynamic processes, upwelling, terrestrial & resuspension, pelagic input sedimentation, oxygen oxygen, substrate, ? turbulent mixing, wind oxygen carbon flux

(continued)

Table 4.2a. (continued)

Biotic

Abiotic

External

Diversity Importance

Rank

Contributors

Regulators

Interaction

Species Functional Habitat

Habitat Maintenance Services

Landscape linkages & structure/ habitat/refugia

3

vegetation, biogenic reefs, migrating fauna

oxygen, temperature, depth, substrate

carbon flux, larval stages

2

3 3

Aesthetic Services

Spiritual/cultural

3

3

1 3

Aesthetic

3

3

1 3

Recreation

3

2

1 3

Scientific understanding

3

ecological paradigms & education

3

3 3

Table 4.2b. The provisioning of goods and services for shelf sediment ecosystems.

See Table 4.2a for explanation of ranking scheme.

Biotic

Abiotic

External

Diversity Importance

Rank

Contributors

Regulators

Interaction

Species

Functional Habitat

Provisioning Services

Plants as food

0

Animals as food

3

fish, invertebrates, all benthos

oxygen, circulation, substrate

food, life history

3

3

3

Other biological products

0

Biochemical/medicines/ models for human research

2

microbes, natural products, enzymes

temperature, chemical availability

2

2

2

Fuels/energy

3

microbes

temperature, time

1

1

0

Fiber

1

Sponges

1

1

2

C sequestration

1

bioturbators, microbes, infauna

C02, temperature, advection

carbon pump

1

2

1

Nonliving materials (geological effects)

0

Clean seawater

1

1

1

1

Regulation Services

Sediment formation: biodeposition

2

microbes, lithothamnia, biogenic sediments

currents, freshwater and land runoff

sinking of particulates

2

2

2

Nutrient cycling

3

microbes, bioturbators, circulation, macrofauna, fishes temperature, tides

resuspension

2

3

disease, invasive species resistance

?

?

?

(continued)

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • Rezene
    Why abiotic abiogenic insufficient?
    1 year ago

Post a comment