Appendix Table 5AI continued

Water Freedom System

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Unmanaged (Arable Tilled)1 Goods Service and Services Rank Biotic Abiotic

Flood and -3 *** plant *** topography, erosion control8 cover, crop soil properties type (roots)


** plant breeding, roots and residues

*** climate, tillage, soil type, fertilizer

Waste disposal/ bio-remediation

Biological control11

** decomposition, co-metabolism, build up of intermediate toxic products

** rotation, GMOs12, micro-food webs

** volatilization, water regime, soil properties, sequestration, incorporation by machinery

** pesticides, tillage


Invasive Species: Root Parasites2

Climate Change: Drought3

Net Net

Vulnerability Impact Vulnerability Impact land-Use Change: To Forest

Vulnerability Impact

3 [can lead to destruction of crop]

1 [dependent on rates of decomposition]

0 3 [abiotic controls, especially fallow practices, important7 drought-resistant plant breeds important10]

— 3 [abiotic controls, especially soil properties and fallow practices, most important; reduced NPP]

— / + 3 [dependent on soil type and pre-drought conditions]

1 [can cause shift from specific to generalist pests13]

0 [restoration of strong biotic control through change in root architecture, mycorrhizal associations and creation of biogenic structures]

3 [litter system developed; annual roots replaced by perennial; increased role for soil food web; change from bacterial to fungal-based food web6]

0 [no fundamental change in service, but change in rate and performed by different food web communities6]

0 [restoration of strong biotic control]

Recreation and other uses

Carbon sequestration

** odor, monoculture/ low landscape heterogeneity

* decomposition m erosion, topography seasonally bare land;

noise, air pollution, pesticides

** topography texture; nature of clay minerals; climate; soil structure

Trace gases and atmospheric regulation

fication, nitrification

** moisture regime, soil structure

Fuel 0 NA NA

Habitat -2 *** crops at *** topography, provision17 landscape level; soil properties management of field margins and riparian

* organic ** climate, matter, bacteria, parent material, fungi, roots erosion

2 [potential loss of landscape features through erosion, increase in bare land and salinization]

1 [increased pesticide use]

0-1 [dependent -on changes in rate of decomposition]

0 [dependent - / + on whether other biotic factors affected]


0-3 [dependent - / + on soil type and pre-parasite conditions]

0-1 [dependent - / +15 on abiotic factors, irrigation, vulnerability to fire]

0-3 [dependent - / + 19 on soil type and pre-drought conditions]

0 [dependent +

on forest type and management14]

0 [dependent on + forest type16, litter quality and quantity, humification and sequestration in biogenic structures]

0 [dependent on + litter quality and quantity and nitrifi-ers, denitrifyers, methane oxidizers]


habitat heterogeneity; extent of change dependent on forest type and forest management18]

0 [dependent on + litter quality20 and quantity, humification and sequestration in biogenic structures]

0 [biotic activity slowed, thus decrease in production of trace gases]

1 [negative impact on field margins and riparian areas]

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