Appendix Table 5A2 Vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services in unmanaged grassland ecosystems provided by the soil biota to three agents of global change invasive species climate change and landuse change Scoring system used is as for Table 5A1

Perturbations

Unmanaged (Grassland)1

Goods and Services

Service

Rank Biotic

Abiotic

Invasive Species: Plant Species2

Vulnerability Impact

Climate Change: Drought3

Vulnerability

Net Impact

Land-Use Change: To Arable Land

Vulnerability Lmpact

Food production4 2

Water quality and quantity Flood, erosion control7

*** decom- ** soil type, position, nutri- topography, ent cycling, fire, precipita-bioturbation, tion resistance to pests and diseases

*** retention ** soil type, of N in bio- topography, mass, physical fire, precipita-

stabilization, tion soil aggregate formation increasing infiltration rates, interception of runoff, moisture retention by organic matter

1-3 [unpalatable -5 species, indirect and subtle effects on soil food web]

1 [transpirational -5 losses from deep-rooted shrubs and trees13]

3 [increased particulate matter and nutrient load in surface runoff and erosion8, flush of biological activity following re-wetting events, increased plant uptake and decreased retention]

3 [change from — / 0 / fungal to bacterial- + based food web6, reduced earthworm abundance and mycorrhizal infection, build up of pests and diseases]

3 [nitrification, -

DON, phosphate, DOP, increased surface runoff and erosion8 resulting from decreased plant cover and destabilized soil surface]

Animal fiber Wool, leather

Plant fiber

*** decomposition, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, resistance to pests and diseases

** plant breeding, roots and residues

*** soil type, 1-3 [unpalatable topography, fire, species, indirect precipitation and subtle effects on soil food web]

*** climate, 3 [can lead to tillage, soil type, destruction fertilizer of crop]

Recreation and 2 *** decompo- ** soil type, 1 [altering other uses sition, nutrient topography, fire, system structure, cycling12 precipitation decreased native animal grazing]

Carbon sequestration

Trace gases and atmospheric regulation organic matter accumulation,

CaC03

deposition tenance of C and N balances

** complexing organic matter, texture, fire, CaC03 deposition

** texture, precipitation, pH

1 [accumulation of woody material and recalcitrant litter, decreased animal grazing]

2-39 [Reduced NPP]

3 [abiotic controls, — especially soil properties and fallow practices, most important; reduced NPP]

1 [potential loss of landscape features and loss of some fauna as a result of changes in vegetation]

3 [litter system + / 0 / developed; annual — roots replaced by perennial; increased role for soil food web; change from fungal- to bacterial-based food web6]

system structure, decreased native animal grazing14]

3 [enhanced decomposition and microbial access to C within soil aggregates]

in vegetation]

3 [increase in NO due to increased nitrification and denitrification rates]

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