1.1. Schematic depiction of relative importance of different ecosystem goods and processes in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine sediments 3

2.1. Hierarchy of the determinants of soil processes that provide ecosystem services 17

3.1. Schematic overview of a functional food web showing the linkages between food web processes and services provided by sediment and above-surface biota in freshwater ecosystems 46

4.1. Schematic depiction of interrelated nature of soil, freshwater, and coastal marine sedimentary ecosystems prior to and following deforestation 89

5.1. Different response dynamics of soil biota to disturbance 109

6.1. The interaction between six major ecosystem services, provided by freshwater systems, and fourteen potential threats in the freshwater domain 140

6.2. Conceptual diagram illustrating the concept of a disservice for humans, through the potential negative effect of implementation of management on an ecosystem function to enhance an ecosystem service 142

7.1. Schematic summary of the major threats to ecosystem goods and services in estuarine and coastal ecosystems 162

7.2. Scales of threats to marine sedimentary habitats 163

8.1a. Comparative spatial and temporal scales of biological and physical environments in soils 198

8.1b. Comparative spatial and temporal scales of biological and physical environments in freshwater sediments 200

8.1c. Comparative spatial and temporal scales of biological and physical environments in marine sediments 203

8.2. Operational scales and degree of openness and connectivity of ecosystem processes delivering goods and services in soil and aquatic sediment environments 205

8.3a—c. Scales at which ecosystem services are provided and scales of biological processes involved 208

8.4. The "buffering" capacity of soils for disturbance 210

8.5. Spatial scales of functional groups in freshwater systems 215

9.1. Overview of the potential impacts of deforestation on ecosystem services provided by cascading domains, showing the linkages between domains 226

9.2. The relationship between humus types and fauna in forest ecosystems 228

9.3. Diagrammatic representation showing how the physical location and scale of deforestation is important in controlling impacts on freshwater and marine sediments 231

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