Appendix Table 5A3 Vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services in unmanaged forest ecosystems provided by the soil biota to three agents of global change invasive species climate change and landuse change Scoring system used is as for Table 5A1


Unmanaged (Forest)1

Goods and Services

Service Rank



Invasive Species: Exotic Earthworms

Vulnerability Impact

Climate Change: Drought2

Vulnerability Impact

Land-Use Change: Deforestation

Vulnerability Impact

Food production

Water quality and quantity Flood, erosion control

Fiber (wood) production


Biochemicals/ medicines12

*** fungi, fruits for animals

** plant species composition, soil organisms, bioturbators

* pathogens, parasites, decomposers, N2 fixers

* pathogens, parasites, decomposers, N2 fixers

** microbial diversity pH

™ topography, soil texture, porosity

1 [altered fungal diversity, increased fungal dominance4]

1 [increased soil — erosion, nitrate leaching

*** soil 0 [increased factors NPP9]

affecting NPP

*** soil factors 0 [increased NPP] affecting NPP

1 [reduced fruiting body abundance5, changes in phenology/ synchrony]

3 [reduced water yield, solute concentrations increased]

3 [reduced NPP10]

1 [loss of mushrooms, fruits, hunting, etc.6]

decomposition, increased nitrification, acidification, increased water yield8]

Habitat provision13 3

*** decomposers, ecosystem engineers

Waste disposal/ l16 bioremediation

* decomposers, ecosystem engineers

Biological 1


Recreation and other uses insect taxa, mycorryhizal and fungal pathogens

** ants and insects for wildfowl, game

Carbon Sequestration deciduous forest

Trace gases and atmospheric regulation

Soil Structure

* litter quality, worms, roots

*** nitrifiers, methane oxidizers, denitrifiers

*** earthworms, roots, arthropods, bacteria, fungi

*** humus type, pH, soil fertility, parent material, topography

* forest type, pH, soil fertility, parent material, topography

** waterlogging, pH, soil texture and structure

*** structure of the

vegetation *** soil texture

*** tree species, pH, soil texture, aeration23

** climate, parent material, erosion

1 [changes in understory vegetation14]

2 [changes in habitat types15]

decomposition rates, increased solute concentrations1

1 [higher throughput of water19]

0 [modification + of plant growth]

0 [increased — resources for birds and other animals, fishing]

1 [rapid -litter loss]

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