Aerts, R., and F. Berendse. 1988. The effect of increased nutrient availability on vegetation dynamics in wet heathland. Vegetatio 76:63-69. Alegre, J.C., B. Pashanasi, and P. Lavelle. 1996. Dynamics of soil physical properties in a low input agricultural system inoculated with the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus in the Amazon region of Peru. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60:1522-1529. Andersen, D.C. 1987. Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: A review emphasizing fossorial animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 62:261 -286.
Bakker, J.P., and F. Berendse. 1999. Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:63—68.
Bale, J.S., G.J. Masters, I.D. Hodkinson, C. Awmack, T.M. Bezemer, V.K. Brown, J. But-terfield, A. Buse, J.C. Coulsen, J. Farrar, J.E.G. Good, R. Harrington, S. Hartley, T.H. Jones, R.L. Lindroth, M.C. Press, I. Symrndioudis, A.D. Watt, and J.B. Whittaker. 2002. Herbivory in global climate change research: Direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores. Global Change Biology 8:1 — 16.
Bardgett, R.D., J.M. Anderson, V. Behan-Pelletier, L. Brussaard, D.C. Coleman, C. Ettema, A. Moldenke, J.P. Schimel, and D.H. Wall. 2002. The role of soil biodiversity on hydrological pathways and the transfer of materials between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems 4:421—429.
Bardgett, R.D., and D.A. Wardle. 2003. Herbivore mediated linkages between aboveground and belowground communities. Ecology 84:2258—2268.
Barros, M.E. 1999. Effet de la macrofaune sur la structure et les processus phisiques du sol de pâturages dégradés d'amazonie. PhD Thesis, Université Paris Vf.
Beare, M.H., R.W. Parmelee, PF. Hendrix, W.X. Cheng, D.C. Coleman, and D.A. Cross-ley. 1992. Microbial and faunal interactions and effects on litter nitrogen and decomposition in agroecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62:569—591.
Bernier, N., and J.F. Ponge. 1994. Humus form dynamics during the sylvogenic cycle in a mountain spruce forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26:183—220.
Bever, J.D. 1994. Feedback between plants and their soil communities in an old field community. Ecology 75:1965-1977.
Bingham, I.J. 2001. Soil-root-canopy interactions. Annals of Applied Biology 138:243-251.
Blair, J.M., and D.A. Crossley. 1988. Litter decomposition, nitrogen dynamics and litter microarthropods in a southern Appalachian hardwood forest 8 years following clearcut-ting. Journal of Applied Ecology 25:683-698.
Blanchart, E., A. Albrecht, J. Alegre, A. Duboisset, B. Pashanasi, P. Lavelle, and L. Brussaard. 1999. Effects of earthworms on soil structure and physical properties. In: Earthworm Management in Tropical Agroecosystems, edited by P. Lavelle, L. Brussaard, and P. Hendrix, pp. 139-162. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.
Branson, F.A., G.F. Gifford, K.G. Renard, and R.F. Hadley. 1981. Rangeland Hydrology. Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
Brown, G.G., D.E. Bennack, A. Montanez, A. Braun, and S. Bunning. 2001. Soil biodiversity portal. In: Conservation and Management of Soil Biodiversity and Its Role in Sustainable Agriculture. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org/ag/AGL/agll/soilbiod/default.htm.
Brown, V.K., and A.C. Gange. 1990. Insect herbivory below ground. Advances in Ecological Research 20:1-58.
Buljovic, Z., and C. Engels. 2001. Nitrate uptake ability by maize roots during and after drought stress. Plant and Soil229:125-135.
Burke, I.C, C.M. Yonker, W.J. Parton, C.V. Cole, K. Flach, and D.S. Schimel. 1989. Texture, climate, and cultivation effects on soil organic matter content in U.S. grassland soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53:800-805.
Carreiro, M.M., R.L. Sinsabaugh, D.A. Repert, and D.F. Parkhurst. 2000. Microbial enzyme shifts explain litter decay responses to simulated nitrogen deposition. Ecology 81:2359-2365.
Chauvel, A., M. Grimaldi, E. Barros, E. Blanchart, M. Sarrazin, and P Lavelle. 1999. Pasture degradation by an Amazonian earthworm. Nature 389:32-33.
Cherrill, A.J., and V.K. Brown. 1990. The habitat requirements of adults of the Wart-biter Decticus verrucivorus (L.) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in southern England. Biological Conservation 53:145-157.
Collatz, G.J., J.A. Berry, and J.S. Clark. 1998. Effects of climate and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure on the global distribution of C4 grasses: Present, past and future. Oecologia 114:441-454.
Couteaux, M.M., C. Kurz, P. Bottner, and A. Raschi. 1999. Influence of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on quality of plant material and litter decomposition. Tree Physiology 19:301-311.
Couteaux, M.M., M. Mousseau, M.L. Celerier, and P. Bottner. 1991. Increased atmospheric CO2 and litter quality: Decomposition of sweet chestnut leaf litter with animal foodwebs of different complexities. Oikos 61:53-64.
Crossley, D.A., Jr., B.R. Mueller, and J.C. Perdue. 1992. Biodiversity of microarthropods in agricultural soils: Relations to processes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 40:37-46.
Decaens, T. 2000. Degradation dynamics of surface earthworm casts in grasslands of the eastern plains of Colombia. Biology and Fertility ofSoils 32:149-156.
Del Grosso, S.J., W.J. Parton, A.R. Mosier, D.S. Ojima, C.S. Potter, W. Borken, R. Brumme, K. Butterbach-Bahl, P.M. Crill, K. Dobbie, and K.A. Smith. 2000. General CH4 oxidation model and comparisons of CH4 oxidation in natural and managed systems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14:999-1019.
De Ruiter, P.C., J.C. Moore, K.B. Zwart, L.A. Bouwman, J. Hassink, J. Bloem, J.A. Devos, J.C.Y. Marinissen, W.A.M. Didden, G. Lebbink, and L. Brussaard. 1993. Simulation of nitrogen mineralization in the below-ground food webs of two winter wheat fields. Journal ofAppliedEcology 30:95-106.
de Souza, O.F.F., and V.K. Brown. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on Amazonian termite communities. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10:197-206.
Eggleton, P, D.E Bignell, S. Hauser, L. Dibod, L. Norgrove, and B. Madong. 2002. Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 90:189-202.
Eggleton, P, R.G. Davies, and D.E. Bignell. 1998. Body size and energy use in termites (Isoptera): The responses of soil feeders and wood feeders differ in a tropical forest assemblage. Oikos 81:525-530.
Elliott, PW., D. Knight, and J.M. Anderson. 1991. Variables controlling denitrification from earthworm casts and soil in permanent pastures. Biology and Fertility ofSoils
Ettema, C., R. Lowrance, and D.C. Coleman. 1999. Riparian soil response to surface nitrogen input: The indicator potential of free-living soil nematode populations. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31:1625-1638.
Ferrier, R.C., A.C. Edwards, J. Dutch, R. Wolstenholme, and D.S. Mitchell. 1996. Sewage sludge as a fertilizer of pole stage forests: Short-term hydrochemical fluxes and foliar response. Soil Use and Management 12:1-7.
Flannery, T.F. 1994. The Future Eaters. Melbourne, Australia, Reed Books.
Franck, V.M., B.A. Hungate, F.S. Chapin III, and C.B. Field. 1997. Decomposition of litter produced under elevated CO2: Dependence on plant species and nutrient supply. Biogeochemistry 36:223—237.
Garbaye, J. 2000. The role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in the resistance of forests to water stress. Outlook on Agriculture 29:63—69.
Giller, K.E., M.H. Beare, P Lavelle, A.M.N. Izac, and M.J. Swift. 1997. Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function. Applied Soil Ecology 6:3 — 16.
Haimi, J., and M. Einbork. 1992. Effects of endogenic earthworms on soil processes and plant-growth in coniferous forest soil. Biology and Fertility ofSoils 13:6—10.
Harte, J., and R. Shaw. 1995. Shifting dominance within a montane vegetation community: Results of a climate-warming experiment. Science 267:876—880.
Hattersley, PW. 1983. The distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in Australia in relation to climate. Oecologia 57:113-128.
Hedlund, K., I. Santa Regina, W.H. van der Putten, G.W. Korthals, T. Díaz, J. Leps, S. Lavorel, J. Roy, D. Gormsen, S.R. Mortimer, P Smilauer, M. Smilauerová, C. Van Dijk, V.K. Brown, and C. Rodríguez Barrueco. 2003. Plant species diversity, plant biomass and responses of the soil community on abandoned land across Europe: Idiosyncrasy or above-belowground time lags. Oikos 103:45-58.
Hendrix, P.F., and PJ. Bohlen. 2002. Exotic earthworm invasions in North America: Ecological and policy implications. BioScience 52:801-811.
Hendrix, P.F., R.W. Parmelee, D.A. Crossley, D.C. Coleman, E.P Odum, and P.M. Groff-man. 1986. Detritus food webs in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. BioScience 36:374-380.
Herbert, D.A., E.B. Rastetter, G.R. Shaver, and G.I. Ägren. 1999. Effects of plant growth characteristics on biogeochemistry and community composition in a changing climate. Ecosystems 2:367-382.
Hirsch, S.A., and J.A. Leisch. 1998. Impact of leafy spurge on post-conservation reserve program land. Journal ofRange Management 51:614-620.
Hoitink, H.A.J., and M.J. Boehm. 1999. Biocontrol within the context of soil microbial communities: A substrate-dependent phenomenon. Annual Review of Phytopathology 37:427-446.
Hunt, H.W., E.T. Elliott, and D.E. Walter. 1989. Inferring trophic transfers from pulse-dynamics in detrital food webs. Plant and Soil 115:247-259.
Ineson, P., J. Dutch, and K.S. Killham. 1991. Denitrification in a Sitka spruce plantation and the effect of clear-felling. Forest Ecology and Management 44:77-92.
Jacobs, J.S., and R.L. Sheley. 1998. Observation: Life history of spotted knapweed. Journal ofRange Management 51:665-673.
Jiménez, J.J., and R.J. Thomas. 2001. Nature's Plow: SoilMacroinvertebrate Communities in the Neotropical Savannas ofColombia. Cali, Colombia, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).
Klironomos, J.N. 2002. Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature 417:67-70.
Körner, C., and J.A. Arnone III. 1992. Response to elevated carbon dioxide in artificial tropical ecosystems. Science 257:1672-1675.
Korthals, G.W., P Smilauer, C. Van Dijk, and W.H. van der Putten. 2001. Linking above and below-ground biodiversity: Abundance and trophic complexity in soil as a response to experimental plant communities on abandoned arable land. Functional Ecology 15:506-514.
Kourtev, PS., J.G. Ehrenfeld, and M. Haggblom. 2002. Exotic plant species alter the microbial community structure and function in the soil. Ecology 83:3152-3166.
Kourtev, PS., W.Z. Huang, and J.G. Ehrenfeld. 1999. Differences in earthworm densities and nitrogen dynamics in soils under exotic and native plant species. Biological Invasions
Lal, R. 1984. Soil erosion from tropical arable land and its control. Advances in Agronomy 37:187-248.
Lavelle, P. 1994. Faunal activities and soil processes: Adaptive strategies that determine ecosystem function. In: XV ISSS Congress Proceedings, Acapulco, Mexico, Volume 1: Introductory Conferences, pp. 189-220.
Lavelle, P. 1997. Faunal activities and soil processes: Adaptive strategies that determine ecosystem function. Advances in Ecological Research 27:93-132.
Lavelle, P., D. Bignell, M. Lepage, V Wolters, P. Roger, P Ineson, O.W. Heal, and S. Dhillion. 1997. Soil function in a changing world: The role of invertebrates as ecosystem engineers. European Journal of Soil Biology 33:159-193.
Lawrence, B., M.C. Fisk, T.J. Fahey, and E.R. Suarez. 2003. Influence of non-native earthworms on mycorrhizal colonization of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). New Phytolo-gist 157:145-153.
Lloyd, J. 1999. The CO2 dependence of photosynthesis, plant growth responses to elevated CO2 concentrations and their interaction with soil nutrient status, II. Temperate and boreal forest productivity and the combined effects of increasing CO2 concentrations and increased nitrogen deposition at a global scale. Functional Ecology
Luna Guido, M.L., R.I. Beltran Hernandez, N.A. Solis Ceballos, N. Hernandez Chavez, F. Mercado Garcia, J.A. Catt, V. Olalde Portugal, and L. Dendooven. 2000. Chemical and biological characteristics of alkaline saline soils from the former Lake Texcoco as affected by artificial drainage. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32:102-108.
Masters, G.J., VK. Brown, and A.C. Gange. 1993. Plant mediated interactions between above- and below-ground insect herbivores. Oikos 66:148-151.
Myers, N. 2002. Environmental refugees: A growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences. 357:609-613.
Nadelhoffer, K. 1992. Microbial processes and plant nutrient availability in arctic soil. In: Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate. An Ecophysiological Perspective, edited by F.S. Chapin III, R.L. Jefferies, J.F. Reynolds, G.R. Shaver, and J. Svoboda, pp. 281-300. San Diego, California, Academic Press.
Nye, P.H. 1955. Some soil-forming processes in the humid tropics. IV The action of the soil fauna. Journal ofSoil Science 6:73-83.
Pastor, J., and W.M. Post. 1988. Response of northern forests to CO2-induced climate change. Nature 334:55-58.
Paterson, E., E.A.S. Rattray, and K. Killham. 1996. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on C-partitioning and rhizosphere C-flow for three plant species. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28:195-201.
Resilience Alliance. 2002. Vulnerability. http://resalliance.org/ev_en.php?ID=1119_21& IDZ=DO_TOPIC
Richardson, D.M., N. Allsopp, C.M. D'Antonio, S.J. Milton, and M. Rejmanek. 2000. Plant invasions: The role of mutualisms. Biological Reviews 75:65-93.
Robinson, C.H., P Ineson, T.G. Piearce, and A.P. Rowland. 1992. Nitrogen mobilization by earthworms in limed peat soils under Picea sitchensis. Journal of Applied Ecology 29:226-237.
Ruess L., A. Michelsen, I.K. Schmidt, and S. Jonasson. 1999. Simulated climate change affecting microorganisms, nematode density and biodiversity in subarctic soils. Plant and Soil 212:63-73.
Rusek, J. 1985. Soil microstructures: Contributions on specific soil organisms. Quaestiones Entomologicae 21:497-514.
Saxena, D., and G. Stotzky. 2000. Insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is released from roots of transgenic Bt corn in vitro and in situ. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 33:35-39.
Siepel, H. 1996. Biodiversity of soil microarthropods: The filtering of species. Biodiversity and Conservation 5:251 -260.
Smith, S.D., T.E. Huxman, S.F. Zitzer, T.N. Charlet, D.C. Housman, and J.S. Coleman. 2000. Elevated CO2 increases productivity and invasive species success in an arid ecosystem. Nature 408:79-82.
Sohlenius, B. 1996. Structure and composition of the nematode fauna in pine forests under the influence of clear-cutting: Effects of slash removal and field layer vegetation. European Journal of Soil Biology 32:1-14.
Starfield, A.M., and F.S. Chapin III. 1996. Model of transient changes in Arctic and boreal vegetation in response to climate and land use change. Ecological Applications 6:842-864.
Thies, W.G. 2001. Root diseases in eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science 75:38-45.
Thompson, K. 1995. Native and alien species: More of the same? Ecography 18:390-402.
Tiunov, A.V., and T.G. Dobrovolskaya. 2002. Fungal and bacterial communities in Lum-bricus terrestris burrow walls: A laboratory experiment. Pedobiologia 46:595-605.
van der Meijden, E., M. Wijn, and H.J. Verkaar. 1988. Defense and regrowth: Alternative plant strategies in the struggle against herbivores. Oikos 51:355-363.
van der Putten, W.H. 2003. Plants defense below ground and spatio-temporal processes in natural vegetation. Ecology 84:2269-2280.
van der Putten, W.H., S.R. Mortimer, K. Hedlund, C. Van Dijk, V.K. Brown, J. Lep, C. Rodríguez-Barrueco, J. Roy, T.A. Díaz, D. Gormsen, G.W. Korthals, S. Lavorel, I. Santa-Regina, and P. Milauer. 2000. Biodiversity experiments at abandoned arable land along climate transects. Oecologia 124:91 -99.
van der Putten, W.H., L.E.M. Vet, J.A. Harvey, and F.L. Wackers. 2001. Linking above-and belowground multitrophic interactions of plants, herbivores, pathogens and their antagonists. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16:547-554.
Vitousek, P.M., and L.R. Walker. 1989. Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawaii: Plant demography, nitrogen fixation, ecosystem effects. Ecological Monographs 59:247-265.
Wall, D.H., PVR. Snelgrove, and A.P. Covich. 2001. Conservation priorities for soil and sediment invertebrates. In: Conservation Biology, edited by M.E. Soulé and G.H. Ori-ans, pp. 99-123. Washington, DC, Island Press.
Wardle, D.A. 1995. Impact of disturbance on detritus food-webs in agro-ecosystems of contrasting tillage and weed management practices. Advances in Ecological Research
Wardle, D.A. 2002. Communities and Ecosystems. Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.
Wardle, D.A., R.D. Bardgett, J.N. Klironomos, H. Setälä, W.H. van der Putten, and D.H. Wall. 2004. Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota. Science 304:1629-1633.
Wardle, D.A., G.M. Barker, G.W. Yeates, K.I. Bonner, and A. Ghani. 2001. Introduced browsing mammals in natural New Zealand forests: Aboveground and belowground consequences. Ecological Monographs 71:587-614.
Wardle, D.A., K.I. Bonner, G.M. Barker, G.W. Yeates, K.S. Nicholson, R.D. Bardgett, R.N. Watson, and A. Ghani. 1999. Plant removals in perennial grassland: Vegetation dynamics, decomposers, soil biodiversity, and ecosystem properties. Ecological Monographs 69:535-568.
Warren, M.S., J.K. Hill, J.A. Thomas, J. Asher, R. Fox, B. Huntley, D.B. Roy, M.G. Telfer, S. Jeffcoate, P Harding, G. Jeffcoate, S.G. Willis, J.N. Greatorex-Davies, D. Moss, and C.D. Thomas. 2001. Rapid responses of British butterflies to opposing forces of climate and habitat change. Nature 414:65-69.
Westover, K.M., A.C. Kennedy, and S.E. Kelly. 1997. Patterns of rhizosphere microbial community structure associated with co-occurring plant species. Journal of Ecology 85:863-873.
Wiklund, K., L.O. Nilsson, and S. Jacobsson. 1995. Effect of irrigation, fertilization, and artificial drought on basidioma production in a Norway spruce stand. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:200-208.
Wolters, V., W.L. Silver, D.E. Bignall, D.C. Coleman, P Lavelle, W.H. van der Putten, P. de Ruiter, J. Rusek, D.H. Wall, D.A. Wardle, J.M. Dangerfield, V.K. Brown, K.E. Giller, D.U. Hooper, O. Sala, J. Tiedje, and J.A. van Veen. 2000. Global change effects on above- and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: Interactions and implications for ecosystem functioning. BioScience 50:1089-1098.
Yeates, G.W., R.D. Bardgett, R. Cook, P.J. Hobbs, P.J. Bowling, and J. Potter. 1997. Fau-nal and microbial diversity in three Welsh grassland soils under conventional and organic management regimes. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:453-470.
Zimov S.A., V.I. Chuprynin, A.P. Oreshko, F.S. Chapin, III, J.F. Reynolds, and M.C. Chapin. 1995. Steppe-tundra transition: A herbivore-driven biome shift at the end of the Pleistocene. American Naturalist 146:765-794.
Was this article helpful?
Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.