Contributors

Chair, SCOPE Committee on Soil and Sediment Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning (SSBEF)

Diana H. Wall is a professor and Director of the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, an international ecosystem research center at Colorado State University, and is a former president of the Ecological Society of America, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, and the Society of Nematologists. Her research addresses the importance of soil biodiversity for ecosystems and the consequences of human activities on soil sustain-ability. She currently studies how soil biodiversity contributes to ecosystems from the limited diversity of the Antarctic Dry Valleys to the ecosystems of higher biodiversity.

Co-Chairs

Richard D. Bardgett served as chair of the Soil Domain for the SSBEF meeting in Estes Park, Colorado, and is a professor of ecology in the Department of Biological Sciences at Lancaster University in the UK. His research aims to determine how changes in environmental conditions alter the size, diversity, and activity of soil biological communities, and, in turn, how changes in soil biological properties influence the character and functioning of natural and managed ecosystems.

Alan P. Covich served as the chair of the Freshwater Domain for the SSBEF meeting in Estes Park, Colorado, and is the director of the Institute of Ecology at the University of Georgia. He is a former president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences and the North American Benthological Society. His research focuses on aquatic food webs in temperate and tropical streams, and the effects of disturbances on predator-prey dynamics, with research sites in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.

Paul V.R. Snelgrove served as the chair of the Marine Domain for the SSBEF meeting in Estes Park, Colorado, and is an associate professor and Canada Research Chair in Boreal and Cold Ocean Systems at Memorial University of Newfoundland. He studies the role of transport of larval fish and invertebrates and how these contribute to patterns in marine benthic communities, as well as in the factors that help regulate species diversity in marine environments.

Meeting Participants

Jonathan M. Anderson is a professor of ecology in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Exeter, UK. He was a co-founder of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Program (now TSBF-CIAT) and has served on the Sciences of Soils Advisory Board. His research interests include soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, management of soil processes, and agrobiodiversity in tropical farming systems.

Melanie C. Austen leads a research group on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning at Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK. Her research interests include links between biodiversity and ecosystem function, impact of fishing on marine ecosystem processes and goods and services, socioeconomic importance of marine biodiversity, field and experimental benthic ecology in coastal habitats, nematode taxonomy using traditional and molecular techniques, and benthic-pelagic coupling.

Valerie Behan-Pelletier is a research scientist for Agriculture and Agrifood Canada, and a visiting lecturer at the Acarology Summer Program, Ohio State University. Valerie is a recipient of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship. She has served as executive secretary for the International Congress of Acarology, on the Scientific Committee of the Biological Survey of Canada, and as a member of the Editorial Board of the Soil Mites of the World series. Her research interests include oribatid mite systematics, biodiversity and ecology in tropical rainforest, grasslands, and canopy habitats.

David E. Bignell is a professor of zoology in the School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, UK. David serves on the Steering Committee of the Global Litter Invertebrate Decomposition Experiment (GLIDE), and has published over 80 refereed papers and reviews on the biology of locusts, cockroaches, millipedes, and termites, with the main focus on gut structure, digestive physiology, intestinal microbiology, nutritional ecology, and field ecology. Currently, his research focuses on the measurement of soil biodiversity and the assessment of the role of soil organisms in ecosystem processes.

George G. Brown is a researcher at Embrapa Soybean, in Londrina, Brazil. George has participated in and led several international projects and networks on soil macro-fauna, with research in Latin America and Africa. His research interests include earthworm ecology and biodiversity, role of soil biota in sustainable agriculture, and use of biological indicators of soil quality.

Valerie K. Brown is professor of agro-ecology and director of the Centre for Agri-Environmental Research at the University of Reading, UK. She is a member of the UK

Natural Environment Research Council and the Scientific Advisory and Research Priority Groups to DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). She currently holds positions in IGBP and GCTE and has served as vice president of the British Ecological and the Royal Entomological Societies. Her research interests include multitrophic interactions, above-belowground biotic interactions, insect-fungal interactions, land-use change, agro-ecology, and climate change.

Lijbert Brussaard is a professor in the Department of Soil Quality at Wageningen University, The Netherlands. He researches the role of soil fauna in decomposition processes and nutrient cycling; the relationships between below- and aboveground biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agro(forestry)-ecosystems; and soil quality assessment using soil fauna.

Katherine C. Ewel is a research ecologist and senior scientist at the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, in Honolulu, Hawaii. She conducts research on the ability of mangrove forests and freshwater forested wetlands in the Pacific islands to provide goods and services to human populations. This includes characterizing forest structure and hydrologic relationships, evaluating the impacts of resource utilization, and understanding the socioeconomic context for resource management.

James R. Garey is an associate professor of biology at the University of South Florida. His research is directed toward understanding the evolutionary relationships of the major groups of invertebrates, with a focus on lesser-known and meiofaunal groups, using a combination of molecular and morphological characters. He applies molecular phylogenetic methods to the study of meiofaunal community structure using high throughput DNA analysis. Jim also examines the biogeochemistry of coastal karst cave systems stemming from his interest in cave diving.

Paul S. Giller is a professor in the Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science and is currently in his second term as dean of science at the University College Cork, Ireland. Paul is an ecologist with expertise in community ecology and freshwater biology, particularly in the analysis of macroinvertebrate communities of freshwater habitats, freshwater-forestry interactions, fish diet and feeding strategies, the impact of instream and catchment disturbances on stream and river ecosystems, and the role of diversity on ecosystem function. He has also worked on terrestrial ecosystems, particularly dung beetle communities and semi-natural grasslands.

Willem Goedkoop is an associate professor at the Department of Environmental Assessment of the Swedish University ofAgricultural Sciences. His main research interests are in invertebrate feeding biology, and the ecological linkages between pelagic and benthic communities and between aquatic and terrestrial environments. His most recent research focus includes the bioavailability of sediment contaminants in benthic food webs, in particular the interactions between contaminants and sediment microbes for contaminant bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.

Robert O. Hall, Jr., is an assistant professor in the Department of Zoology and Physiology at the University ofWyoming. His research interests include the interaction between animal assemblages and ecosystem function in streams, energy and nutrient flow in food webs, invasive species impact to food webs, stable isotopes as food web tracers, nitrogen cycling in streams, and bacterivory by aquatic invertebrates.

Stephen J. Hawkins is professor and director of the Marine Biological Association, Plymouth UK, and professor of environmental biology at the University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences. Stephen conducts research on rocky shore community ecology; behavioral ecology of intertidal grazers; restoration of degraded coastal ecosystems; recovery of polluted shores and estuaries; long-term change in relation to climate using rocky-shore indicators; shellfisheries, impacts of scallop dredging on benthos; ecology and design of sea defenses; and taxonomy of intertidal gastropods —particularly Patellidae.

H. William Hunt is a senior scientist and professor of rangeland ecosystem science in the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at Colorado State University, and an Long Term Ecological Research Faculty Associate. His areas of research include nutrient cycling, soil food webs, simulation models, nonlinear dynamics, systems ecology, and the effects of climate change on ecosystem function.

Thomas M. Iliffe is professor of marine biology at Texas A&M University at Galveston. Tom has discovered more than 200 new species and many new orders and genera of marine and freshwater cavernicolous invertebrates. His research interests include biodiversity, biogeography, evolution and ecology of animals inhabiting anchialine caves; cave conservation and environmental protection; and cave and research diving.

Philip Ineson is professor of global change ecology in the Department of Biology at the University of York, UK, and is also a research group leader within the Stockholm Environment Institute at York. Phil is the 1989 winner of the Paulo Buchner International Award for Terrestrial Ecology, and has served on numerous scientific committees, including evaluations for the UK Natural Environment Research Council, European Union and the Academy of Finland. His research examines the impacts of global change and air pollution on ecosystems, with particular emphasis on soil organisms. The work ranges from the assessment of climate change impacts on natural ecosystems to characterizing the soil organisms important in trace gas release and uptake.

T. Hefin Jones is a scientist with the Biodiversity and Ecological Processes Research Group in the Cardiff School of Biosciences, UK. Hefin is an honorary research fellow at the UK NERC Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College; an editor of Global Change Biology; and a member of the Editorial Board of Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Bulletin of Entomological Research, Biologist and Functional Ecology. He serves on the External Advisory Board for the Phytotron National Facility at Duke University, USA, and is a council member of both the British Ecological Society and the

Royal Entomological Society. His research interests encompass population and community ecology, climate change, and biodiversity, centering on three main areas: host-parasitoid interactions, soil biodiversity, and climate change.

Ronald T. Kneib is a senior research scientist at the University of Georgia Marine Institute and an adjunct associate professor of marine sciences at the University of Georgia. He is certified by the Ecological Society of America as a senior ecologist, served for over 10 years on the editorial board of Marine Ecology Progress Series, and is a former secretary-treasurer for the Southeastern Estuarine Research Society. Ron's research focuses on population and community dynamics of benthic and epibenthic fishes and invertebrates in tidal wetlands, the effects of spatial patterns in marsh landscapes on ecological processes and functions measured across scales from genomes to ecosystems.

Patrick Lavelle is a professor of ecology at Université de Paris VI and director of the BIOSOL Unit at Institut de Recherche sur le Développement. He is a member of the France National Academy of Sciences. His research interests include general soil ecology with a special emphasis set on earthworm ecology and their management as part of sustainable practices in tropical environments, relationships between above- and belowground diversity, consequences for soil function and plant growth, and use of soil macrofauna communities as bioindicators of soil quality.

Lisa A. Levin is a professor and research scientist for the Marine Life Research Group at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. She studies the ecology of soft-sediment assemblages in wetlands, estuaries, continental margins, and the deep sea; animal-sediment interactions; consequences of species invasion; ecology of methane seeps; oxygen minimum zones; and salt marsh restoration.

David M. Merritt is a riparian plant ecologist at the National Stream Systems Technology Center, USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station, and a visiting scientist at the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at Colorado State University. David is an alumni of the Nature Conservancy David H. Smith Conservation Fellowship Program, former president of the Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists, and a member of the Landscape Ecology Group at Umea University, Sweden. His research focuses on the factors influencing plant species diversity and plant invasions in riparian ecosystems with an emphasis on the role of river damming and water development on such processes.

Eldor A. Paul is a research scientist at the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, and professor emeritus at Michigan State University. His textbook Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry, coauthored with F.E. Clark, is widely read in ecosystem science, agronomy, and soil science and has been translated into three languages. Eldor's research interests have centered on the ecology of soil biota, the role of nutrients such as N in plant growth, and the dynamics of C and N in sustainable agriculture and global change.

Mark St. John is a Ph.D. candidate in the Graduate Degree Program in Ecology at the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University. He studies interactions between plants and soil mites and their influences on decomposition at the Konza Prairie Long Term Ecological Research Site, Kansas, USA.

Wim H. van der Putten is department head at the Centre for Terrestrial Ecology of the Netherlands Institute of Ecology and Professor at Wageningen University. He studies soil multitrophic interactions in relation to spatio-temporal processes in natural vegetation; linking to aboveground multitrophic interactions; plant invasiveness in relation to above- and belowground trophic interactions; natural succession; ecology, regulation, and host specificity of plant parasitic nematodes in natural ecosystems; plant-microorganism interactions; and functional biodiversity.

David A. Wardle is a professor at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences at Umea, Sweden, and an ecologist at Landcare Research in New Zealand. He is the author of the book Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Below-ground Components, recently published in the Princeton University Press Monographs in the Population Biology series. Most of his work is focused on rainforests in New Zealand and boreal forests in northern Sweden. His most recent projects involve the use of islands as model systems for understanding drivers of ecosystems.

Jan Marcin Weslawski is professor and head of the Department of Marine Ecology at the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences in Sopot. He is a member of the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, as well as a member of the Polish Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research. His research interests include ecology of crustaceans and the functioning of Arctic marine ecosystems.

Robert B. Whitlatch is a professor in the Department of Marine Sciences and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut. His research focuses on marine benthic population and community ecology, using laboratory and field experimentation, in combination with modeling, to address how abiotic and biotic processes influence the distribution and composition of populations and communities.

Todd Wojtowicz is a Ph.D. candidate in the Graduate Degree Program in Ecology at the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University. He is currently studying the influence of plant species identity on soil communities in a semi-arid grassland system at the shortgrass-steppe LTER.

Holley Zadeh is a research associate in the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University. She has a post-graduate degree in Restoration Ecology from the Rangeland Ecosystem Sciences Department at CSU, and currently serves as the project director for the Global Litter Invertebrate Decomposition Experiment (GLIDE) and as the SCOPE SSBEF publication coordinator in Diana Wall's Soil and Sediment Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning group at NREL.

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